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Respiration control

Christina Boeck, Juan Salinas-Manrique, Enrico Calzia, Peter Radermacher, Christine A F von Arnim, Detlef E Dietrich, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Alexander Karabatsiakis
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with telomere dysfunction and alterations in mitochondrial activity, which seem to be co-regulated in human cells. To investigate this co-regulation in MDD, we assessed telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and selected immune cell subsets by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization and mitochondrial respiratory activity in PBMC by high-resolution respirometry in a study cohort of 18 MDD patients and 21 non-depressed controls...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Teayoun Kim, Shelly Nason, Cassie Holleman, Mark Pepin, Landon Wilson, Taylor F Berryhill, Adam R Wende, Chad Steele, Martin E Young, Stephen Barnes, Daniel J Drucker, Brian Finan, Richard DiMarchi, Diego Perez-Tilve, Matthias Tschoep, Kirk M Habegger
Glucagon, an essential regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, also promotes weight loss, in part through potentiation of fibroblast-growth factor 21 (FGF21) secretion. However, FGF21 is only a partial mediator of metabolic actions ensuing from GcgR-activation, prompting us to search for additional pathways. Intriguingly, chronic GcgR agonism increases plasma bile acid levels. We hypothesized that GcgR agonism regulates energy metabolism, at least in part, through farnesoid X receptor (FXR). To test this hypothesis, we studied whole body and liver-specific FXR knockout ( Fxr ∆liver ) mice...
June 20, 2018: Diabetes
Ishan Goswami, Justin B Perry, Mitchell E Allen, David A Brown, Michael R von Spakovsky, Scott S Verbridge
Pulsed electric fields with microsecond pulse width (μsPEFs) are used clinically; namely, irreversible electroporation/Nanoknife is used for soft tissue tumor ablation. The μsPEF pulse parameters used in irreversible electroporation (0.5-1 kV/cm, 80-100 pulses, ∼100 μs each, 1 Hz frequency) may cause an internal field to develop within the cell because of the disruption of the outer cell membrane and subsequent penetration of the electric field. An internal field may disrupt voltage-sensitive mitochondria, although the research literature has been relatively unclear regarding whether such disruptions occur with μsPEFs...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
F Tatulli, A Delcuratolo, A Caraglia, A Notarnicola, F P N Carbone, A Caputi
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopy is perceived as the state-of-the-art technique for a wide variety of operations but is contraindicated by comorbidities such as respiratory diseases. We present the case of a patient affected by asthma who underwent a successful three-trocar low-pressure pneumoperitoneum under spinal anesthesia. CASE REPORT: A 58 year-old male with symptomatic gallstones had partly-controlled asthma and respiratory allergies. Potential bronchospasm was avoided by a less invasive laparoscopic technique...
May 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Bing Liu, Rong Chang, Zhili Duan, Xiaofei Zhang, Yusong Shen, Xiangbo Liu, Jinchun Wu, Yajun Tuo, Junming Luo
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined as the mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥25 mmHg under the sea level in resting state. ROCK1 and ROCK2 can be combined to cause the damage of vascular endothelial function. To explore the differences of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in subjects with pulmonary hypertension or normal pulmonary artery pressure in plateau area, and to further understand the mechanism of Rho/rho-kinase pathway activation for promoting pulmonary hypertension, we collected 64 patients with pulmonary hypertension and 87 normal pulmonary artery healthy controls...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
K E Kliem, D J Humphries, P Kirton, D I Givens, C K Reynolds
It is known that supplementing dairy cow diets with full-fat oilseeds can be used as a strategy to mitigate methane emissions, through their action on rumen fermentation. However, direct comparisons of the effect of different oil sources are very few, as are studies implementing supplementation levels that reflect what is commonly fed on commercial farms. The objective was to investigate the effect of feeding different forms of supplemental plant oils on both methane emissions and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
June 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Gro Killi Haugstad, Unni Kirste, Siv Leganger, Elin Haakonsen, Tor S Haugstad
Introduction We have developed somatocognitive therapy as a hybrid of Mensendieck physiotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy. Womenwith chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and vulvodynia (chronic pain of the vulvae and vestibulum, VD) were recruited into two separate treatment protocols as described. Methods 60 patients with CPP were recruited from the Department of Gynaecology at the Oslo University Hospital into a randomized, controlled intervention study. The patients were randomized into three treatment groups, receiving (1) treatment as usual, (2) somatocognitive therapy, and (3) in addition receiving cognitive therapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Gro Killi Haugstad, Unni Kirste, Siv Leganger, Elin Haakonsen, Tor S Haugstad
