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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677138/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-alternative-respiration-and-sterigmatocystin-formation-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#1
Ákos P Molnár, Zoltán Németh, Erzsébet Fekete, Michel Flipphi, Nancy P Keller, Levente Karaffa
Aspergillus nidulans has one gene for alternative oxidase (EC 1.10.3.11). To investigate the relationship between this mitochondrial terminal oxidase and the formation of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin, the encoding aodA gene was both deleted and overexpressed. Relative to the wild-type, the cyanide-resistant fraction of respiration in the late stationary stage—when sterigmatocystin production occurs—doubled in the overexpressing mutant carrying three aodA gene copies, but decreased to 10% in the deletant...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674214/uranium-toxicity-to-aquatic-invertebrates-a-laboratory-assay
#2
Melissa Bergmann, Olimpia Sobral, João Pratas, Manuel A S Graça
Uranium mining is an environmental concern because of runoff and the potential for toxic effects on the biota. To investigate uranium toxicity to freshwater invertebrates, we conducted a 96-h acute toxicity test to determine lethal concentrations (testing concentrations up to 262 mg L-1 ) for three stream invertebrates: a shredder caddisfly, Schizopelex festiva Rambur (Trichoptera, Sericostomatidae); a detritivorous isopod, Proasellus sp. (Isopoda, Asellidae); and a scraper gastropod, Theodoxus fluviatilis (Gastropoda, Neritidae)...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673970/the-role-of-compartmentalized-signaling-pathways-in-the-control-of-mitochondrial-activities-in-cancer-cells
#3
REVIEW
Laura Rinaldi, Rossella Delle Donne, Domenica Borzacchiello, Luigi Insabato, Antonio Feliciello
Mitochondria are the powerhouse organelles present in all eukaryotic cells. They play a fundamental role in cell respiration, survival and metabolism. Stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) by dedicated ligands and consequent activation of the cAMP·PKA pathway finely coupleenergy production and metabolism to cell growth and survival. Compartmentalization of PKA signaling at mitochondria by A-Kinase Anchor Proteins (AKAPs) ensures efficient transduction of signals generated at the cell membrane to the organelles, controlling important aspects of mitochondrial biology...
April 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673707/triethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate-impairs-bioenergetic-functions-and-induces-oxidative-stress-in-mitochondria-via-inhibiting-respiratory-complex-i
#4
Krisztina Mikulás, Péter Hermann, István Gera, Timea Komlódi, Gergő Horváth, Attila Ambrus, László Tretter
OBJECTIVES: Earlier studies demonstrated that dental resin monomers lower cellular viability and provoke oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation has a key role in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) induced adverse reactions. In the present study the effects of TEGDMA on mitochondrial functions were investigated to identify a direct molecular target for cytotoxicity. METHODS: Mitochondria were isolated from guinea pig brain. The most important bioenergetic parameters, oxygen consumption, membrane potential (ΔΨm ), and ATP production were assessed...
