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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457848/effects-of-chronic-heat-exposure-on-growth-performance-intestinal-epithelial-histology-appetite-related-hormones-and-genes-expression-in-broilers
#1
Xiaofang He, Zhuang Lu, Bingbing Ma, Lin Zhang, Jiaolong Li, Yun Jiang, Guanghong Zhou, Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: Heat stress often occurs in the modern poultry industry, which impairs growth performance, particularly via reducing appetite. This study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of attenuating appetite by chronic heat exposure in broilers. A total of 144 broilers (28-d-old) were allocated to three groups containing normal control (NC, 22°C), heat stress (HS, 32°C), and pair-fed (PF, 22°C) group. RESULTS: Chronic heat exposure significantly increased cloacal temperatures and respiration rates, decreased the average daily feed intake and average daily gain, increased feed to gain ratio compared to NC group, and elevated the concentrations of ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) both in serum and intestine, as well as peptide YY and somatostatin in intestine on 35-or 42-d-old broilers...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456690/protective-effects-of-recombinant-human-brain-natriuretic-peptide-in-perioperative-period-during-open-heart-surgery
#2
Yunbin Xu, Yong Li, Weiguo Bao, Shi Qiu
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects and safety aspects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) on cardiac functions of patients undergoing open-heart surgery during perioperative period. In total, 150 patients undergoing open heart surgery in the Second Hospital of Shandong Universty from August 2015 to July 2016 were randomly divided into control group and observation group each with 75 cases. Patients in control group were treated by routine rehabilitation while patients in the observation group were treated by both the routine rehabilitation and rhBNP...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453068/effect-of-selenium-enriched-organic-material-amendment-on-selenium-fraction-transformation-and-bioavailability-in-soil
#3
Dan Wang, Quang Toan Dinh, Tran Thi Anh Thu, Fei Zhou, Wenxiao Yang, Mengke Wang, Weiwei Song, Dongli Liang
To exploit the plant byproducts from selenium (Se) biofortification and reduce environmental risk of inorganic Se fertilizer, pot experiment was conducted in this study. The effects of Se-enriched wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (WS + Se) and pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) (P + Se) amendment on organo-selenium speciation transformation in soil and its bioavailability was evaluated by pak choi uptake. The Se contents of the cultivated pak choi in treatments amended with the same amount of Se-enriched wheat straw and pak choi were 1...
February 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452639/mitochondrial-mdm2-regulates-respiratory-complex-i-activity-independently-of-p53
#4
Giuseppe Arena, Madi Yann Cissé, Samuel Pyrdziak, Laurent Chatre, Romain Riscal, Maryse Fuentes, Jamie Jon Arnold, Markus Kastner, Laurie Gayte, Christelle Bertrand-Gaday, Kevin Nay, Claire Angebault-Prouteau, Kerren Murray, Beatrice Chabi, Christelle Koechlin-Ramonatxo, Béatrice Orsetti, Charles Vincent, François Casas, Jean-Christophe Marine, Sandrine Etienne-Manneville, Florence Bernex, Anne Lombès, Craig Eugene Cameron, Hervé Dubouchaud, Miria Ricchetti, Laetitia Karine Linares, Laurent Le Cam
Accumulating evidence indicates that the MDM2 oncoprotein promotes tumorigenesis beyond its canonical negative effects on the p53 tumor suppressor, but these p53-independent functions remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a fraction of endogenous MDM2 is actively imported in mitochondria to control respiration and mitochondrial dynamics independently of p53. Mitochondrial MDM2 represses the transcription of NADH-dehydrogenase 6 (MT-ND6) in vitro and in vivo, impinging on respiratory complex I activity and enhancing mitochondrial ROS production...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451416/refinement-of-in-vivo-optical-imaging-development-of-a-real-time-respiration-monitoring-system
