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Swallowing physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782042/effect-of-tongue-palate-contact-mode-on-food-transport-during-mastication
#1
Tomoko Iizumi, Mariko Yoshino, Hitoshi Kagaya, Kazuhiro Hori, Takahiro Ono
The physiological mechanisms underlying Stage II transport (STII), during which comminuted solid food is transported from the oral cavity into the meso-pharynx for aggregation into a pre-swallow bolus, have yet to be clarified. The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between tongue-palate contact during mastication and incidence of STII by synchronized analysis of tongue pressure production on a hard palate and video-endoscopic (VE) images during mastication. Tongue pressure at 5 measuring points with an ultra-thin sensor sheet attached to the hard palate and trans-nasal VE images while masticating corned beef was recorded for 12 healthy subjects...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774921/a-flexible-pressure-sensor-based-on-rgo-polyaniline-wrapped-sponge-with-tunable-sensitivity-for-human-motion-detection
#2
Gang Ge, Yichen Cai, Qiuchun Dong, Yizhou Zhang, Jinjun Shao, Wei Huang, Xiaochen Dong
High-performance stretchable and wearable electronic skins (E-skins) with high sensitivity and a large sensing range are urgently required with the rapid development of the Internet of things and artificial intelligence. Herein, a reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polyaniline wrapped sponge is prepared via rGO coating and the in situ synthesis of polyaniline nanowires (PANI NWs) on the backbones of sponge for the fabrication of pressure sensors. From the as-prepared flexible sensor, tunable sensitivity (0.042 to 0...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758531/capture-swallowing-and-egestion-of-microplastics-by-a-planktivorous-juvenile-fish
#3
Nicolas Christian Ory, Camila Gallardo, Mark Lenz, Martin Thiel
Microplastics (<5 mm) have been found in many fish species, from most marine environments. However, the mechanisms underlying microplastic ingestion by fish are still unclear, although they are important to determine the pathway of microplastics along marine food webs. Here we conducted experiments in the laboratory to examine microplastic ingestion (capture and swallowing) and egestion by juveniles of the planktivorous palm ruff, Seriolella violacea (Centrolophidae). As expected, fish captured preferentially black microplastics, similar to food pellets, whereas microplastics of other colours (blue, translucent, and yellow) were mostly co-captured when floating close to food pellets...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758228/differences-in-swallow-physiology-in-patients-with-left-and-right-hemispheric-strokes
#4
Janina Wilmskoetter, Bonnie Martin-Harris, William G Pearson, Leonardo Bonilha, Jordan J Elm, Janet Horn, Heather S Bonilha
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the impact of lesion lateralization and lesion volume on swallow impairment on group-level by comparing patients with left and right hemisphere strokes and on patient-level by analyzing patients individually. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of 46 patients with unilateral (22 left, 24 right), acute, first-ever, ischemic strokes who received a diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and modified barium swallow study (MBSS) during their acute hospital stay...
May 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756614/transoral-glossoepiglottopexy-in-the-treatment-of-adult-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-a-surgical-approach
#5
V Roustan, M Barbieri, F Incandela, F Missale, H Camera, F Braido, R Mora, G Peretti
The treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is still a matter of debate; among the different therapeutic alternatives, both surgical and conservative, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered the "gold standard". The recent scientific literature reports that even if CPAP represents an effective solution for sleep apnoeas, 12% of patients do not benefit from its use. In most cases, primary collapse of the epiglottis is responsible for failure. We developed a surgical technique that provides a stable support to the epiglottis without influencing its function during swallowing while preserving laryngeal anatomy and physiology...
February 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726363/dysphagia-treatment-for-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-undergoing-radiation-therapy-a-meta-analysis-review
#6
REVIEW
Elissa Greco, Tijana Simic, Jolie Ringash, George Tomlinson, Yoko Inamoto, Rosemary Martino
PURPOSE: Patients undergoing radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy (C/RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) often develop dysphagia. Interventions from speech-language pathologists aim to maintain or improve swallow physiology and function. However, it is unclear which interventions provide the greatest benefit. We performed a systematic review to assess the benefit of exercise therapy on swallow physiology, function, and related quality of life (QOL). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We searched 7 electronic databases up to July 12, 2017, for all primary studies of any language or design that included the following: a behavioral swallowing intervention for patients with HNC treated with curative C/RT, a comparison group, and outcomes related to swallow physiology, function, and/or QOL...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725764/a-preliminary-videofluoroscopic-investigation-of-swallowing-physiology-and-function-in-individuals-with-oculopharyngeal-muscular-dystrophy-opmd
#7
Ashley A Waito, Catriona M Steele, Melanie Peladeau-Pigeon, Angela Genge, Zohar Argov
Dysphagia is one of the primary symptoms experienced by individuals with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD). However, we lack understanding of the discrete changes in swallowing physiology that are seen in OPMD, and the resulting relationship to impairments of swallowing safety and efficiency. This study sought to describe the pathophysiology of dysphagia in a small sample of patients with OPMD using a videofluoroscopy examination (VFSS) involving 3 × 5 mL boluses of thin liquid barium (22% w/v)...
