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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038768/gut-microbial-metabolite-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-obesity
#1
REVIEW
Xuan Li, Yuuki Shimizu, Ikuo Kimura
Over the past decade, the gut microbiota has emerged as an essential mediator in the pathophysiology of obesity and related metabolic disorders. In this context, the reciprocal interactions of the gut microbiota structure and their metabolite profiles with host metabolism predisposing to a range of pathological conditions (e.g., insulin resistance) related to energy homeostasis have been increasingly discussed in various animal models and human cohorts. Remarkably, as the role of gut microbial metabolites as critical signaling molecules that function through the complementary host receptors has come to be appreciated, tremendous attention has been focused on the proposed diet-gut microbiota-host homeostasis axis, entailing extensive cross-disciplinary efforts in medical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural sciences...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038700/the-clinical-evaluation-of-vi-one-chlorhexidine-mouthwash-on-plaque-induced-gingivitis-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Babak Amoian, Marzyeh Omidbakhsh, Soraya Khafri
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most effective antiseptic mouthwash to date. Essential oil such as thymol, have inhibitory and biocidal effects a range of bacteria. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of mouthwash containing CHX and thymol on plaque induced gingivitis. METHODS: This double-blind randomized clinical trial study was performed on 60 patients with plaque induced gingivitis who were randomly divided into two groups: Group I (CHX/thymol mouthwash-Vi-one) and Group II (CHX mouthwash-Behsa)...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037897/overcoming-multiple-gastrointestinal-barriers-by-bilayer-modified-hollow-mesoporous-silica-nanocarriers
#3
Ying Wang, Yating Zhao, Yu Cui, Qinfu Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Sara Musetti, Karina A Kinghorn, Siling Wang
Oral administration of nanocarriers remains a significant challenge in the pharmaceutical sciences. The nanocarriers must efficiently overcome multiple gastrointestinal barriers including the harsh gastrointestinal environment, the mucosal layer, and the epithelium. Neutral hydrophilic surfaces are reportedly necessary for mucus permeation, but hydrophobic and cationic surfaces are important for efficient epithelial absorption. To accommodate these conflicting surface property requirements, we developed a strategy to modify nanocarrier surfaces with cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) concealed by a hydrophilic succinylated casein (SCN) layer...
October 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034096/evaluating-the-impact-of-brexit-on-the-pharmaceutical-industry
#4
REVIEW
Fawz Kazzazi, Cleo Pollard, Paul Tern, Alejandro Ayuso-Garcia, Jack Gillespie, Inesa Thomsen
INTRODUCTION: The UK Pharmaceutical Industry is arguably one of the most important industries to consider in the negotiations following the Brexit vote. Providing tens of thousands of jobs and billions in tax revenue and research investment, the importance of this industry cannot be understated. At stake is the global leadership in the sector, which produces some of the field's most influential basic science and translation work. However, interruptions and losses may occur at multiple levels, affecting patients, researchers, universities, companies and government...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029316/the-need-for-and-the-role-of-the-toxicological-chemist-in-the-design-of-safer-chemicals
#5
Stephen C DeVito
During the past several decades there has been an ever increasing emphasis for designers of new commercial (non-pharmaceutical) chemicals to include considerations of the potential impacts a planned chemical may have on human health and the environment as part of the design of the chemical, and to design chemicals such that they possess the desired use efficacy while minimizing threats to human health and the environment. Achievement of this goal would be facilitated by the availability of individuals specifically and formally trained to design such chemicals...
September 18, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028361/new-findings-on-biological-actions-and-clinical-applications-of-royal-jelly-a-review
#6
Mozafar Khazaei, Atefe Ansarian, Elham Ghanbari
Royal jelly (RJ) is a natural bee product with great potential for use in medicine. The chemical composition of RJ indicates the presence of various bioactive substances including 10-hydroxydecanoic acid and 24-methylenecholesterol. In addition, a number of biological and pharmacological activities of RJ have been documented. The aim of this study was to review the biological and medical effects of RJ. The search was conducted in articles from electronic and scientific literature databases such as Pub Med, Science Direct, Scopus, Medline, and ISI Web of Science published from 1990 to 2017 using keywords of pharmacological, biological, and clinical effects and royal jelly...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026841/causes-of-medication-errors-in-intensive-care-units-from-the-perspective-of-healthcare-professionals
#7
Sedigheh Farzi, Alireza Irajpour, Mahmoud Saghaei, Hamid Ravaghi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to explore and to describe the causes of medication errors in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from the perspective of physicians, nurses, and clinical pharmacists. METHODS: The study was conducted using a descriptive qualitative method in 2016. We included 16 ICUs of seven educational hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Participants included 19 members of the healthcare team (physician, nurse, and clinical pharmacist) with at least 1 year of work experience in the ICUs...
