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Swallowing physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421029/a-historical-view-of-motion-sickness-a-plague-at-sea-and-on-land-also-with-military-impact
#1
Doreen Huppert, Judy Benson, Thomas Brandt
Seasickness and its triggers, symptoms, and preventive measures were well known in antiquity. This chapter is based on an analysis of descriptions of motion sickness, in particular seasickness, in ancient Greek, Roman, and Chinese literature. A systematic search was made from the Greek period beginning with Homer in 800 BC to the late Roman period and ending with Aetios Amidenos in 600 AD, as well as in the Chinese medical classics dating from around 300 AD. Major aspects are the following: body movements caused by waves were identified in all cultures as the critical stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400725/cortical-mechanisms-of-tongue-sensorimotor-functions-in-humans-a-review-of-the-magnetoencephalography-approach
#2
REVIEW
Hitoshi Maezawa
The tongue plays important roles in a variety of critical human oral functions, including speech production, swallowing, mastication and respiration. These sophisticated tongue movements are in part finely regulated by cortical entrainment. Many studies have examined sensorimotor processing in the limbs using magnetoencephalography (MEG), which has high spatiotemporal resolution. Such studies have employed multiple methods of analysis, including somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs), movement-related cortical fields (MRCFs), event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) associated with somatosensory stimulation or movement and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) during sustained movement...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390127/electromyographic-activity-of-the-jaw-muscles-and-mandibular-kinematics-in-young-adults-with-theoretically-ideal-dental-occlusion-reference-values
#3
B Campillo, C Martín, J-C Palma, A-D Fuentes, J-A Alarcón
BACKGROUND: A necessary step to use neuromuscular analysis as diagnostic tool is to establish normal reference values for the physiological range in a healthy population. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the jaw muscles and mandibular kinematics were measured in young adults with theoretically ideal dental occlusion to determine normal reference values during different tasks. Differences between the sexes were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty young adults (20 men, 20 women; mean age 22...
April 8, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361201/swallowing-function-after-continuous-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-of-the-submandibular-region-evaluated-by-high-resolution-manometry
#4
Michael Jungheim, Christoph Schubert, Simone Miller, Martin Ptok
Although neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is increasingly used in dysphagia therapy, patient responses to NMES are inconsistent and conflicting results have been reported. This, together with a lack of information about the effects of NEMS on the swallowing process, has led to an ongoing debate about its impact on swallowing function. In order to address this, we set out to (i) collect baseline information on the physiological effects of NMES on the complex pharyngeal phase of swallowing and (ii) to compare two different stimulation protocols...
March 30, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353151/the-use-of-brain-stimulation-in-dysphagia-management
#5
REVIEW
Andre Simons, Shaheen Hamdy
Dysphagia is common sequela of brain injury with as many as 50% of patients suffering from dysphagia following stroke. Currently, the majority of guidelines for clinical practice in the management of dysphagia focus on the prevention of complications while any natural recovery takes place. Recently, however, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have started to attract attention and are applied to investigate both the physiology of swallowing and influences on dysphagia...
