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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053941/a-point-source-outbreak-of-coccidioidomycosis-among-a-highway-construction-crew
#1
Mark Nicas
Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by inhaling spores of the soil fungus Coccidioides immitis (hereafter termed Cocci). Cocci is endemic in certain areas of California. When soil containing the fungus is disturbed, as during earth-moving activities, respirable Cocci spores can become airborne and be inhaled by persons in the vicinity. This paper describes a cluster of seven Cocciodioidomycosis cases among a highway construction crew that occurred in June/July 2008 in Kern County, CA, which is among the most highly endemic regions for Cocci in California...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053936/evaluation-of-an-improved-prototype-mini-baghouse-to-control-the-release-of-respirable-crystalline-silica-from-sand-movers
#2
Barbara M Alexander, Eric J Esswein, Michael G Gressel, Jerry L Kratzer, H Amy Feng, Arthur L Miller, Emanuele Cauda, Graeham Heil
The OSHA final rule on respirable crystalline silica (RCS) will require hydraulic fracturing companies to implement engineering controls to limit workers' exposure to RCS. RCS is generated by pneumatic transfer of quartz-containing sand during hydraulic fracturing operations. Chronic inhalation of RCS can lead to serious disease, including silicosis and lung cancer. NIOSH research identified at least seven sources where RCS aerosols were generated at hydraulic fracturing sites. NIOSH researchers developed an engineering control to address one of the largest sources of RCS aerosol generation, RCS escaping from thief hatches on the top of sand movers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053143/momp-cell-suicide-as-a-bcl-2-family-business
#3
REVIEW
Halime Kalkavan, Douglas R Green
Apoptosis shapes development and differentiation, has a key role in tissue homeostasis, and is deregulated in cancer. In most cases, successful apoptosis is triggered by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which defines the mitochondrial or intrinsic pathway and ultimately leads to caspase activation and protein substrate cleavage. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway centered on MOMP is controlled by an intricate network of events that determine the balance of the cell fate choice between survival and death...
October 20, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046872/swallow-breath-interaction-and-phase-of-respiration-with-swallow-during-non-nutritive-suck-in-infants-affected-by-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#4
Eric W Reynolds, Debbie Grider, Cynthia S Bell
BACKGROUND: The development of suck-swallow-breath rhythms during non-nutritive suck (NNS) may be an indicator of neurologic integrity. We have described swallow-breath (SwBr) interaction and phase of respiration (POR) with swallow during NNS in low-risk preterm (LRP) infants. NNS in infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has not been described with our method. METHOD: Suckle, swallow, thoracic motion, and nasal airflow were measured during NNS in 10 infants with NAS and 12 unaffected infants (control)...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046769/factors-that-affect-the-onset-of-action-of-non-depolarizing-neuromuscular-blocking-agents
#5
REVIEW
Yong Byum Kim, Tae-Yun Sung, Hong Seuk Yang
Neuromuscular blockade plays an important role in the safe management of patient airways, surgical field improvement, and respiratory care. Rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia is indispensable to emergency surgery and obstetric anesthesia, and its purpose is to obtain a stable airway, adequate depth of anesthesia, and appropriate respiration within a short period of time without causing irritation or damage to the patient. There has been a continued search for new neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) with a rapid onset of action...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046352/the-lignan-manassantin-is-a-potent-and-specific-inhibitor-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-and-bioenergetic-activity-in-mammals
#6
Yibao Ma, Hae-Ki Min, Unsong Oh, Adam M Hawkridge, Wei Wang, Ahmed A Mohsin, Qun Chen, Arun Sanyal, Edward J Lesnefsky, Xianjun Fang
Dineolignans manassantin A and B from the plant Saururus cernuus are used in traditional medicine to manage a wide range of ailments such as edema, jaundice, and gonorrhea. Cell-based studies have identified several molecular target candidates of manassantin including NF-kappaB, MAPK, STAT3 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha). It is unclear whether or how these structurally diverse proteins or pathways mediate any of the medical benefits of manassantin in vivo. Moreover, it has been recently reported that manassantin causes developmental arrest in zebrafish by inhibiting the mitochondrial complex I, but it is unknown whether manassantin inhibits mitochondrial respiration in intact mammalian cells and live animals...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045927/alkaline-ph-shock-enhanced-production-of-validamycin-a-in-fermentation-of-streptomyces-hygroscopicus
#7
Jing Jiang, Ya-Fang Sun, Xi Tang, Chao-Nan He, Ye-Lin Shao, Ya-Jie Tang, Wen-Wen Zhou
Validamycin A (Val-A) is produced by Streptomyces as a secondary metabolite with wide agricultural applications of controlling rice sheath blight, false smut and damping-off diseases. The effect of alkaline pH shock on enhancing Val-A production and its mechanism were investigated. A higher yield of Val-A was achieved by NaOH shock once or several times together with faster protein synthesis and sugar consumption and alkaline pH shock can increase Val-A production by 27.43%. Transcription of genes related to amino acid metabolism, carbon metabolism and electron respiratory chain was significantly up-regulated, accompanied by the substantial increase of respiratory activity and glutamate concentration...