April 16, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673596/the-torc1-signaling-pathway-regulates-respiration-induced-mitophagy-in-yeast
#5
Yang Liu, Koji Okamoto
Mitophagy is an evolutionarily conserved autophagy process that selectively degrades mitochondria. This catabolic event is considered to be a mitochondrial quality control system crucial for cell homeostasis, however, mechanisms regulating mitophagy remain largely unknown. Here we show that the TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex 1) signaling pathway regulates mitophagy in budding yeast via SEACIT (Seh1-associated complex inhibiting TORC1) consisting of Iml1, Npr2, and Npr3. Cells lacking SEACIT displayed strong defects in mitophagy during prolonged respiratory growth, while the other selective autophagy processes are only partially affected...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670149/impaired-photosynthesis-and-increased-leaf-construction-costs-may-induce-floral-stress-during-episodes-of-global-warming-over-macroevolutionary-timescales
#6
Matthew Haworth, Claire M Belcher, Dilek Killi, Rebecca A Dewhirst, Alessandro Materassi, Antonio Raschi, Mauro Centritto
Global warming events have coincided with turnover of plant species at intervals in Earth history. As mean global temperatures rise, the number, frequency and duration of heat-waves will increase. Ginkgo biloba was grown under controlled climatic conditions at two different day/night temperature regimes (25/20 °C and 35/30 °C) to investigate the impact of heat stress. Photosynthetic CO2 -uptake and electron transport were reduced at the higher temperature, while rates of respiration were greater; suggesting that the carbon balance of the leaves was adversely affected...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669742/superoxide-dismutases-dual-roles-in-controlling-ros-damage-and-regulating-ros-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Ying Wang, Robyn Branicky, Alycia Noë, Siegfried Hekimi
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are universal enzymes of organisms that live in the presence of oxygen. They catalyze the conversion of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Superoxide anions are the intended product of dedicated signaling enzymes as well as the byproduct of several metabolic processes including mitochondrial respiration. Through their activity, SOD enzymes control the levels of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species, thus both limiting the potential toxicity of these molecules and controlling broad aspects of cellular life that are regulated by their signaling functions...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668565/the-effects-of-genetic-3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-deficiency-in-murine-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock
#8
Michael Gröger, Martin Wepler, Ulrich Wachter, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Sandra Kress, Britta Lukaschewski, Sebastian Hafner, Markus Huber-Lang, Enrico Calzia, Michael Georgieff, Noriyuki Nagahara, Csaba Szabó, Peter Radermacher, Clair Hartmann
INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhagic shock is a major cause of death after trauma. An additional blunt chest trauma independently contributes to mortality upon the development of an acute lung injury (ALI) by aggravating pathophysiological consequences of hemorrhagic shock. The maintenance of hydrogen sulfide availability is known to play an important role during hemorrhage and ALI. We therefore tested the impact of a genetic 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase mutation (Δ3-MST) in a resuscitated murine model of traumatic-hemorrhagic shock...
April 17, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666899/altered-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-ultrastructure-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#9
Cynthia M F Monaco, Meghan C Hughes, Sofhia V Ramos, Nina E Varah, Christian Lamberz, Fasih A Rahman, Chris McGlory, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Matthew P Krause, Robert Laham, Thomas J Hawke, Christopher G R Perry
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A comprehensive assessment of skeletal muscle ultrastructure and mitochondrial bioenergetics has not been undertaken in individuals with type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to systematically assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial phenotype in young adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Physically active, young adults (men and women) with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 63.0 ± 16.0 mmol/mol [7.9% ± 1.5%]) and without type 1 diabetes (control), matched for sex, age, BMI and level of physical activity, were recruited (n = 12/group) to undergo vastus lateralis muscle microbiopsies...
April 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665955/development-of-antler-type-fruiting-bodies-of-ganoderma-lucidum-and-determination-of-its-biochemical-properties
#10
Surya Sudheer, Zain Taha, Sivakumar Manickam, Asgar Ali, Poh Guat Cheng
Following the importance of antler-type fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, in this study, the impact of main growth parameters such as ventilation and light on the development of antler-type fruiting bodies has been investigated together with the determination of physico-chemical properties of antler fruiting bodies. For this, the primordia bags of G. lucidum were kept under controlled ventilation to adjust the CO2 produced by the mushrooms owing to its respiration under light and dark conditions. The bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, water-soluble polysaccharides and ganoderic acid showed a two-fold increase in the antler-type fruiting bodies as compared to normal kidney-shaped fruiting bodies...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665215/dominant-regions-and-drivers-of-the-variability-of-the-global-land-carbon-sink-across-timescales
#11
Xuanze Zhang, Ying-Ping Wang, Shushi Peng, Peter J Rayner, Philippe Ciais, Jeremy D Silver, Shilong Piao, Zaichun Zhu, Xingjie Lu, Xiaogu Zheng
Net biome productivity (NBP) dominates the observed large variation of atmospheric CO2 annual increase over the last five decades. However, the dominant regions controlling inter-annual to multi-decadal variability of global NBP are still controversial (semi-arid regions vs. temperate or tropical forests). By developing a theory for partitioning the variance of NBP into the contributions of net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh ) at different timescales, and using both observation-based atmospheric CO2 inversion product and the outputs of 10 process-based terrestrial ecosystem models forced by 110-year observational climate, we tried to reconcile the controversy by showing that semi-arid lands dominate the variability of global NBP at inter-annual (<10 years) and tropical forests dominate at multi-decadal scales (>30 years)...
