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Aspiration pneumonia

Jennifer H Madenspacher, Michael B Fessler
Although community-acquired pneumonia remains a major public health problem, murine models of bacterial pneumonia have recently facilitated significant preclinical advances in our understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular pathogenesis. In vivo mouse models capture the integrated physiology and resilience of the host defense response in a manner not revealed by alternative, simplified ex vivo approaches. Several methods have been described in the literature for intrapulmonary inoculation of bacteria in mice, including aerosolization, intranasal delivery, peroral endotracheal cannulation under 'blind' and visualized conditions, and transcutaneous endotracheal cannulation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Wen-Guo Chen, Guo-Dong Shan, Hong Zhang, Ming Yang, Lin L, Min Yue, Guang-Wu Chen, Qing Gu, Hua-Tuo Zhu, Guo-Qiang Xu, Li-Hua Chen
The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic value of double-balloon entoroscopy (DBE) in small bowel diseases (SBDs) in China.A retrospective review of 674 consecutive patients who underwent DBE between January 2007 and November 2015 was conducted. Patients were divided into 3 groups by age, young group (<45 years), middle-aged group (45-65 years), and elderly group (>65 years). Data were collected with regard to demographics, clinical, endoscopic findings, complications, diagnostic yield, and management...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Prawin Kumar, Guruprasad R Medigeshi, Vishnu S Mishra, Mojahidul Islam, Shivani Randev, Aparna Mukherjee, Rama Chaudhry, Arti Kapil, Kana Ram Jat, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil K Kabra
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies on etiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in infants. OBJECTIVE: To document incidence and etiology of ARI in infants, their seasonal variability and association of clinical profile with etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A birth cohort was followed for the first year of life; for each episode of ARI, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected to identify the causative respiratory virus/es using multiplex real time PCR assay...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ivana Milosevic
A 76-years old man presented with leucocytosis (86x109/l), fever, pneumonia and significant weight loss. He had a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia diagnosed five years earlier and he responded with partial remission to the treatment with continuous low doses of chlorambucil. Analysis of blood smear, bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy revealed predomination of small lymphocytes, but 22% of cells were blasts negative to cytochemical stainings (Figure 1). Flow cytometric analysis showed two distinct populations: 65% of cells was small to moderate in size, CD19+, CD45+, CD5+, CD20+/-, but 30% of cells were large, CD34+, CD13+, HLA DR+, CD65+, CD45+, MPO weakly positive and CD33, CD14, CD15, CD16 negative...
October 18, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Glenwood Goss, Chun-Ming Tsai, Frances A Shepherd, Lyudmila Bazhenova, Jong Seok Lee, Gee-Chen Chang, Lucio Crino, Miyako Satouchi, Quincy Chu, Toyoaki Hida, Ji-Youn Han, Oscar Juan, Frank Dunphy, Makoto Nishio, Jin-Hyoung Kang, Margarita Majem, Helen Mann, Mireille Cantarini, Serban Ghiorghiu, Tetsuya Mitsudomi
BACKGROUND: Osimertinib (AZD9291) is an oral, potent, irreversible EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor selective for EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor sensitising mutations, and the EGFR Thr790Met resistance mutation. We assessed the efficacy and safety of osimertinib in patients with EGFR Thr790Met-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who had progressed after previous therapy with an approved EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. METHODS: In this phase 2, open-label, single-arm study (AURA2), patients aged at least 18 years with centrally confirmed EGFR Thr790Met-positive mutations, locally advanced or metastatic (stage IIIB/IV) NSCLC who progressed on previous EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor therapy received osimertinib 80 mg orally once daily; treatment could continue beyond progression if the investigator observed a clinical benefit...