#5
Ana L Gomes, Stuart Gilchrist, Veerle Kersemans, Marcus Westcott, Sean Smart
In vivo optical imaging enables detection and quantification of light-emitting compounds from the whole body in small animals such as the mouse, but it typically requires the use of anaesthetics for subject immobilisation due to long exposure times. Excessively deep anaesthesia can result in unacceptably compromised physiology, whilst excessively light anaesthesia can result in animals waking up. Here we report a respiratory monitoring setup for an in vivo bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging device which simultaneously allows real-time adaptive control of anaesthesia depth in multiple animals to (i) potentially increase the consistency between animals, (ii) ensure animals are maintained within minimally intrusive, adequate anaesthetic plane and (iii) provide a valuable refinement strategy for a common challenge within animal-based research...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451229/m-aaa-proteases-mitochondrial-calcium-homeostasis-and-neurodegeneration
#6
REVIEW
Maria Patron, Hans-Georg Sprenger, Thomas Langer
The function of mitochondria depends on ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved m-AAA proteases in the inner membrane. These ATP-dependent peptidases form hexameric complexes built up of homologous subunits. AFG3L2 subunits assemble either into homo-oligomeric isoenzymes or with SPG7 (paraplegin) subunits into hetero-oligomeric proteolytic complexes. Mutations in AFG3L2 are associated with dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) characterized by the loss of Purkinje cells, whereas mutations in SPG7 cause a recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP7) with motor neurons of the cortico-spinal tract being predominantly affected...
February 16, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450932/cardiorespiratory-noise-correction-improves-the-asl-signal
#7
Mahlega S Hassanpour, Qingfei Luo, W Kyle Simmons, Justin S Feinstein, Martin P Paulus, Wen-Ming Luh, Jerzy Bodurka, Sahib S Khalsa
Cardiorespiratory fluctuations such as changes in heart rate or respiration volume influence the temporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements during arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI. This "physiological noise" can confound estimates of resting state network activity, and it may lower the signal-to-noise ratio of ASL during task-related experiments. In this study we examined several methods for minimizing the contributions of both synchronized and non-synchronized physiological noise in ASL measures of CBF, by combining the RETROICOR approach with different linear deconvolution models...
February 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447379/acute-exercise-is-not-cardioprotective-and-may-induce-apoptotic-signalling-in-heart-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Benedikte T Smenes, Fredrik H Bækkerud, Katrine H Slagsvold, Erlend Hassel, Martin Wohlwend, Maria Pinho, Morten Høydal, Ulrik Wisløff, Øivind Rognmo, Alexander Wahba
OBJECTIVES: During open-heart surgery, the myocardium experiences ischaemia-reperfusion injury. A single bout of moderate, 30-min exercise induces preconditioning and protects the heart from ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats, but this has never been investigated in humans. We aimed to investigate whether 1 bout of moderate exercise 24 h prior to surgery protects against mitochondrial and cardiac damage. METHODS: Patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass were eligible for this pilot study...