Historic background and development of our somatocognitive approach Mensendieck physiotherapy of the Oslo School is a tradition of physiotherapy founded by the American physician Bess Mensendieck, a contemporary and fellow student of Sigmund Freud at the Paris School of Neurology. It builds on the principles of functional anatomy and the theories of motor learning. We have further developed the theory and practice from this physiotherapy tradition, challenged by the enormous load of patients with longstanding, incapacitating pain on western health care systems, by seeking to incorporate inspirational ideas from body oriented dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Leonardo Bocchi, Monia Savi, Valeria Naponelli, Rocchina Vilella, Gianluca Sgarbi, Alessandra Baracca, Giancarlo Solaini, Saverio Bettuzzi, Federica Rizzi, Donatella Stilli
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dietary polyphenols from green tea have been shown to possess cardio-protective activities in different experimental models of heart diseases and age-related ventricular dysfunction. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether long term in vivo administration of green tea extracts (GTE), can exert positive effects on the normal heart, with focus on the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The study population consisted of 20 male adult Wistar rats...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jip M E Pluim, Lucas Jimenez-Bou, Reza R R Gerretsen, Arjo J Loeve
When sawing during autopsies on human remains, fine dust is produced, which consists of particles of sizes that may fall within the human respirable range, and can act as vectors for pathogens. The goal of this study was to explore the potential effects of saw blade frequency and saw blade contact load on the number and size of airborne bone particles produced. The methodology involved the use of an oscillating saw with variable saw blade frequencies and different saw blade contact loads on dry human femora...
June 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Dharendra Thapa, Michael W Stoner, Manling Zhang, Bingxian Xie, Janet R Manning, Danielle Guimaraes, Sruti Shiva, Michael J Jurczak, Iain Scott
Mitochondria supply ~90% of the ATP required for contractile function in cardiac cells. While adult cardiomyocytes preferentially utilize fatty acids as a fuel source for oxidative phosphorylation, cardiac mitochondria can switch to other substrates when required. This change is driven in part by a combination of extracellular and intracellular signal transduction pathways that alter mitochondrial gene expression and enzymatic activity. The mechanisms by which extracellular metabolic information is conveyed to cardiac mitochondria are not currently well defined...
June 9, 2018: Redox Biology
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
Victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are believed to have an underlying dysfunction in medullary homeostatic control that impairs critical responses to life threatening challenges such as hypoxia, hypercarbia and asphyxia, often during a sleep period. This failure is thought to result from abnormalities in a network of neural pathways in the medulla oblongata that control respiration, chemosensitivity, autonomic function and arousal. Studies have mainly focused on the role of serotonin, 5-hydroxytyptamine (5HT), although the neuropeptide substance P (SP) has also been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of medullary homeostatic function, often in conjunction with 5-HT...
May 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
Fiona Hollis, Ellen Siobhan Mitchell, Carles Canto, Dongmei Wang, Carmen Sandi
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are emerging as unique dietary supplements potentially relevant to improve brain dysfunctions. MCT are converted into ketones and free medium chain fatty acids that, in the brain, are highly effective energy sources to mitochondria and potentially less harmful than glucose metabolism to neurons. Given the recently established link between mitochondrial dysfunction and high anxiety and depression, we set this study to investigate the effectiveness of an MCT-enriched diet to ameliorate anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in rats...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
David H Jang, Clinton J Orloski, Shawn Owiredu, Frances S Shofer, John C Greenwood, David M Eckmann
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a key cellular event leading to organ dysfunction in sepsis. Our objective is to measure changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics in subjects with early presentation of sepsis to provide insight into the incompletely understood pathophysiology of the dysregulated host response in sepsis. DESIGN: Prospective observational study SETTING:: Single site tertiary academic emergency department SUBJECTS:: We enrolled a total of 48 subjects were enrolled in the study, 10 with sepsis or septic shock, 10 with infection without sepsis, 14 older and 14 younger healthy controls...