May 3, 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724130/elucidating-inconsistencies-in-dysphagia-diagnostics-redefining-normal
#8
Emily K Plowman, Ianessa A Humbert
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are the primary healthcare providers responsible for the evaluation and treatment of dysphagia. Fundamental to this role is the ability to make accurate clinical judgements to distinguish between normal versus disordered swallowing for subsequent treatment planning. In this review, we highlight recent data collected from practising clinicians in the USA that reveal low levels of agreement across clinicians and poor to moderate levels of accuracy for making binary diagnostic ratings (normal vs...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713897/coordination-of-pharyngeal-and-laryngeal-swallowing-events-during-single-liquid-swallows-after-oral-endotracheal-intubation-for-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#9
Martin B Brodsky, Ishani De, Kalyan Chilukuri, Minxuan Huang, Jeffrey B Palmer, Dale M Needham
To evaluate timing and duration differences in airway protection and esophageal opening after oral intubation and mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors versus age-matched healthy volunteers. Orally intubated adult (≥ 18 years old) patients receiving mechanical ventilation for ARDS were evaluated for swallowing impairments via a videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) during usual care. Exclusion criteria were tracheostomy, neurological impairment, and head and neck cancer...
April 30, 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710238/insights-into-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-from-administrative-data-and-clinical-registries-a-literature-review
#10
Rebecca S Bartlett, Susan L Thibeault
Purpose: The call for data-driven health care has been bolstered by the digitization of medical records, quality initiatives, and payment reform. Administrative databases and clinical registries are increasingly being used to study oropharyngeal dysphagia and to facilitate data-driven decision making. The objective of this work was to summarize key findings, etiologies studied, data sources used, study objectives, and quality of evidence of all original research articles that have investigated oropharyngeal dysphagia or aspiration pneumonia using administrative or clinical registry data to date...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695537/aquatic-terrestrial-transitions-of-feeding-systems-in-vertebrates-a-mechanical-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Egon Heiss, Peter Aerts, Sam Van Wassenbergh
Transitions to terrestrial environments confront ancestrally aquatic animals with several mechanical and physiological problems owing to the different physical properties of water and air. As aquatic feeders generally make use of flows of water relative to the head to capture, transport and swallow food, it follows that morphological and behavioral changes were inevitably needed for the aquatic animals to successfully perform these functions on land. Here, we summarize the mechanical requirements of successful aquatic-to-terrestrial transitions in food capture, transport and swallowing by vertebrates and review how different taxa managed to fulfill these requirements...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685382/managing-older-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-the-non-surgical-curative-approach
#12
Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Divyanshu Dua, Charles Kelly, Paolo Bossi
Managing older patients with head and neck cancers poses a challenge due to the often reduced levels of physiological reserve, the frequent comorbidities and treatment related toxicity. These factors have implications on speech, breathing and swallowing functions. Treatment management plans in these patients may result in de-intensification strategies and as a result of this, use of non-standard treatments is increasing. There have been published reports that indicate the addition of concurrent systemic therapy to radiation in selected older patients is feasible, and produces outcomes comparable with younger patients...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672224/nocturnal-swallowing-and-arousal-threshold-in-individuals-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Aliza Rizwan, Abdulghani Sankari, Amy T Bascom, Sarah Vaughan, M Safwan Badr
Respiratory complications are potential causes of death in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Nocturnal swallowing could be related to transient arousals, and lead to fragmented sleep in SCI patients. However, the impact of nocturnal swallowing on breathing and sleep physiology in SCI is unknown. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether nocturnal swallowing is more common in SCI than in able-bodied subjects, (2) to determine the role of nocturnal swallowing on arousal threshold in SCI individuals with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), (3) to determine the effect of CPAP treatment on nocturnal swallowing...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668108/sonographic-assessment-of-swallowing-in-irradiated-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#14
Dennis T H Cheng, Kathy Y S Lee, Anil T Ahuja, Michael C F Tong
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Ultrasonography is an emerging clinical tool to study the dysfunction of swallowing muscles. This was the first sonographic study to assess the relationship between suprahyoid muscle contraction, hyoid bone displacement, and penetration-aspiration status (PAS) during swallowing in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). The study also aimed to establish reliability data for the sonographic technique described. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
April 18, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660383/dosage-form-modification-and-oral-drug-delivery-in-older-people
#15
Esther T L Lau, Kathryn J Steadman, Julie A Y Cichero, Lisa M Nissen
Many people cannot swallow whole tablets and capsules. The cause ranges from difficulties overriding the natural instinct to chew solids/foodstuff before swallowing, to a complex disorder of swallowing function affecting the ability to manage all food and fluid intake. Older people can experience swallowing difficulties because of co-morbidities, age-related physiological changes, and polypharmacy. To make medicines easier to swallow, many people will modify the medication dosage form e.g. split or crush tablets, and open capsules...