April 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319639/changes-in-swallowing-after-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-with-instrumentation-a-presurgical-versus-postsurgical-videofluoroscopic-comparison
#6
Lydia Muss, Janina Wilmskoetter, Kerstin Richter, Constanze Fix, Soenke Stanschus, Tobias Pitzen, Joerg Drumm, Sonja Molfenter
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with anterior instrumentation on swallowing function and physiology as measured on videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. Method: We retrospectively analyzed both functional measures (penetration-aspiration, residue) and physiological/anatomical measures (hyoid excursion, posterior pharyngeal wall thickness) in a series of 17 patients (8 men, 9 women, mean age 54 years)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317607/nutritional-aspects-of-dysphagia-management
#7
C Gallegos, E Brito-de la Fuente, P Clavé, A Costa, G Assegehegn
This chapter describes the nutritional aspects of dysphagia management by starting with the definition of these two conditions (dysphagia and malnutrition) that share three main clinical characteristics: (a) their prevalence is very high, (b) they can lead to severe complications, and (c) they are frequently underrecognized and neglected conditions. From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia can result from oropharyngeal and/or esophageal causes; from a pathophysiological perspective, dysphagia can be caused by organic or structural diseases (either benign or malignant) or diseases causing impaired physiology (mainly motility and/or perception disorders)...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268402/a-wearable-signal-acquisition-system-for-physiological-signs-including-throat-ppg
#8
Yizhou Zhong, Yun Pan, Ling Zhang, Kwang-Ting Cheng
This paper presents a wearable signal acquisition system, which can measure physiological signs, i.e., electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG). The system is comprised of two parts: (1) an ECG sensor implemented in the master board which will be mounted on the chest and, (2) a combined PPG and motion sensor implemented in the slave board which will be worn around the neck area. The single-lead ECG, the single-channel PPG, and the 3-channel accelerometer signals are all sampled at 200Hz, and transmitted to an Android app through Bluetooth® low energy (BLE) in real time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244680/dysphagia-in-infants-with-single-ventricle-anatomy-following-stage-1-palliation-physiologic-correlates-and-response-to-treatment
#9
Katlyn Elizabeth McGrattan, Heather McGhee, Allan DeToma, Elizabeth G Hill, Sinai C Zyblewski, Maureen Lefton-Greif, Lucinda Halstead, Scott M Bradley, Bonnie Martin-Harris
BACKGROUND: Deficits in swallowing physiology are a leading morbidity for infants with functional single ventricles and systemic outflow tract obstruction following stage 1 palliation. Despite the high prevalence of this condition, the underlying deficits that cause this post-operative impairment remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Identify the physiologic correlates of dysphagia in infants with functional single ventricles and systemic outflow tract obstruction following stage 1 palliative surgery...
February 28, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240398/standardization-of-a-videofluoroscopic-swallow-study-protocol-to-investigate-dysphagia-in-dogs
#10
R A Harris, M E Grobman, M J Allen, J Schachtel, N E Rawson, B Bennett, J Ledyayev, B Hopewell, J R Coates, C R Reinero, T E Lever
BACKGROUND: Videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) is the gold standard for diagnosis of dysphagia in veterinary medicine but lacks standardized protocols that emulate physiologic feeding practices. Age impacts swallow function in humans but has not been evaluated by VFSS in dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To develop a protocol with custom kennels designed to allow free-feeding of 3 optimized formulations of contrast media and diets that address limitations of current VFSS protocols...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226570/a-wearable-signal-acquisition-system-for-physiological-signs-including-throat-ppg
#11
Yizhou Zhong, Yun Pan, Ling Zhang, Kwang-Ting Cheng, Yizhou Zhong, Yun Pan, Ling Zhang, Kwang-Ting Cheng, Yizhou Zhong, Ling Zhang, Kwang-Ting Cheng, Yun Pan
This paper presents a wearable signal acquisition system, which can measure physiological signs, i.e., electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG). The system is comprised of two parts: (1) an ECG sensor implemented in the master board which will be mounted on the chest and, (2) a combined PPG and motion sensor implemented in the slave board which will be worn around the neck area. The single-lead ECG, the single-channel PPG, and the 3-channel accelerometer signals are all sampled at 200Hz, and transmitted to an Android app through Bluetooth® low energy (BLE) in real time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220109/temporal-stability-and-the-effect-of-transgenerational-transfer-on-fecal-microbiota-structure-in-a-long-distance-migratory-bird
#12
Jakub Kreisinger, Lucie Kropáčková, Adéla Petrželková, Marie Adámková, Oldřich Tomášek, Jean-François Martin, Romana Michálková, Tomáš Albrecht
Animal bodies are inhabited by a taxonomically and functionally diverse community of symbiotic and commensal microorganisms. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, inter-individual variation in host-associated microbiota contributes to physiological and immune system variation. As such, host-associated microbiota may be considered an integral part of the host's phenotype, serving as a substrate for natural selection. This assumes that host-associated microbiota exhibits high temporal stability, however, and that its composition is shaped by trans-generational transfer or heritable host-associated microbiota modulators encoded by the host genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204979/one-year-swallowing-outcomes-in-patients-treated-with-prophylactic-gabapentin-during-radiation-based-treatment-for-oropharyngeal-cancer
#13
Heather M Starmer, WuYang Yang, Christine G Gourin, Rachit Kumar, Bronwyn Jones, Todd McNutt, Sierra Cheng, Harry Quon
Recent investigations by our study team have demonstrated patients using gabapentin for pain management during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) do well maintaining swallowing during treatment with less need for narcotic pain medication, PEG dependence, weight loss, and short-term swallowing morbidity. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the long-term swallowing function of these patients 1-year following treatment. Sequential patients receiving CRT for oropharyngeal cancer and concurrent gabapentin were evaluated 1-year following treatment for swallowing outcomes...
