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Swallowing physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226570/a-wearable-signal-acquisition-system-for-physiological-signs-including-throat-ppg
#1
Yizhou Zhong, Yun Pan, Ling Zhang, Kwang-Ting Cheng, Yizhou Zhong, Yun Pan, Ling Zhang, Kwang-Ting Cheng, Yizhou Zhong, Ling Zhang, Kwang-Ting Cheng, Yun Pan
This paper presents a wearable signal acquisition system, which can measure physiological signs, i.e., electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG). The system is comprised of two parts: (1) an ECG sensor implemented in the master board which will be mounted on the chest and, (2) a combined PPG and motion sensor implemented in the slave board which will be worn around the neck area. The single-lead ECG, the single-channel PPG, and the 3-channel accelerometer signals are all sampled at 200Hz, and transmitted to an Android app through Bluetooth® low energy (BLE) in real time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220109/temporal-stability-and-the-effect-of-transgenerational-transfer-on-fecal-microbiota-structure-in-a-long-distance-migratory-bird
#2
Jakub Kreisinger, Lucie Kropáčková, Adéla Petrželková, Marie Adámková, Oldřich Tomášek, Jean-François Martin, Romana Michálková, Tomáš Albrecht
Animal bodies are inhabited by a taxonomically and functionally diverse community of symbiotic and commensal microorganisms. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, inter-individual variation in host-associated microbiota contributes to physiological and immune system variation. As such, host-associated microbiota may be considered an integral part of the host's phenotype, serving as a substrate for natural selection. This assumes that host-associated microbiota exhibits high temporal stability, however, and that its composition is shaped by trans-generational transfer or heritable host-associated microbiota modulators encoded by the host genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204979/one-year-swallowing-outcomes-in-patients-treated-with-prophylactic-gabapentin-during-radiation-based-treatment-for-oropharyngeal-cancer
#3
Heather M Starmer, WuYang Yang, Christine G Gourin, Rachit Kumar, Bronwyn Jones, Todd McNutt, Sierra Cheng, Harry Quon
Recent investigations by our study team have demonstrated patients using gabapentin for pain management during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) do well maintaining swallowing during treatment with less need for narcotic pain medication, PEG dependence, weight loss, and short-term swallowing morbidity. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the long-term swallowing function of these patients 1-year following treatment. Sequential patients receiving CRT for oropharyngeal cancer and concurrent gabapentin were evaluated 1-year following treatment for swallowing outcomes...
February 15, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176047/gastrointestinal-physiology-and-function
#4
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson, David Grundy
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract...
February 8, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147382/-effect-of-bolus-volume-on-pharyngeal-swallowing-dynamics-evaluated-with-small-high-resolution-manometry-catheters
#5
Michael Jungheim, Johanna Kallusky, Martin Ptok
The bolus volume has a modulating effect on the swallowing dynamics, but previously reported adaptations of the pharyngeal function have been inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate changes of pressure and time parameters in the pharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in relation to the swallowed bolus volume with high-resolution manometry (HRM). To examine the normal swallowing physiology, particularly thin HRM probes were used, which were expected to influence the investigated structures only minimally...
February 1, 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132098/animal-models-for-dysphagia-studies-what-have-we-learnt-so-far
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca Z German, A W Crompton, Francois D H Gould, Allan J Thexton
Research using animal models has contributed significantly to realizing the goal of understanding dysfunction and improving the care of patients who suffer from dysphagia. But why should other researchers and the clinicians who see patients day in and day out care about this work? Results from studies of animal models have the potential to change and grow how we think about dysphagia research and practice in general, well beyond applying specific results to human studies. Animal research provides two key contributions to our understanding of dysphagia...
February 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119841/change-of-swallowing-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-after-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy
#7
Sehi Kweon, Bon Seok Koo, Sungju Jee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional characteristics of swallowing and to analyze the parameters of dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). METHODS: The medical records of 32 patients with head and neck cancer who were referred for a videofluoroscopic swallowing study from January 2012 to May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were allocated by duration after starting CCRT into early phase (<1 month after radiation therapy) and late phase (>1 month after radiation therapy) groups...