July 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017674/calcium-regulation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mechanistic-understanding
#8
Noreen Samad, Sara Ishaq, Shehr Bano, Natasha Manzoor
This study is systematic review of the research, focused on all possible pathways involved in calcium (Ca2+) regulation in order to utilize them in the control and remediation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), because Ca2+ plays important role in pathogenesis of AD. Electronic databases, Science Direct and PubMed/Medline, for relevant publications between 2000April 2017, were searched. Ca2+ ions are very important in cell signaling in body, specially the neuronal signaling. Many pathways are involved in normal neuronal Ca2+ signaling...
September 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991915/analysing-published-global-ebola-virus-disease-research-using-social-network-analysis
#9
Christiane Hagel, Felix Weidemann, Stephan Gauch, Suzanne Edwards, Peter Tinnemann
INTRODUCTION: The 2014/2015 West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak attracted global attention. Numerous opinions claimed that the global response was impaired, in part because, the EVD research was neglected, although quantitative or qualitative studies did not exist. Our objective was to analyse how the EVD research landscape evolved by exploring the existing research network and its communities before and during the outbreak in West Africa. METHODS/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Social network analysis (SNA) was used to analyse collaborations between institutions named by co-authors as affiliations in publications on EVD...
October 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991760/centenary-of-the-birth-of-academician-prof-dr-isak-tadzer-founder-of-the-pathophysiology-and-nuclear-medicine-in-macedonia
#10
Borislav Karanfilski
Academician Prof. Dr. Isak Tadzer was born a hundred years ago on December 24, 1916 in Sofia. He completed the primary and secondary education at the German College in Sofia. In 1935 he began his studies at the Medical Faculty in Vienna, which he had to stop because of the annexation of Austria to Germany in 1938. He returned to Bulgaria where he continued his studies and graduated from the Medical Faculty in Sofia in 1941. During the War, 1941-1944, he was forcedly mobilized and he worked as a doctor in several villages...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991203/pharmacy-practice-and-education-in-the-czech-republic
#11
Petr Nachtigal, Tomáš Šimůnek, Jeffrey Atkinson
The PHARMINE ("Pharmacy Education in Europe") project studied the organisation of pharmacy education, practice and legislation in the European Union (EU) with the objectives of evaluating to what degree harmonisation had taken place with the EU, and producing documents on each individual EU member state. Part of this work was in the form of a survey of pharmacy education, practice, and legislation in the various member states. We will publish the individual member state surveys as reference documents. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy education, training, and practice in the Czech Republic...
October 9, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970446/pharmacy-practice-and-education-in-bulgaria
#12
Valentina Petkova, Jeffrey Atkinson
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970430/the-implementation-of-pharmacy-competence-teaching-in-estonia
#13
Daisy Volmer, Kristiina Sepp, Peep Veski, Ain Raal
Background: The PHAR-QA, "Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training", project has produced the European Pharmacy Competence Framework (EPCF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing pharmacy programme at the University of Tartu, using the EPCF. Methods: A qualitative assessment of the pharmacy programme by a convenience sample (n = 14) representing different pharmacy stakeholders in Estonia. EPCF competency levels were determined by using a five-point scale tool adopted from the Dutch competency standards framework...
March 31, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969572/quinoline-fluorescent-probes-for-zinc-from-diagnostic-to-therapeutic-molecules-in-treating-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Barbara Czaplińsk, Ewelina Spaczyńska, Robert Musioł
Background Fluorescent compounds had gained strong attention due to their wide and appealing applications. Microscopic techniques and visualization are good examples among others. Introduction of fluorescent dyes into microbiology opens the possibility to observe tissues, organisms or organelle with exceptional sensitivity and resolution. Probes for detection of biologically relevant metals as zinc, iron or copper seems to be particularly important for drug design and pharmaceutical sciences. Objective Quinoline derivatives are well known for their good metal affinity and wide spectrum of biological activity...