February 15, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176047/gastrointestinal-physiology-and-function
#14
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson, David Grundy
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147382/-effect-of-bolus-volume-on-pharyngeal-swallowing-dynamics-evaluated-with-small-high-resolution-manometry-catheters
#15
Michael Jungheim, Johanna Kallusky, Martin Ptok
The bolus volume has a modulating effect on the swallowing dynamics, but previously reported adaptations of the pharyngeal function have been inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate changes of pressure and time parameters in the pharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in relation to the swallowed bolus volume with high-resolution manometry (HRM). To examine the normal swallowing physiology, particularly thin HRM probes were used, which were expected to influence the investigated structures only minimally...
February 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132098/animal-models-for-dysphagia-studies-what-have-we-learnt-so-far
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca Z German, A W Crompton, Francois D H Gould, Allan J Thexton
Research using animal models has contributed significantly to realizing the goal of understanding dysfunction and improving the care of patients who suffer from dysphagia. But why should other researchers and the clinicians who see patients day in and day out care about this work? Results from studies of animal models have the potential to change and grow how we think about dysphagia research and practice in general, well beyond applying specific results to human studies. Animal research provides two key contributions to our understanding of dysphagia...
February 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119841/change-of-swallowing-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-after-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy
#17
Sehi Kweon, Bon Seok Koo, Sungju Jee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional characteristics of swallowing and to analyze the parameters of dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). METHODS: The medical records of 32 patients with head and neck cancer who were referred for a videofluoroscopic swallowing study from January 2012 to May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were allocated by duration after starting CCRT into early phase (<1 month after radiation therapy) and late phase (>1 month after radiation therapy) groups...
December 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100992/multiple-magnetic-foreign-bodies-causing-severe-digestive-tract-injuries-in-a-child
#18
Xinmin Si, Baofeng Du, Lei Huang
Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common emergency as well as a major cause of accidental injury and represents a severe public health problem in childhood, especially in infants. Most cases of FB ingestion reported in children aged between 6 months and 3 years depend primarily on the fact that young children are more likely to explore objects using their mouth and are not able to distinguish edible objects from nonedible ones, their teeth are physiologically lacking, and they have poor swallowing coordination...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044204/25%C3%A2-years-of-dysphagia-rehabilitation-what-have-we-done-what-are-we-doing-and-where-are-we-going
#19
REVIEW
Caryn Easterling
As deglutologists, we strive to use the best evidence available in the treatment of swallowing disorders. Evidence-based medicine is a bottom-up approach that thoughtfully combines the best external evidence with individual clinical expertise and the patients' choice reflective of their clinical state and preferences for their specific care plan. Evidence-based medicine is not restricted to randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses; rather, evidence-based medicine includes our ability to discriminate the best external evidence with which to answer clinical questions and then skillfully and appropriately being able to apply this evidence in the care and treatment of our patients (Sackett et al...
February 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018754/dysphagia-management-and-stroke-units
#20
REVIEW
David G Smithard
Dysphagia is one of the many complications of stroke. It is common and is an independent marker of outcome. Dysphagia management is important. Although the speech and language pathologist is the key worker in dysphagia management, they are supported by all members of the multi-disciplinary team. Stroke patients should be screened on admission for the presence of dysphagia and assessed by the speech and language therapist (or appropriate professional), where indicated investigation should be undertaken to understand the swallowing physiology and to guide treatment...
2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
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