February 13, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445133/photoautotrophic-organisms-control-microbial-abundance-diversity-and-physiology-in-different-types-of-biological-soil-crusts
#9
Stefanie Maier, Alexandra Tamm, Dianming Wu, Jennifer Caesar, Martin Grube, Bettina Weber
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover about 12% of the Earth's land masses, thereby providing ecosystem services and affecting biogeochemical fluxes on a global scale. They comprise photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, which grow together with heterotrophic microorganisms, forming a model system to study facilitative interactions and assembly principles in natural communities. Biocrusts can be classified into cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophyte-dominated types, which reflect stages of ecological succession...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444244/acute-toxicity-of-permethrin-deltamethrin-and-etofenprox-to-the-alfalfa-leafcutting-bee
#10
Alyssa M Piccolomini, Shavonn R Whiten, Michelle L Flenniken, Kevin M O'Neill, Robert K D Peterson
Current regulatory requirements for insecticide toxicity to nontarget insects focus on the honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), but this species cannot represent all insect pollinator species in terms of response to insecticides. Therefore, we characterized the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides used for adult mosquito management (permethrin, deltamethrin, and etofenprox) on a nontarget insect, the adult alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.; Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in two separate studies...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444156/protein-s-glutathionylation-lowers-superoxide-hydrogen-peroxide-release-from-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-through-modification-of-complex-i-and-inhibition-of-pyruvate-uptake
#11
Robert M Gill, Marisa O'Brien, Adrian Young, Danielle Gardiner, Ryan J Mailloux
Protein S-glutathionylation is a reversible redox modification that regulates mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in liver and cardiac tissue. However, whether or not it controls ROS release from skeletal muscle mitochondria has not been explored. In the present study, we examined if chemically-induced protein S-glutathionylation could alter superoxide (O2●-)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) release from isolated muscle mitochondria. Disulfiram, a powerful chemical S-glutathionylation catalyst, was used to S-glutathionylate mitochondrial proteins and ascertain if it can alter ROS production...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443067/high-resolution-respirometry-to-measure-mitochondrial-function-of-intact-beta-cells-in-the-presence-of-natural-compounds
#12
Kyle B Kener, Devin J Munk, Chad R Hancock, Jeffery S Tessem
High-resolution respirometry allows for the measurement of oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria, cells and tissues. Beta cells play a critical role in the body by controlling blood glucose levels through insulin secretion in response to elevated glucose concentrations. Insulin secretion is controlled by glucose metabolism and mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, measuring intact beta cell respiration is essential to be able to improve beta cell function as a treatment for diabetes. Using intact 832/13 INS-1 derived beta cells we can measure the effect of increasing glucose concentration on cellular respiration...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441058/regulation-of-the-stress-activated-degradation-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-complexes-in-yeast
#13
Alba Timón-Gómez, David Sanfeliu-Redondo, Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Markus Proft
Repair and removal of damaged mitochondria is a key process for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Here we investigate in the yeast model how different protein complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are subject to specific degradation upon high respiration load and organelle damage. We find that the turnover of subunits of the electron transport complex I equivalent and complex III is preferentially stimulated upon high respiration rates. Particular mitochondrial proteases, but not mitophagy, are involved in this activated degradation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440697/ectopic-expression-of-s28a-mutated-histone-h3-modulates-longevity-stress-resistance-and-cardiac-function-in-drosophila
#14
J P Joos, A R Saadatmand, C Schnabel, I Viktorinová, T Brand, M Kramer, S Nattel, D Dobrev, P Tomancak, J Backs, P Kleinbongard, G Heusch, K Lorenz, E Koch, S Weber, A El-Armouche
Histone H3 serine 28 (H3S28) phosphorylation and de-repression of polycomb repressive complex (PRC)-mediated gene regulation is linked to stress conditions in mitotic and post-mitotic cells. To better understand the role of H3S28 phosphorylation in vivo, we studied a Drosophila strain with ectopic expression of constitutively-activated H3S28A, which prevents PRC2 binding at H3S28, thus mimicking H3S28 phosphorylation. H3S28A mutants showed prolonged life span and improved resistance against starvation and paraquat-induced oxidative stress...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438845/-brain-over-body-a-study-on-the-willful-regulation-of-autonomic-function-during-cold-exposure
#15
Otto Muzik, Kaice T Reilly, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