October 2, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966222/evaluation-for-standardization-of-1-h-quantitative-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-by-round-robin-test
#15
Toru Miura, Naoki Sugimoto, Ryuichi Watanabe, Takako Suematsu, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Yoshinobu Ito, Naoki Saito, Ryuichi Sawa, Tsuyoshi Kato, Yoshinori Fujimine, Ryo Koike, Yuko Ohfuku, Yuko Yamada, Hiroaki Utsumi, Toshiyuki Suzuki
  (1)H quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H qNMR) is known as a powerful tool for determination of analytes without the need for their identical standards, which is eligible to a primary rate method. (1)H qNMR has been already stipulated to an assay for purity determination in Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP), and then this technique has been also applied in several fields such as pharmaceutical and food sciences. However, there is little information about the accuracy of (1)H qNMR so that the further applications into other fields such as industrial chemistry could be constricted...
September 29, 2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966166/cell-scientist-to-watch-dana-branzei
#16
(no author information available yet)
Originally from Iaşi, Romania, Dana received her bachelor's degree in pharmaceutical sciences and a master's degree in molecular and cellular biology from Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan. For her PhD, she joined the lab of Takemi Enomoto to work on DNA replication and recombination in yeast. After a short postdoc with Kunihiro Ohta at the RIKEN laboratory in Wako, Dana took a position as a staff scientist with Marco Foiani at the Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation (IFOM) in Milan, Italy. There, she became a junior group leader in 2008 and tenured principal investigator in 2013...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966164/first-person-jinhang-hu
#17
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Jinhang Hu is the first author on 'CCR2 3'UTR functions as a competing endogenous RNA to inhibit breast cancer metastasis', published in Journal of Cell Science. Jinhang conducted the work in this article in Tao Xi's lab at China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China. She is now a research associate with Zhishu Tang at the Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine in Xian Yang, China, investigating the bioactive constituents and anti-tumour mechanisms of the active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964950/the-global-bioequivalence-harmonization-initiative-summary-report-for-eufeps-international-conference
#18
REVIEW
Mei-Ling Chen, Henning Blume, Gerald Beuerle, Barbara Davit, Mehul Mehta, Henrike Potthast, Barbara Schug, Yu Chung Tsang, Ralph-Steven Wedemeyer, Werner Weitschies, Jan Welink
Bioequivalence (BE) is considered one of the key questions in new and generic drug product development and registration worldwide. However, the regulations and jurisdiction vary from country to country and continent to continent. Harmonization of regulatory requirements and criteria for BE determination may avoid unnecessary repetition of BE studies and minimize drug exposure to humans. Harmonization around the globe may be achieved by a better understanding of scientific principles and expectations from different regulatory authorities...
September 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963701/biophysical-aspects-of-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-for-pharmaceutical-sciences
#19
REVIEW
Paolo Arosio
An increasing amount of findings suggests that the aggregation of soluble peptides and proteins into amyloid fibrils is a relevant upstream process in the complex cascade of events leading to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders. Nevertheless, several aspects of the correlation between the aggregation process and the onset and development of the pathology remain largely elusive. In this context, biophysical and biochemical studies in test tubes have proven extremely powerful in providing quantitative information about the structure and the reactivity of amyloids at the molecular level...
September 28, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963483/label-free-detection-of-cellular-drug-responses-by-high-throughput-bright-field-imaging-and-machine-learning
#20
Hirofumi Kobayashi, Cheng Lei, Yi Wu, Ailin Mao, Yiyue Jiang, Baoshan Guo, Yasuyuki Ozeki, Keisuke Goda
In the last decade, high-content screening based on multivariate single-cell imaging has been proven effective in drug discovery to evaluate drug-induced phenotypic variations. Unfortunately, this method inherently requires fluorescent labeling which has several drawbacks. Here we present a label-free method for evaluating cellular drug responses only by high-throughput bright-field imaging with the aid of machine learning algorithms. Specifically, we performed high-throughput bright-field imaging of numerous drug-treated and -untreated cells (N = ~240,000) by optofluidic time-stretch microscopy with high throughput up to 10,000 cells/s and applied machine learning to the cell images to identify their morphological variations which are too subtle for human eyes to detect...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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