October 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044717/a-genome-scale-analysis-of-mrnas-targeting-to-plant-mitochondria-upstream-augs-in-5-utrs-reduce-mitochondrial-association
#8
Timothée Vincent, Audrey Vingadassalon, Elodie Ubrig, Kevin Azeredo, Ola Srour, Valérie Cognat, Stéfanie Graindorge, Thalia Salinas, Laurence Maréchal-Drouard, Anne-Marie Duchêne
Intracellular sorting of mRNAs is an essential process to regulate gene expression and protein localization. Most of mitochondrial proteins are nuclear-encoded and imported into mitochondria, through post-translational or co-translational processes. In the latter case, mRNAs are found enriched in the vicinity of mitochondria. A genome-scale analysis of mRNAs associated with mitochondria has been performed to determine plant cytosolic mRNAs targeted to the mitochondrial surface. Many messengers encoding mitochondrial proteins were found associated with mitochondria...
October 17, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044606/the-genetic-architecture-of-photosynthesis-and-plant-growth-related-traits-in-tomato
#9
Franklin Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Gabriel Lichtenstein, Saleh Alseekh, Laise Rosado-Souza, Mariana Conte, Vanessa Fuentes Suguiyama, Bruno Silvestre Lira, Dimitrios Fanourakis, Björn Usadel, Leonardo Lopes Bhering, Fábio M DaMatta, Ronan Sulpice, Wagner L Araújo, Magdalena Rossi, Nathalia de Setta, Alisdair R Fernie, Fernando Carrari, Adriano Nunes-Nesi
To identify genomic regions involved in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, a population of Solanum pennellii introgression lines (ILs) was analyzed. We determined phenotypes for physiological, metabolic and growth related traits, including gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Data analysis allowed the identification of 208 physiological and metabolic QTL with 33 of these being associated to smaller intervals of the genomic regions, termed BINs...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042253/calcium-uptake-and-cytochrome-c-release-from-normal-and-ischemic-brain-mitochondria
#10
Alexander Andreyev, Pratistha Tamrakar, Robert E Rosenthal, Gary Fiskum
At abnormally elevated levels of intracellular Ca(2+), mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake may compromise mitochondrial electron transport activities and trigger membrane permeability changes that allow for release of cytochrome c and other mitochondrial apoptotic proteins into the cytosol. In this study, a clinically relevant canine cardiac arrest model was used to assess the effects of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion on mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity, Ca(2+) uptake-mediated inhibition of respiration, and Ca(2+)-induced cytochrome c release, as measured in vitro in a K(+)-based medium in the presence of Mg(2+), ATP, and NADH-linked oxidizable substrates...
October 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039991/the-effect-of-olive-husk-extract-compared-to-the-edta-on-pb-availability-and-some-chemical-and-biological-properties-in-a-pb-contaminated-soil
#11
Seyed Sajjad Hosseini, Amir Lakzian, Akram Halajnia, Hossein Hammami
It was found that using chelating agents increases the efficiency of heavy metal extraction however they may have negative effects on soil ecosystem quality. A pot experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in order to evaluate the effect of EDTA and Olive Husk Extract (OHE) on some chemical and biological properties of the Pb-contaminated soil. The experimental treatments included EDTA (2 g Na2EDTA salt per kg soil), OHE (2 g TDS of OHE per kg soil) and control (without the chelating agent)...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039192/changes-in-glucose-fermentation-pathways-as-a-response-to-the-free-ammonia-concentration-in-microbial-electrolysis-cells
#12
Mohamed Mahmoud, César Iván Torres, Bruce E Rittmann
When a mixed-culture microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is fed with a fermentable substrate, such as glucose, a significant fraction of the substrate's electrons ends up as methane (CH4) through hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, an outcome that is undesired. Here, we show that free ammonia-nitrogen (FAN, which is NH3) altered the glucose fermentation pathways in batch MECs, minimizing the production of H2, the "fuel" for hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Consequently, the Coulombic efficiency (CE) increased: 57% for 0...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037628/attention-demand-effects-on-respiration-in-chronic-low-back-pain-patients
#13
Babak Goosheh, Majid Ravanbakhsh, Mahyar Salavati, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Behnam Akhbari, Amir Hossein Kahlaee
Increasing attention is being drawn towards the involvement of systems other than the musculoskeletal one in the presence of low back pain (LBP). Recent evidence suggests both cognitive and respiratory functions to be affected in LBP patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of performance of a cognitive task on the respiratory function in LBP patients with that in control participants. Capnography and spirometry parameters of 48 participants (24 in each group) were assessed under 3 cognitive loading conditions (no, easy and difficult cognitive task)...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037544/effects-of-pushing-techniques-during-the-second-stage-of-labor-a%C3%A2-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Refika Genç Koyucu, Nurdan Demirci
OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous pushing is a method that is used in the management of the second stage of labor and suggested to be more physiological for the mother and infant. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of pushing techniques on the mother and newborn. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized prospective study was performed between June 2013-March 2014 in a tertiary maternity clinic in Istanbul. 80 low risk, nulliparous cases were randomized to pushing groups...