April 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665013/planhab-hypoxia-does-not-worsen-the-impairment-of-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-function-induced-by-bed-rest-alone
#12
Desy Salvadego, Michail E Keramidas, Roger Kölegård, Lorenza Brocca, Stefano Lazzer, Irene Mavelli, Jörn Rittweger, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic, Bruno Grassi
KEY POINTS: Superposition of hypoxia on 21 day bed rest did not worsen the impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative function induced by bed rest alone. A significant impairment of maximal oxidative performance was identified downstream of cardiovascular O2 delivery, involving both the intramuscular matching between O2 supply and utilization and mitochondrial respiration. These chronic adaptations appear to be relevant in terms of exposure to spaceflights and reduced gravity habitats (Moon or Mars), as characterized by low gravity and hypoxia, in patients with chronic diseases characterized by hypomobility/immobility and hypoxia, as well as in ageing...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664886/history-of-the-development-of-anesthesia-for-the-dolphin-a-quest-to-study-a-brain-as-large-as-man-s
#13
James G McCormick, Sam H Ridgway
It is important for academic-minded human anesthesiologists to have an interdisciplinary perspective when engaging in cutting-edge research as well as the practice of human anesthesiology. This was a philosophy promoted by Dr. Robert Dripps, former pioneering Chairman of the Anesthesiology Department at the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Many human and veterinary anesthesiologists as well as biomedical engineers and neuroscientists benefited from Dr. Dripps's constructive outlook personified in the quest to develop dolphin anesthesiology...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662449/multiple-transceptors-for-macro-and-micro-nutrients-control-diverse-cellular-properties-through-the-pka-pathway-in-yeast-a-paradigm-for-the-rapidly-expanding-world-of-eukaryotic-nutrient-transceptors-up-to-those-in-human-cells
#14
REVIEW
Fenella Steyfkens, Zhiqiang Zhang, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Johan M Thevelein
The nutrient composition of the medium has dramatic effects on many cellular properties in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . In addition to the well-known specific responses to starvation for an essential nutrient, like nitrogen or phosphate, the presence of fermentable sugar or a respirative carbon source leads to predominance of fermentation or respiration, respectively. Fermenting and respiring cells also show strong differences in other properties, like storage carbohydrate levels, general stress tolerance and cellular growth rate...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661451/ischemia-with-preconditioning-in-wistar-rats-maintains-mitochondrial-respiration-even-with-mild-hepatocellular-disturbance
#15
R R Tártaro, G L Jorge, A H Dianin, C A F Escanhoela, I F S F Boin
INTRODUCTION: In hepatectomy or liver transplantation, preconditioning is a procedure indicated to protect the organ from ischemia-reperfusion injury (I-R). OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of preconditioning after hepatic I-R in Wistar rats, through mitochondrial respiration, liver histology, and profile. METHOD: Twenty male Wistar rats, weighing on average 307.1 g, were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (25 mg/kg) intravenously and xylazine hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) intramuscularly...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659931/shade-compromises-the-photosynthetic-efficiency-of-nadp-me-less-than-pep-ck-and-nad-me-c4-grasses
#16
Balasaheb V Sonawane, Robert E Sharwood, Spencer Whitney, Oula Ghannoum