December 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100992/multiple-magnetic-foreign-bodies-causing-severe-digestive-tract-injuries-in-a-child
#8
Xinmin Si, Baofeng Du, Lei Huang
Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common emergency as well as a major cause of accidental injury and represents a severe public health problem in childhood, especially in infants. Most cases of FB ingestion reported in children aged between 6 months and 3 years depend primarily on the fact that young children are more likely to explore objects using their mouth and are not able to distinguish edible objects from nonedible ones, their teeth are physiologically lacking, and they have poor swallowing coordination...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044204/25%C3%A2-years-of-dysphagia-rehabilitation-what-have-we-done-what-are-we-doing-and-where-are-we-going
#9
REVIEW
Caryn Easterling
As deglutologists, we strive to use the best evidence available in the treatment of swallowing disorders. Evidence-based medicine is a bottom-up approach that thoughtfully combines the best external evidence with individual clinical expertise and the patients' choice reflective of their clinical state and preferences for their specific care plan. Evidence-based medicine is not restricted to randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses; rather, evidence-based medicine includes our ability to discriminate the best external evidence with which to answer clinical questions and then skillfully and appropriately being able to apply this evidence in the care and treatment of our patients (Sackett et al...
February 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018754/dysphagia-management-and-stroke-units
#10
REVIEW
David G Smithard
Dysphagia is one of the many complications of stroke. It is common and is an independent marker of outcome. Dysphagia management is important. Although the speech and language pathologist is the key worker in dysphagia management, they are supported by all members of the multi-disciplinary team. Stroke patients should be screened on admission for the presence of dysphagia and assessed by the speech and language therapist (or appropriate professional), where indicated investigation should be undertaken to understand the swallowing physiology and to guide treatment...
2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863989/the-gut-in-the-beaker-missing-the-surfactants
#11
REVIEW
Clive G Wilson, Gavin W Halbert, Jenifer Mains
Gastrointestinal drug administration is the preferred route for the majority of drugs however, the natural physiology and physicochemistry of the gastrointestinal tract is critical to absorption but complex and influenced by factors such as diet or disease. The pharmaceutical sciences drive for product consistency has led to the development of in vitro product performance tests whose utility and interpretation is hindered by the complexity, variability and a lack of understanding. This article explores some of these issues with respect to the drug, formulation and the presence of surfactant excipients and how these interact with the natural bile salt surfactants...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863685/the-gut-in-the-beaker-missing-the-surfactants
#12
REVIEW
Clive G Wilson, Gavin W Halbert, Jenifer Mains
Gastrointestinal drug administration is the preferred route for the majority of drugs however, the natural physiology and physicochemistry of the gastrointestinal tract is critical to absorption but complex and influenced by factors such as diet or disease. The pharmaceutical sciences drive for product consistency has led to the development of in vitro product performance tests whose utility and interpretation is hindered by the complexity, variability and a lack of understanding. This article explores some of these issues with respect to the drug, formulation and the presence of surfactant excipients and how these interact with the natural bile salt surfactants...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823802/in-vivo-observations-and-in-vitro-experiments-on-the-oral-phase-of-swallowing-of-newtonian-and-shear-thinning-liquids
#13
S Mowlavi, J Engmann, A Burbidge, R Lloyd, P Hayoun, B Le Reverend, M Ramaioli
In this study, an in vitro device that mimics the oral phase of swallowing is calibrated using in vivo measurements. The oral flow behavior of different Newtonian and non-Newtonian solutions is then investigated in vitro, revealing that shear-thinning thickeners used in the treatment of dysphagia behave very similar to low-viscosity Newtonian liquids during active swallowing, but provide better control of the bolus before the swallow is initiated. A theoretical model is used to interpret the experimental results and enables the identification of two dynamical regimes for the flow of the bolus: first, an inertial regime of constant acceleration dependent on the applied force and system inertia, possibly followed by a viscous regime in which the viscosity governs the constant velocity of the bolus...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810735/profound-differences-between-humans-and-rodents-in-the-ability-to-concentrate-salivary-nitrate-implications-for-translational-research
#14
Marcelo F Montenegro, Michaela L Sundqvist, Carina Nihlén, Michael Hezel, Mattias Carlström, Eddie Weitzberg, Jon O Lundberg
In humans dietary circulating nitrate accumulates rapidly in saliva through active transport in the salivary glands. By this mechanism resulting salivary nitrate concentrations are 10-20 times higher than in plasma. In the oral cavity nitrate is reduced by commensal bacteria to nitrite, which is subsequently swallowed and further metabolized to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides in blood and tissues. This entero-salivary circulation of nitrate is central in the various NO-like effects observed after ingestion of inorganic nitrate...