The defense of body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is a core objective of homeostatic regulation governed by the autonomic nervous system. Autonomous mechanisms of thermoregulation are only weakly affected by top-down modulation, allowing only transient tolerance for extreme cold. There is however, anecdotal evidence of a unique set of individuals known for extreme cold tolerance. Here we present a case study of a 57-year old Dutch national, Wim Hof, the so-called "Iceman", with the ability to withstand frequent prolonged periods of extreme cold exposure based on the practice of a self-developed technique involving a combination of forced breathing, cold exposure and meditation (collectively referred to as the Wim Hof Method, henceforth "WHM")...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435084/mitigation-of-stress-new-treatment-alternatives
#16
REVIEW
Ahmad Rauf Subhani, Nidal Kamel, Mohamad Naufal Mohamad Saad, Nanda Nandagopal, Kenneth Kang, Aamir Saeed Malik
Complaints of stress are common in modern life. Psychological stress is a major cause of lifestyle-related issues, contributing to poor quality of life. Chronic stress impedes brain function, causing impairment of many executive functions, including working memory, decision making and attentional control. The current study sought to describe newly developed stress mitigation techniques, and their influence on autonomic and endocrine functions. The literature search revealed that the most frequently studied technique for stress mitigation was biofeedback (BFB)...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434648/hsp90%C3%AE-knockdown-in-dio-mice-reverses-insulin-resistance-and-improves-glucose-tolerance
#17
Enxuan Jing, Pragalath Sundararajan, Ishita Deb Majumdar, Suwagmani Hazarika, Samantha Fowler, Angela Szeto, Stephane Gesta, Armando J Mendez, Vivek K Vishnudas, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Niven R Narain
Background: Inhibition of Hsp90 has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mouse models of diabetes. In the present report, the specific isoform Hsp90ab1, was identified as playing a major role in regulating insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. Methods: In a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model of diabetes, expression of various Hsp90 isoforms in skeletal tissue was examined. Subsequent experiments characterized the role of Hsp90ab1 isoform in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in primary human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM) and a DIO mouse model...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434038/poldip2-is-an-oxygen-sensitive-protein-that-controls-pdh-and-%C3%AE-kgdh-lipoylation-and-activation-to-support-metabolic-adaptation-in-hypoxia-and-cancer
#18
Felipe Paredes, Kely Sheldon, Bernard Lassègue, Holly C Williams, Elizabeth A Faidley, Gloria A Benavides, Gloria Torres, Fernanda Sanhueza-Olivares, Samantha M Yeligar, Kathy K Griendling, Victor Darley-Usmar, Alejandra San Martin
Although the addition of the prosthetic group lipoate is essential to the activity of critical mitochondrial catabolic enzymes, its regulation is unknown. Here, we show that lipoylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKDH) complexes is a dynamically regulated process that is inhibited under hypoxia and in cancer cells to restrain mitochondrial respiration. Mechanistically, we found that the polymerase-δ interacting protein 2 (Poldip2), a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein of unknown function, controls the lipoylation of the pyruvate and α-KDH dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase subunits by a mechanism that involves regulation of the caseinolytic peptidase (Clp)-protease complex and degradation of the lipoate-activating enzyme Ac-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1)...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429509/physical-stimulation-and-scaffold-composition-efficiently-support-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Sepide Heydari Asl, Hoorieh Hosseinpoor, Kazem Parivar, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz
BACKGROUND: Despite significant achievements in the field of tissue engineering, simplification and improvement of the existing protocols are of great importance. The use of complex differentiation media, due to the presence of multiple factors, may have some undesired effects on cell health and functions. Thus, minimizing the number of involved factors, while maintaining the differentiation efficiency, provides less costly and controllable conditions. Adipose-derived Mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), the adult stem cells present in adipose tissue, can be a suitable source of stem cells due to abundant and ease of access...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429178/-long-term-efficacy-of-supracricoid-partial-laryngectomy-for-298-patients-with-laryngeal-carcinoma
#20
L Tao, L Zhou, H T Wu, H L Gong, X L Chen, X M Li, C Li, J Zhou
Objective: To evaluate the oncologic and functional outcomes of supracricoid partial laryngectomy (SCPL) in the treatment of laryngeal carcinoma. Methods: A total of 298 laryngeal carcinoma patients who underwent SCPL treatment from January 2005 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical data of demographic and clinical characteristics, postoperative complications, rehabilitation information, recurrence and metastasis were analysed. Survival and local control were used to evaluate the clinical outcome...
February 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
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