June 13, 2018: Shock
Kai Yu, Yiqun Gan, Aiguo Zhou, Chongxuan Liu, Yanhua Duan, Li Han, Yanan Zhang
Groundwater arsenic contamination is a common environmental problem that threatens the health of over 100 million people globally. Apparent seasonal fluctuations in groundwater arsenic concentrations have been reported in various locations worldwide, including the Jianghan Plain, central China. This phenomenon has been attributed to shifts in redox conditions induced by seasonal incursions of surface water. However, it is not clear what processes during the incursion lead to changes in the redox conditions and what is the source of the organic carbon driving these processes...
May 30, 2018: Chemosphere
Lei Wang, Sufen Cui, Zhicheng Liu, Yong Ping, Jiangping Qiu, Xueqing Geng
Regulating the air in low-oxygen environments protects hermetically stored grains from storage pests damage. However, pests that can tolerate hypoxic stress pose a huge challenge in terms of grain storage. We used various biological approaches to determine the fundamental mechanisms of Tribolium castaneum to cope with hypoxia. Our results indicated that limiting the available oxygen to T. castaneum increased glycolysis and inhibited the Krebs cycle, and that accumulated pyruvic acid was preferentially converted to lactic acid via anaerobic metabolism...
2018: PloS One
Maryam Gulshan, Keisuke Yaku, Keisuke Okabe, Arshad Mahmood, Tsutomu Sasaki, Masashi Yamamoto, Keisuke Hikosaka, Isao Usui, Tadahiro Kitamura, Kazuyuki Tobe, Takashi Nakagawa
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an important cofactor that regulates various biological processes, including metabolism and gene expression. As a coenzyme, NAD controls mitochondrial respiration through enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, β-oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation and also serves as a substrate for posttranslational protein modifications, such as deacetylation and ADP-ribosylation by sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), respectively. Many studies have demonstrated that NAD levels decrease with aging and that these declines cause various aging-associated diseases...
June 14, 2018: Aging Cell
Ana L C Soares, Christoph-Martin Geilfus, Sebastien C Carpentier
Salt stress in plants triggers complex physiological responses that are genotype specific. Many of these responses are either not yet described or not fully understood or both. In this work, we phenotyped three maize genotypes of the CIMMYT gene bank alongside the reference B73 genotype (NCRPIS - United States) under both control and salt-stressed conditions. We have ranked their growth potential and we observed significant differences in Na+ and Cl- ion accumulation. Genotype CML421 showed the slowest growth, while CML451 had the lowest accumulation of ions in its leaves...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rong Mao, Xinhou Zhang, Changchun Song, Xianwei Wang, Patrick M Finnegan
In boreal peatlands, litter decomposition plays an important role in modulating ecosystem carbon (C) cycling and nutrient turnover. However, how climate warming and plant functional group interact to affect litter decomposition is still unclear in these ecosystems. Here, we collected fresh litters of six plant functional groups (nitrogen (N)-fixing species, deciduous tree, deciduous shrub, evergreen shrub, graminoid, and Sphagnum moss) from a boreal peatland located in northeast China. A laboratory incubation experiment was used to determine the effect of temperature (10 °C vs...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Simon T Bond, Kevin A McEwen, Prusothman Yoganantharajah, Yann Gibert
The Agilent Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer can be used to measure the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extra cellular acidification rate (ECAR), from which mitochondrial bioenergetics measurements can be determined including basal respiration, respiration due to ATP turnover, uncoupled respiration/proton leak, and maximum respiration. This novel method demonstrates how to use a Seahorse XF 24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer to measure the bioenergetic flux of zebrafish embryos in vivo during development...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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