October 25, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795799/-thyroid-abscess-revealing-graves-basedow-disease-about-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Meriem Chenguir, Hajar Souldi, Fatima Zahra Loufad, Sami Rouadi, Reda Abada, Mohamed Roubal, Mohamed Mahtar
Thyroid abscess is a very rare clinical entity. It accounts for 0.1% of the surgical pathologies of the thyroid gland. The anatomical and physiological characteristics of the gland give it resistance to pathogens. Streptococcal and Staphylococcal are the most common. Tuberculosis is rarely reported in the literature. The occurrence of infection associated with toxic goiter is exceptional. The authors report a rare case of a 22-year-old young patient with thyroid abscess revealing a toxic goitre. He presented to our otorhinolaryngology emergency unit with anterior cervical swelling, slightly lateralized to the left, moving on swallowing, associated with hemoptysis, signs of thyroid dysfunction, fever, night sweats...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763712/conservation-implications-of-a-lack-of-relationship-between-baseline-glucocorticoids-and-fitness-in-a-wild-passerine
#16
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs; cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or significance, depending on the GC measure, fitness metric, life history stage, or other intrinsic and extrinsic contexts considered...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757239/employing-individual-measures-of-baseline-glucocorticoids-as-population-level-conservation-biomarkers-considering-within-individual-variation-in-a-breeding-passerine
#17
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741416/utility-of-superiorly-based-masseter-muscle-flap-for-postablative-retromaxillary-reconstruction
#18
Chandrashekhar R Bande, Akshay Mishra, M K Gupta, Manu Goel, Mayur J Gawande
PURPOSE: Resections in the posterior component of the oral cavity usually lead to severe functional compromise and lower quality of life for patients. Notable advances in reconstruction of the posterior part of the mouth and of the oropharynx have occurred in recent decades. The anatomic and physiologic rehabilitation of the defect to a reasonable outcome with low morbidity and mortality remains the founding basis of any surgical reconstruction, which also holds true for oral oropharyngeal and retromaxillary reconstructions...
January 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733188/nurse-performed-screening-for-postextubation-dysphagia-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-critically-ill-medical-patients
#19
Kay Choong See, Si Yu Peng, Jason Phua, Chew Lai Sum, Johncy Concepcion
BACKGROUND: Swallowing difficulties are common, and dysphagia occurs frequently in intensive care unit (ICU) patients after extubation. Yet, no guidelines on postextubation swallowing assessment exist. We aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of nurse-performed screening (NPS) for postextubation dysphagia in the medical ICU. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of mechanically ventilated patients who were extubated in a 20-bed medical ICU...
October 12, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719865/functional-disorders-of-swallowing
#20
A Baumann, P O Katz
Swallowing involves complex coordination of the neuromuscular anatomy and physiology of the oropharynx and esophagus, controlled by the enteric and central nervous systems. Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal and results from mechanical or structural disturbances. Videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, barium swallow, manometry, and endoscopy are common modalities utilized in diagnosis, but none is as important as a patient's history. Functional dysphagia is a diagnosis of exclusion and is based on Rome criteria...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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