The high-energy cost and apparently low plasticity of C4 photosynthesis, compared to C3 photosynthesis, may limit the productivity and distribution of C4 plants in low light (LL) environments. C4 photosynthesis evolved numerous times but it remains unclear how different biochemical subtypes perform under LL. We grew eight C4 grasses belonging to three biochemical subtypes (NADP-ME, NAD-ME and PEP-CK) under shade (16% sunlight) or control (full sunlight) conditions and measured their photosynthetic characteristics at both low and high light...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659022/transcription-factor-rd26-is-a-key-regulator-of-metabolic-reprogramming-during-dark-induced-senescence
#17
Iman Kamranfar, Gang-Ping Xue, Takayuki Tohge, Mastoureh Sedaghatmehr, Alisdair R Fernie, Salma Balazadeh, Bernd Mueller-Roeber
Leaf senescence is a key process in plants that culminates in the degradation of cellular constituents and massive reprogramming of metabolism for the recovery of nutrients from aged leaves for their reuse in newly developing sinks. We used molecular-biological and metabolomics approaches to identify NAC transcription factor (TF) RD26 as an important regulator of metabolic reprogramming in Arabidopsis thaliana. RD26 directly activates CHLOROPLAST VESICULATION (CV), encoding a protein crucial for chloroplast protein degradation, concomitant with an enhanced protein loss in RD26 overexpressors during senescence, but a reduced decline of protein in rd26 knockout mutants...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657030/rewiring-of-glutamine-metabolism-is-a-bioenergetic-adaptation-of-human-cells-with-mitochondrial-dna-mutations
#18
Qiuying Chen, Kathryne Kirk, Yevgeniya I Shurubor, Dazhi Zhao, Andrea J Arreguin, Ifrah Shahi, Federica Valsecchi, Guido Primiano, Elizabeth L Calder, Valerio Carelli, Travis T Denton, M Flint Beal, Steven S Gross, Giovanni Manfredi, Marilena D'Aurelio
Using molecular, biochemical, and untargeted stable isotope tracing approaches, we identify a previously unappreciated glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate (αKG) energy-generating anaplerotic flux to be critical in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutant cells that harbor human disease-associated oxidative phosphorylation defects. Stimulating this flux with αKG supplementation enables the survival of diverse mtDNA mutant cells under otherwise lethal obligatory oxidative conditions. Strikingly, we demonstrate that when residual mitochondrial respiration in mtDNA mutant cells exceeds 45% of control levels, αKG oxidative flux prevails over reductive carboxylation...
April 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656249/mechanism-of-matrix-bound-phosphine-production-in-response-to-atmospheric-elevated-co-2-in-paddy-soils
#19
Shaorong An, Xiaojun Niu, Weiyi Chen, Hong Sheng, Senchao Lai, Zhiquan Yang, Xiaohong Gu, Shaoqi Zhou
To explore the effect of elevated CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) on phosphine formation in paddy fields, the matrix-bound phosphine (MBP) content, different phosphorus fractions and various carbon forms in soil samples from rice cultivation under varying CO2 concentrations of 400 ppm, 550 ppm and 700 ppm by indoor simulation experiment were determined. This study showed that MBP concentration did not increase significantly with elevated [CO2 ] over four-week cultivation periods of rice seedlings, regardless of soil layers...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653378/possible-origins-of-consciousness-in-simple-control-over-involuntary-neuroimmunological-action
#20
REVIEW
Kevin B Clark
The origin(s) and purpose(s) of consciousness continue to be fervently debated by neuroscientists. A recent unconventional hypothesis put forth by Morsella et al. suggests the primary function of consciousness is the integration, selection, and execution of advantageous lower-level voluntary skeletal muscle behavior on surrounding external environments. However, at main issue is whether more precise, adaptable voluntary skeletal motor action, and therefore the corresponding workings of consciousness, first emerged and evolved in animals to exert control over external environments or internal ones regulated by less flexible autonomic function...
April 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
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