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Tongue stimulation

Claudia Corti, Geraldina Poggi, Romina Romaniello, Sandra Strazzer, Cosimo Urgesi, Renato Borgatti, Alessandra Bardoni
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric brain damage is associated with various cognitive deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation may prevent and reduce cognitive impairment. In recent years, home-based computerized cognitive training (CCT) has been introduced in clinical practice to increase treatment opportunities for patients (telerehabilitation). However, limited research has been conducted thus far on investigating the effects of remote CCT for the juvenile population in contexts other than English-speaking countries...
2018: PloS One
S Acharya, C Hägglin, M Jontell, B Wenneberg, J Ekström, A Carlén
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine mucosal saliva and unstimulated (UWS) and stimulated (SWS) whole saliva secretion rates and associated factors, in 56 female patients diagnosed with BMS and age-matched control women. MATERIAL & METHODS: Mucosal saliva was assessed using the Periotron® method and blood flow using Laser Doppler Flowmetry. Diseases, drug usage, and xerostomia were registered using questionnaires. RESULTS: The BMS patients displayed less lingual and whole saliva, and more hyposalivation, xerostomia, diseases/disorders and drug usage, compared to the controls...
June 19, 2018: Oral Diseases
Shahram Niknafs, Eugeni Roura
The anatomical structure and function of beaks, bills and tongue together with the mechanics of deglutition in birds have contributed to the development of a taste system denuded of macrostructures visible to the human naked eye. Studies in chickens and other birds have revealed that the avian taste system consists of taste buds not clustered in papillae and located mainly (60 %) in the upper palate hidden in the crevasses of the salivary ducts. That explains the long delay in the understanding of the avian taste system...
June 11, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Sylvia Gruber, Marlene Arnold, Nilsu Cini, Victoria Gernedl, Sabine Hetzendorfer, Lisa-Marie Kowald, Peter Kuess, Julia Mayer, Susanne Morava, Stephanie Pfaffinger, Andreas Rohorzka, Wolfgang Dörr
Oral mucositis is the most frequently occurring early side effect of head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy. Systemic dermatan sulfate (DS) treatment revealed a significant radioprotective potential in a preclinical model of oral mucositis. This study was initiated to elucidate the mechanistic effects of DS in the same model. Irradiation comprised daily fractionated irradiation (5 × 3 Gy/week) over two weeks, either alone (IR) or in combination with daily dermatan sulfate treatment of 4 mg/kg (IR + DS)...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rahel M Büttler, Esra Bagci, Henk S Brand, Martin den Heijer, Marinus A Blankenstein, Annemieke C Heijboer
BACKGROUND: Recently, measurements of steroids like testosterone, androstenedione, cortisol and cortisone in saliva are more and more applied in diagnostics and scientific studies. This is mainly due to the simple and non-invasive collection of saliva. We aimed to evaluate the optimal way to collect saliva for steroid hormone measurement. METHODS: We investigated in twenty volunteers whether there is a difference between steroid hormone concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva collected while chewing, using cotton and synthetic Salivettes®, citric acid or chewing gum...
June 1, 2018: Steroids
Yongjiang Xu, Yaxing Zhang, Bin Wang, Xuezhou Liu, Quan Liu, Xuesong Song, Bao Shi, Kangli Ren
Leptin (Lep) is a key factor for the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. To date, a number of studies have provided evidence for the existence of multiple leptin genes in teleosts, but not much information is available in fish regarding the regulation of leptin genes by sex steriods. As a first step, two leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a leptin receptor (lepr) gene were cloned from the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a representative species of the order Pleuronectiformes...
May 28, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Denilma Lígia da Silva Alves Pinheiro, Giorvan Ânderson Dos Santos Alves, Fernanda Magda Montenegro Fausto, Luciane Spinelli de Figueiredo Pessoa, Lidiane Assis da Silva, Suzana Maria de Freitas Pereira, Larissa Nadjara Alves de Almeida
Purpose Investigate and measure the effects of electrostimulation on the orofacial musculature and on the chewing, breathing and swallowing functions of individuals with Down syndrome. Methods Study participants were 16 individuals with Down syndrome (six males and 10 females) from an institutional extension project aged nine to 25 years. Speech-language pathology assessment was performed using the protocol of Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores (OMES) pre- and post-intervention. This protocol comprised eight weekly electrostimulation sessions...