April 13, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627207/comparison-of-clinical-and-electromyographic-rest-vertical-dimensions-in-dolichofacial-and-brachyfacial-young-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Arturo Manns, Catalina Valdivieso, Victor Rojas, Constanza Valdés, Valeria Ramírez
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Therapeutic procedures that increase occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) may have different responses in patients with different craniofacial vertical patterns. The effect on these patients of increasing their OVD is not well understood. PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical study was to compare measurements of vertical jaw separation (VJS) in patients with brachyfacial and dolichofacial craniofacial patterns in 2 vertical dimensions: the clinical rest/postural vertical dimension (CR/PVD) and electromyographic rest vertical dimension (EMGRVD)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624598/high-costs-of-infection-alphavirus-infection-reduces-digestive-function-and-bone-and-feather-growth-in-nestling-house-sparrows-passer-domesticus
#17
Carol A Fassbinder-Orth, Tess L Killpack, Dylan S Goto, Ellecia L Rainwater, Valerie I Shearn-Bochsler
Increasingly, ecoimmunology studies aim to use relevant pathogen exposure to examine the impacts of infection on physiological processes in wild animals. Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses ("arboviruses") responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is a unique alphavirus that is transmitted by a cimicid insect, the swallow bug, and is amplified in two avian species: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614555/-assessment-of-the-quality-of-life-of-tongue-base-cancer-patients-after-reconstruction-with-anterolateral-thigh-perforator-flap
#18
N Gao, K Fu, W He
Objective: To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients who underwent resection of tongue base cancer and reconstruction by anterolateral thigh perforator free flap(ALTFF). Methods: A total of 77 patients with tongue cancer who underwent glossectomy and reconstruction by ALTFF were retrospectively analyzed in this work. At intervals of 3-month before operation, as well as both 3-month and 12-month post-operation, the QOL of these patients was assessed by using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires(OHIP-14) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Head and Neck Module(EORTC-QLQ-H&N35)...
March 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605373/swallowing-outcomes-in-children-after-slide-tracheoplasty
#19
Alexandra J Stewart, Colin R Butler, Nagarajan Muthialu, Debbie Sell, Joseph Marchant, Richard J D Hewitt, Martin J Elliott
INTRODUCTION: Slide tracheoplasty is now considered gold standard treatment for long segment congenital tracheal stenosis. Outcomes are typically focused upon airway patency. Dysphagia is often reported in children undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, but not specifically after slide tracheoplasty. This study was carried out to describe the nature and prevalence of dysphagia following slide tracheoplasty for long segment congenital tracheal stenosis. METHODS: Retrospective case note review was conducted on a series of patients who underwent swallow evaluation following slide tracheoplasty between 2006 and 2014...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570734/characterization-of-the-adult-aedes-aegypti-early-midgut-peritrophic-matrix-proteome-using-lc-ms
#20
Shavonn R Whiten, W Keith Ray, Richard F Helm, Zach N Adelman
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the principal vector of arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika virus. These arboviruses are transmitted during adult female mosquito bloodfeeding. While these viruses must transverse the midgut to replicate, the blood meal must also reach the midgut to be digested, absorbed, or excreted, as aggregation of blood meal metabolites can be toxic to the female mosquito midgut. The midgut peritrophic matrix (PM), a semipermeable extracellular layer comprised of chitin fibrils, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans, is one such mechanism of protection for the mosquito midgut...
2018: PloS One
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