October 14, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Maya Izumi, Kenji Takeuchi, Seijun Ganaha, Sumio Akifusa, Yoshihisa Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Methods for preventing aspiration pneumonia are needed soon in order to reduce mortality from aspiration pneumonia and promote the health of the elderly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to examine whether oral care with tongue cleaning improves coughing ability in elderly individuals living in geriatric care facilities. METHODS: Participants comprised 114 residents of 11 group homes and private nursing homes in Aso City in Kumamoto Prefecture...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Emilio Bouza, José Martínez-Alarcón, Emilio Maseda, Mercedes Palomar, Rafael Zaragoza, María Jesús Pérez-Granda, Patricia Muñoz, Almudena Burillo
INTRODUCTION: Current guidelines for the microbiological diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are imprecise. Based on data provided by intensive care specialists (ICS) and microbiologists, this study defines the clinical practices and microbiological techniques currently used for an aetiological diagnosis of VAP and pinpoints deficiencies. METHODS: Eighty hospitals in the national health network with intensive care and microbiology departments were sent two questionnaires, one for each department, in order to collect data on VAP diagnosis for the previous year...
October 13, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Yoko Fujimaki, Koichi Tsunoda, Rika Kobayashi, Chong Tonghyo, Fujinobu Tanaka, Hiroyuki Kuroda, Tsutomu Numata, Toyota Ishii, Reiko Kuroda, Sawako Masuda, Sho Hashimoto, Hayato Misawa, Naoko Shindo, Takahiro Mori, Hiroko Mori, Naoki Uchiyama, Yuichirou Kamei, Masashi Tanaka, Hironobu Hamaya, Shingo Funatsuki, Satoko Usui, Ikuno Ito, Kohei Hamada, Akihito Shindo, Yutaka Tokumaru, Yoko Morita, Rumi Ueha, Takaharu Nito, Shu Kikuta, Sotaro Sekimoto, Kenji Kondo, Takashi Sakamoto, Kenji Itoh, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Sumio Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a self-controlled vocal exercise in elderly people with glottal closure insufficiency. DESIGN: Parallel-arm, individual randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Patients who visited one of 10 medical centers under the National Hospital Organization group in Japan for the first time, aged 60 years or older, complaining of aspiration or hoarseness, and endoscopically confirmed to have glottal closure insufficiency owing to vocal cord atrophy, were enrolled in this study...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
A Guzek, Krzysztof Korzeniewski, D Tomaszewski, Z Rybicki, E Zwolińska
The article presents the results of 11-year study (2005-2015) of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for pneumonia in 2033 mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Of 8796 biological samples, consisting mainly of bronchial aspirate (97.9 %), 2056 bacterial strains were isolated and subjected to identification. VITEK 2 was used to determine drug susceptibility (classified according to the EUCAST criteria). ESBL, MBL and KPC-producing strains were identified by means of phenotypic methods using appropriate discs...
October 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Akwugo A Eziefule, Solafa Elshatanoufy, Mili Thakur, Frederico G Rocha
Background Propofol is a widely known, commonly used drug. Complications can occur with the use of this drug, including propofol-related infusion syndrome (PRIS). PRIS, in the obstetric population, has not been documented; however, we report a case of a patient who developed PRIS after an emergent cesarean delivery of a preterm infant. Case Study A 35-year-old multigravida woman presented complaining of leakage of fluid and decreased fetal movement. Her pregnancy was complicated by methadone maintenance therapy due to a history of opioid abuse...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Christos Panayi, Nagui Antoun, Richard Sandford
A 44-year-old woman with a history of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, a rare inherited neoplasia syndrome, presented acutely to hospital with a productive cough, symptoms of respiratory tract infection and odynophagia (painful swallowing). A chest X-ray confirmed right-sided pneumonia. Investigation of the persistent odynophagia using barium swallow revealed aspiration of the contrast into the lungs and suggested a neurological cause for her chest infection. Clinical assessment and speech and language therapy confirmed a pseudobulbar palsy...
October 13, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Başak Yıldız-Atıkan, Bülent Karapınar, Şöhret Aydemir, Fadıl Vardar
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia occuring in any period of mechanical ventilation. There is no optimal diagnostic method in current use and in this study we aimed to compare two non-invasive diagnostic methods used in diagnosis of VAP in children. This prospective study was conducted in 8 bedded Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at Ege University Children´s Hospital. Endotracheal aspiration (ETA) and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in case of developing VIP after 48 hours of ventilation...