2018: CoDAS
Meng-Zhao Deng, Yi-Han Liu, Aaron Huang, Zi-Jun Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate how tongue volume reduction affects loads on surrounding bone surfaces produced by neuromuscular stimulation of the tongue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of each pair of same-gender minipig siblings, 1 received tongue reduction and 1 underwent sham surgery. Either immediately (acute, 6 pairs) or 1 month (chronic, 5 pairs) after surgery, bone surface and/or suture strains and pressures were recorded from the following locations when the hypoglossal nerve trunk, hypoglossal nerve medial branch, hypoglossal nerve lateral branch, genioglossus, and styloglossus (SG) were electrically stimulated: 1) three rosette strain gauges on the premaxillary palatal surface (premaxilla [PM]) and lingual surfaces of the mandibular alveolus at anterior (mandibular incisor [MI]) and posterior (mandibular molar [MM]) locations; 2) two single-element strain gauges over the palatal surface of the premaxillary-maxillary suture and the lingual surface of the mandibular symphysis; and 3) two pressure transducers on the palatal surface of the maxilla (palatal process) and the lingual surface of the mandibular alveolus (mandibular corpus)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Heidi Kletzien, John A Russell, Glen Leverson, Nadine P Connor
INTRODUCTION: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for the treatment of swallowing disorders is delivered at a variety of stimulation frequencies. We examined the effects of stimulation frequency on tongue muscle plasticity in an aging rat model. METHODS: Eighty-six young, middle-aged, and old rats were assigned to either bilateral hypoglossal nerve stimulation at 10 or 100 Hz (5 days/wk, 8 wks), sham, or no implantation conditions. Muscle contractile properties and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition were determined for hyoglossus (HG) and styloglossus (SG) muscles...
May 25, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Shui'Er Han, Cheng Qiu, Kassandra R Lee, JaeHyun Jung, Eli Peli
Evaluations of vision prostheses and sensory substitution devices have frequently relied on repeated training and testing with the same small set of items. These multiple forced-choice tasks have been shown to produce above chance performance in blind patients, but it is unclear if the observed performance represents restoration of vision that transfers to novel, untrained items. Here, we tested the generalizability of the forced-choice paradigm on the discrimination of low-resolution word images. Extensive visual training was conducted with the same 10 words used in previous BrainPort tongue stimulating studies...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Yusuke Mihara, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Kazunori Ikebe, Koudai Hatta, Motoyoshi Fukutake, Kaori Enoki, Taiji Ogawa, Hajime Takeshita, Chisato Inomata, Yasuyuki Gondo, Yukie Masui, Kei Kamide, Ken Sugimoto, Mai Kabayama, Tatsuro Ishizaki, Yasumichi Arai, Yoshinobu Maeda
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the associations between muscle strength and several oral functions in a large cohort of community-dwelling, 82- to 84-year-old community-dwelling Japanese people. BACKGROUND DATA DISCUSSING THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE FIELD: Several studies have examined the relationships between physical performance and oral functions. However, no studies have investigated the associations of muscle strength with various objectively evaluated oral functional parameters in a large cohort of very old adults...
May 15, 2018: Gerodontology
Angela M Dietsch, Cathy A Pelletier, Nancy Pearl Solomon
Non-food gustatory stimulation has multiple potential therapeutic benefits for people with dysphagia and xerostomia. This study examined palatability and saliva flow associated with dissolvable flavored films. Taste strips with real-food flavors dissolved on the tongues of 21 persons with dysphagia and/or xerostomia and 21 healthy age- and sex-matched adults while sublingual gauze pads absorbed saliva over randomized 3-min trials. Participants rated taste enjoyment for each trial on a hedonic general labeled magnitude scale...
May 14, 2018: Dysphagia
Sayaka Kuba, Rie Fujiyama, Kosho Yamanouchi, Michi Morita, Chika Sakimura, Toshiko Hatachi, Megumi Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yano, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Naomi Hayashida, Takeshi Nagayasu, Susumu Eguchi
PURPOSE: We analyzed the prevalence of gustatory test abnormalities in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS: We enrolled 43 BC patients undergoing chemotherapy and 38 BC patients who had never undergone chemotherapy (control group). Two gustatory tests were conducted: an instillation method examining the threshold for four basic taste stimuli and an electrogustometry method measuring the threshold for perception with electric stimulation at the front two-thirds of the tongue (cranial nerve VII) and at the back third of the tongue (cranial nerve IX)...
