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Analytical Techniques

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926716/broadband-acoustic-resonance-dissolution-spectroscopy-bards-a-novel-approach-to-investigate-the-wettability-of-pharmaceutical-powder-blends
#1
Raghu V G Peddapatla, M Rizwan Ahmed, Caroline A Blackshields, M J Sousa-Gallagher, Sean McSweeney, J Krüse, Abina M Crean, Dara Fitzpatrick
The ability of Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy (BARDS) to assess the wettability of powder blends is investigated. BARDS is a novel analytical technology developed based on the change in acoustic phenomenon observed when material is added into a solvent under resonance. Addition of solid material to the solvent results in the introduction of gas (air) into the solvent, changing the compressibility of the solvent system and reducing the velocity of sound in the solvent. As a material is wetted and dissolved, the gas is released from the solvent and resonance frequency is altered...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926605/assessment-of-common-somatic-mutations-of-egfr-kras-braf-nras-in-pulmonary-non-small-cell-carcinoma-using-iplex%C3%A2-hs-a-new-highly-sensitive-assay-for-the-massarray%C3%A2-system
#2
Bobbie C Sutton, Ryan T Birse, Kevin Maggert, Tammy Ray, Jessica Hobbs, Amobi Ezenekwe, Jason Kazmierczak, Michael Mosko, Joan Kish, Andrew Bullock, Zonggao Shi, M Sharon Stack, Darryl Irwin
Increased early detection and personalized therapy for lung cancer have coincided with greater use of minimally invasive sampling techniques such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided biopsy (EBUS), endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy (EUS), and navigational biopsy, as well as thin needle core biopsies. As many lung cancer patients have late stage disease and other comorbidities that make open surgical procedures hazardous, the least invasive biopsy technique with the highest potential specimen yield is now the preferred first diagnostic study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926310/coronary-ct-angiography-derived-fractional-flow-reserve
#3
Christian Tesche, Carlo N De Cecco, Moritz H Albrecht, Taylor M Duguay, Richard R Bayer, Sheldon E Litwin, Daniel H Steinberg, U Joseph Schoepf
Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) by means of a pressure wire technique is the established reference standard for the functional assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) ( 1 , 2 ). Coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography has emerged as a noninvasive method for direct assessment of CAD and plaque characterization with high diagnostic accuracy compared with ICA ( 3 , 4 ). However, the solely anatomic assessment provided with both coronary CT angiography and ICA has poor discriminatory power for ischemia-inducing lesions...
October 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926208/ionic-liquids-solvents-and-sorbents-in-sample-preparation
#4
REVIEW
Kevin D Clark, Miranda N Emaus, Marcelino Varona, Ashley N Bowers, Jared L Anderson
The applications of ionic liquids (ILs) and IL-derived sorbents are rapidly expanding. By careful selection of the cation and anion components, the physicochemical properties of ILs can be altered to meet the requirements of specific applications. Reports of IL solvents possessing high selectivity for specific analytes are numerous and continue to motivate the development of new IL-based sample preparation methods that are faster, more selective, and environmentally benign compared to conventional organic solvents...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925590/analytic-methods-for-evaluating-patterns-of-multiple-congenital-anomalies-in-birth-defect-registries
#5
REVIEW
A J Agopian, Jane A Evans, Philip J Lupo
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 20 to 30% of infants with birth defects have two or more birth defects. Among these infants with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), co-occurring anomalies may represent either chance (i.e., unrelated etiologies) or pathogenically associated patterns of anomalies. While some MCA patterns have been recognized and described (e.g., known syndromes), others have not been identified or characterized. Elucidating these patterns may result in a better understanding of the etiologies of these MCAs...
September 19, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925156/-plant-metabolomics-approach-for-age-discrimination-of-mountain-cultivated-ginseng-using-uplc-q-tof-ms
#6
Xiang-Wei Chang, Bo-Ran Wang, Tong Wang, De-Kun Li, Ying Zhao, Yu-Ling Zhang, Da-Zheng Zhou, Zheng-Liang Ye
Growth year is one of the important factors for the quality of mountain cultivated ginseng (MCG). For age differentiation of MCG, rhizome extracts of ginseng aged from 11 to 15 years were analyzed using a non-targeted approach with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)-based on plant metabolomics technique. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to compare the derived patterns among the samples...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925141/-research-progress-on-standardization-study-of-nir-spectroscopy-based-method-for-quality-control-of-traditional-chinese-medicine
#7
Wen-Long Li, Hai-Bin Qu
In recent years, the near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has gained wide acceptance within the quantitative analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the lack of technical standards is the bottleneck problem in this process. To address this issue, standardization study of the NIR spectroscopy based method for the quantitative analysis of TCM is needed, in which the specific characteristics of TCM should be given full considerations. The main research contents include:the scope definition for the application of NIR spectroscopy in the TCM quantitative analysis field, the selection criteria for the sample pretreatment and spectral acquisition conditions, the rules for the model optimization and evaluation, and the regulations for the model update and transfer...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924742/characterization-of-pm2-5-in-delhi-role-and-impact-of-secondary-aerosol-burning-of-biomass-and-municipal-solid-waste-and-crustal-matter
#8
Pavan K Nagar, Dhirendra Singh, Mukesh Sharma, Anil Kumar, Viney P Aneja, Mohan P George, Nigam Agarwal, Sheo P Shukla
Delhi is one among the highly air polluted cities in the world. Absence of causal relationship between emitting sources of PM2.5 and their impact has resulted in inadequate actions. This research combines a set of innovative and state-of-the-art analytical techniques to establish relative predominance of PM2.5 sources. Air quality sampling at six sites in summer and winter for 40 days (at each site) showed alarmingly high PM2.5 concentrations (340 ± 135 μg/m(3)). The collected PM2.5 was subjected to chemical speciation including ions, metals, organic and elemental carbons which followed application of chemical mass balance technique for source apportionment...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922569/strategies-for-analysis-of-isomeric-peptides