November 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Surinder Kumar, Sanjeev R Saigal, Gulshan Rai Sethi, Sanchit Kumar
CONTEXT: Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and upper respiratory tract infections. Since it is difficult to detect C. pneumoniae in clinical practice, specific etiological diagnosis is established only in a minority of cases. AIMS: To investigate the role of C. pneumoniae in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children, with the use of serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Shao-Hua Shi, Xiao-Ning Feng, Ming-Chun Lai, Hai-Shen Kong, Shu-Sen Zheng
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about etiology and morbidity and clinical characteristics of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. METHODS: An analysis between PLA patients caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and those caused by non-ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was performed. RESULTS: Among 817 PLA patients, there were 176 patients (21.5%) with PLA of biliary origin, and 67 PLA patients (8...
October 8, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Ann E Heffernan, Jeffery J Biskup, Betty A Kramek, Greg M Anderson
This retrospective study assesses postoperative complications with simultaneous staphylectomy and unilateral arytenoid lateralization (SP + UAL) in dogs with laryngeal paralysis and concurrent elongation of the soft palate compared to dogs having a UAL alone. Medical records of dogs having a UAL performed from 2010 to 2013 were reviewed. Twenty-three dogs were diagnosed with a concurrent elongated soft palate and had a SP + UAL performed and 89 dogs were diagnosed with an appropriate soft palate and had only a UAL performed...
October 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Samia Hamouda, Karima Chraiet, Fatma Khalsi, Imen Bel Hadj, Ines Brini, Hanen Smaoui, Sihem Barsaoui, Azza Samoud, Saida Ben Becher, Najla Ben Jaballah, Amel Kechrid, Faten Tinsa, Khadija Boussetta
Background Community-acquired pleuropneumonia (CPP) is a common complication of pneumonia in children. It is serious given its high morbidity and significant mortality. Aim To study clinical and paraclinical features of CPP in children and to establish a common therapeutic strategy. Methods Our retrospective study included patients who were hospitalized for CPP between 2004 and 2012. All data were collected from patients' medical files. Statistical analysis was made by Epi-Info 6. Results One hundred and sixty four patients were registered...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Dragana Stanley, Linda J Mason, Kate E Mackin, Yogitha N Srikhanta, Dena Lyras, Monica D Prakash, Kulmira Nurgali, Andres Venegas, Michael D Hill, Robert J Moore, Connie H Y Wong
Bacterial infection is highly prevalent in patients who have had a stroke. Despite the potential contribution of micro-aspiration in post-stroke pneumonia, we found that the majority of the microorganisms detected in the patients who developed infections after having a stroke were common commensal bacteria that normally reside in the intestinal tracts. In a mouse model of ischemic stroke, post-stroke infection was only observed in mice that were born and raised in specific-pathogen-free facilities; this was not seen in mice that were born and raised in germ-free facilities...
October 3, 2016: Nature Medicine
Khanh Van Lai, Mini Mehra, Eliezer Nussbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Pediatrics in Review
Maria Schwarz, Anne Coccetti, Elizabeth Cardell, Allison Murdoch, Jennifer Davis
PURPOSE: There is a paucity of evidence regarding dysphagia management post-thrombolysis. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the impact of a dysphagia management protocol on patient outcomes. Thrombolysis has been completed at our metropolitan hospital since 2011 and a dysphagia management protocol was developed in 2012. METHOD: Chart auditing was completed for 83 participants in three groups: pre-protocol (n = 12) (2011), post-protocol (n = 28) (2012-2014), and non-thrombolysed stroke patients (n = 43)...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Masanari Takami, Motohiro Okada, Yoshio Enyo, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Hiroshi Yamada, Munehito Yoshida
PURPOSE: Noncontiguous double-level unstable spinal injuries (NDUSI) are uncommon and have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to better understand the patterns of NDUSI, in order to recommend proper diagnostic and treatment methods, as well as to raise awareness among traumatologists about the possibility of these uncommon injuries. METHODS: A total of 710 consecutive patients with spine fractures were treated for >9 years since 2007 at a single regional trauma center...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
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