May 12, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Jenna R Freund, Corrine J Mansfield, Laurel J Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Danielle R Reed, Peihua Jiang, Robert J Lee
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), discovered in many tissues outside the tongue, have recently become potential therapeutic targets. We showed previously that airway epithelial cells express several T2Rs that activate innate immune responses that may be important for treatment of airway diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis. It is imperative to more clearly understand what compounds activate airway T2Rs as well as their full range of functions. T2R isoforms in airway motile cilia (T2Rs 4, 14, 16, and 38) produce bactericidal levels of nitric oxide (NO) that also increase ciliary beating, promoting clearance of mucus and trapped pathogens...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bin Wang, Guokun Yang, Quan Liu, Jingkai Qin, Yongjiang Xu, Wensheng Li, Xuezhou Liu, Bao Shi
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide, serves as a key player in the regulation of reproduction across vertebrates, acting on the brain and pituitary to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior. However, little information is available in teleosts regarding the intracellular signal transduction pathway in response to GnIH. To this end, we first cloned the gene of LPXRFa (the piscine ortholog of GnIH) receptor in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a representative species of the order Pleuronectiformes...
May 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Cem Gokcen, Mehmet Karadag, Ihsan Aksoy
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a life-long neurodevelopmental disorder and treatment depends on pharmacotherapy because of its biological origin. Stimulant drugs are the most commonly used treatment for ADHD and they have various side effects. Herein, we report a case who bit off the tip of her tongue with Osmotic Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS MPH) 36 mg/day, bit the tip of her lower lip with immediate release (IR) MPH 10 mg/day and lateral part of her tongue with IR MPH 20 mg/day...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Masashi Tawa, Takahide Furukawa, Hiroko Tongu, Mai Sugihara, Satoko Taguwa, Misaki Yamanaka, Yoko Yano, Hiroaki Matsumori, Rie Kitada, Tatsuya Sawano, Ryosuke Tanaka, Mamoru Ohkita, Yasuo Matsumura
AIMS: In this study, we examined whether a disruption in the balance between nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive and -insensitive soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is observed in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and whether treatment with NO-enhancing drugs can halt disease progression. MAIN METHODS: Rats were injected subcutaneously with saline or 60 mg/kg monocrotaline (MCT). At 14 days after injection, the vascular reactivity of isolated extralobar pulmonary arteries was assessed by organ chamber technique...
June 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Dan Chen, Haiying Guo
OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects on dysphagia in post-stroke pseudobulbar palsy between the combined treatment with acupuncture and rehabilitation training and the combined treatment with low-frequency electrical therapy and rehabilitation training and to explore its more effective therapy, using the ultrasonographic examination. METHODS: A total of 60 patients of dysphagia in post-stroke pseudobulbar palsy were randomly assigned into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one...
April 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Claudia Pamela Ambrosi, Natalia Rubio, Gustavo Giménez, Andrés Venturino, Eduardo Gabriel Aisen, María Fernanda López Armengol
The aim of this study was to analyze the reproductive behavioral responses in Australian Merino rams, to identify those related to a faster training for semen collection with an artificial vagina. Eight Australian Merino rams, aged 1.5 years and with no prior sexual experience, were randomly selected from an extensively grazed flock. One immobilized ewe with no hormone stimulation was used for rams to sexually interact and mount. The frequencies of approaching, sniffing, flehmen, pushing, pawing with chin resting, and tongue flicking were recorded during eight training and three post-training assessments periods...
June 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Shizuko Satoh-Kuriwada, Noriaki Shoji, Hiroyuki Miyake, Chiyo Watanabe, Takashi Sasano
The effects and mechanisms of tastes on labial minor salivary gland (LMSG) secretion were investigated in 59 healthy individuals. Stimulation with each of the five basic tastes (i.e., sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami) onto the tongue induced LMSG secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Umami and sour tastes evoked greater secretion than did the other tastes. A synergistic effect of umami on LMSG secretion was recognized: a much greater increase in secretion was observed by a mixed solution of monosodium glutamate and inosine 5'-monophosphate than by each separate stimulation...
2018: BioMed Research International
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