October 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034748/demographic-and-neonatal-risk-factors-for-childhood-asthma-in-the-usa
#15
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Mark R Geier
OBJECTIVE: Asthma is the most common chronic condition diagnosed among children worldwide according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This study evaluated on a longitudinal basis prospectively collected medical records for demographic and neonatal information among USA (USA) children diagnosed with childhood asthma in comparison to controls. DESIGN: The vaccine safety data link (VSD) database was examined to identify cases (n = 5907) diagnosed with International Classification of Disease, ninth revision (ICD-9) healthcare provider diagnosed childhood asthma (493...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031832/initial-brain-aging-heterogeneity-of-mitochondrial-size-is-associated-with-decline-in-complex-i-linked-respiration-in-cortex-and-hippocampus
#16
Kirsten Thomsen, Takashi Yokota, Md Mahdi Hasan-Olive, Niloofar Sherazi, Nima Borhan Fakouri, Claus Desler, Christine Elisabeth Regnell, Steen Larsen, Lene Juel Rasmussen, Flemming Dela, Linda Hildegard Bergersen, Martin Lauritzen
Brain aging is accompanied by declining mitochondrial respiration. We hypothesized that mitochondrial morphology and dynamics would reflect this decline. Using hippocampus and frontal cortex of a segmental progeroid mouse model lacking Cockayne syndrome protein B (CSB(m/m)) and C57Bl/6 (WT) controls and comparing young (2-5 months) to middle-aged mice (13-14 months), we found that complex I-linked state 3 respiration (CI) was reduced at middle age in CSB(m/m) hippocampus, but not in CSB(m/m) cortex or WT brain...
August 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031722/activated-macrophages-control-human-adipocyte-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-via-secreted-factors
#17
Michaela Keuper, Stephan Sachs, Ellen Walheim, Lucia Berti, Bernhard Raedle, Daniel Tews, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Martin Wabitsch, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Gabi Kastenmüller, Matthias H Tschöp, Martin Jastroch, Harald Staiger, Susanna M Hofmann
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-associated WAT inflammation is characterized by the accumulation and local activation of macrophages (MΦs), and recent data from mouse studies suggest that macrophages are modifiers of adipocyte energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. As mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in humans, herein we aimed to delineate how human macrophages may affect energy metabolism of white adipocytes. METHODS: Human adipose tissue gene expression analysis for markers of macrophage activation and tissue inflammation (CD11c, CD40, CD163, CD206, CD80, MCP1, TNFα) in relationship to mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) was performed on subcutaneous WAT of 24 women (BMI 20-61 kg/m(2))...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031050/paraquat-affects-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-dopamine-system-expression-and-locomotor-activity-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#18
Xiao H Wang, Christopher L Souders, Yuan H Zhao, Christopher J Martyniuk
The dipyridyl herbicide paraquat induces oxidative stress in cells and is implicated in adult neurodegenerative diseases. However, less is known about paraquat toxicity in early stages of vertebrate development. To address this gap, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μM paraquat for 96 h. Paraquat did not induce significant mortality nor deformity in embryos and larvae, but it did accelerate time to hatch. To evaluate whether mitochondrial respiration was related to earlier hatch times, oxygen consumption rate was measured in whole embryos...
October 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030901/disrupted-integration-of-exteroceptive-and-interoceptive-signaling-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Jean-Paul Noel, Marisa Lytle, Carissa Cascio, Mark T Wallace
In addition to deficits in social communication, individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) frequently exhibit changes in sensory and multisensory function. Recent evidence has focused on changes in audiovisual temporal processing, and has sought to relate these sensory-based changes to weaknesses in social communication. These changes in audiovisual temporal function manifest as differences in the temporal epoch or "window" within which paired auditory and visual stimuli are integrated or bound, with those with ASD exhibiting expanded audiovisual temporal binding windows (TBWs)...
October 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029761/multiple-effects-of-a-gracilaria-vermiculophylla-invasion-on-estuarine-mudflat-functioning-and-diversity
#20
D Davoult, G Surget, V Stiger-Pouvreau, F Noisette, P Riera, D Stagnol, T Androuin, N Poupart
The invasive Japanese seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla has become established over the past several years in numerous European estuaries, from Portugal to Norway. In the Faou estuary (48.295°N-4.179°W, Brittany, France), it forms a dense population at the mud's surface. The effects of G. vermiculophylla on metabolism, diversity, and the food web were studied. Community gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (CR) during emersion, chlorophyll-a content, macrofaunal and meiofaunal diversity and abundance, and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of representative macrofaunal species and main food sources were measured at low tide in winter, spring, summer 2014, and winter 2015...
October 4, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
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