#9
Erik T Jansson
This review presents an overview and recent progress of strategies for detecting isomerism in peptides, with focus on d/l epimerization and the various isomers that the presence of an aspartic acid residue may yield in a protein or peptide. While mass spectrometry has become a majorly used method of choice within proteomics, isomerism is inherently difficult to analyze because it is a modification that does not yield any change in mass of the analyte. Here, several techniques used for analysis of peptide isomerism are discussed, including enzymatic assays, liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922353/synthesizing-developmental-trajectories
#10
Paul Villoutreix, Joakim Andén, Bomyi Lim, Hang Lu, Ioannis G Kevrekidis, Amit Singer, Stanislav Y Shvartsman
Dynamical processes in biology are studied using an ever-increasing number of techniques, each of which brings out unique features of the system. One of the current challenges is to develop systematic approaches for fusing heterogeneous datasets into an integrated view of multivariable dynamics. We demonstrate that heterogeneous data fusion can be successfully implemented within a semi-supervised learning framework that exploits the intrinsic geometry of high-dimensional datasets. We illustrate our approach using a dataset from studies of pattern formation in Drosophila...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921989/universal-calibration-of-computationally-predicted-n-1s-binding-energies-for-interpretation-of-xps-experimental-measurements
#11
Jing Zhao, Fei Gao, Sidharam Pundlik Pujari, Han Zuilhof, Andrew Teplyakov
Computationally predicted N 1s core level energies are commonly used to interpret the experimental measurements obtained with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This work compares the application of Koopmans' theorem to core electrons using the B3LYP functional with two commonly used basis sets, analyses the factors relevant to the comparison of the computational with experimental data, and presents several correlations that allow an accurate prediction of the N 1s binding energy. The first correlation is obtained with a series of known nitrogen-containing functional groups on well-characterized organic monolayers...
September 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921971/paper-sensor-coated-with-a-poly-carboxybetaine-multiple-dopa-conjugate-via-dip-coating-for-biosensing-in-complex-media
#12
Fang Sun, Kan Wu, Hsiang-Chieh Hung, Peng Zhang, Xinran Che, Joshua Kenyon Smith, Xiaojie Lin, Bowen Li, Priyesh Jain, Qiuming Yu, Shaoyi Jiang
Cellulose paper is an ideal diagnostic platform for low-cost, easily disposable and lightweight implementation, but requires surface modification to achieve detection with high sensitivity and specificity in complex media. In this work, a polymer-catechol conjugate containing a super-hydrophilic nonfouling poly(carboxylbetaine) (pCB) and four surface-binding L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) groups, pCB-(DOPA)4, were applied onto a paper-based sensor surface via a simple "graft-to" immersion process to render the surface with both nonfouling and protein functionalizable properties...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921381/pentachlorophenol-molecule-design-with-lower-bioconcentration-through-3d-qsar-associated-with-molecule-docking
#13
Xiaolei Wang, Zhenhua Chu, Jiawen Yang, Yu Li
A three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model is built by using a comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) technique with an experimentally determined logarithm of bioconcentration factors (logBCFs) for 36 phenols in fish. Meanwhile, with the pentachlorophenol (PCP) molecule as target molecules, contributions of the molecular fields indicate that the electrostatic fields are the main influences on the bioconcentration of the PCP molecule. Based on the analytical results of CoMSIA contour map of PCP and PCP molecular docking with SOD protease (PDB ID: 4A7T), the R6 substituent positions of PCP were modified to give seven new modified PCP molecules with low bioconcentration in this paper...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920803/assessment-of-a-lancet-and-swab-blood-sampling-technique-for-surveillance-of-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-infection
#14
Javier Lopez, L do Vet M Sc, Jonathan Haycock, Andrew Mckenzie, Katharina Seilern-Moy, Akbar Dastjerdi
Lancing a finger elicits minimal pain in humans and is applied routinely to obtain small volumes of blood for clinical diagnostics. A modified lancet bleeding method and several blood sampling matrices were evaluated in this study for the purpose of routine elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) surveillance in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The procedure enabled weekly sampling from elephants as young as 9 mo of age. The blood sampling matrices were evaluated for their sensitivity measuring β-actin, tumor necrosis factor α, and/or EEHV-1 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920678/facing-challenges-in-real-life-application-of-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-design-and-nanofabrication-of-sers-substrates-for-rapid-field-test-of-food-contaminants
#15
Ruyi Shi, Xiangjiang Liu, Yibin Ying
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is capable of detecting single molecule with high specificity and has become a promising technique for rapid chemical analysis of agricultural products and foods. With a deeper understanding of the SERS effect and advances in nanofabrication technology, SERS is now on the edge of going out of the laboratory and becoming a sophisticated analytical tool to fulfill various real-world tasks. This review focuses on the challenges that SERS has met in this progress, such as how to obtain a reliable SERS signal, improve the sensitivity and specificity in a complex sample matrix, develop simple and user-friendly practical sensing approach, reduce the running cost, etc...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919753/combination-of-graphene-oxide-silver-nanoparticle-nanocomposites-and-cisplatin-enhances-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-cervical-cancer-cells
#16
Yu-Guo Yuan, Sangiliyandi Gurunathan
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin (Cis) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug for treating a variety of cancers, due to its ability to induce cell death in cancer cells significantly. Recently, graphene and its modified nanocomposites have gained much interest in cancer therapy, due to their unique physicochemical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the combination effect of Cis and a reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle nanocomposite (rGO-AgNPs) in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919752/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-induce-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#17
Ding-Ping Bai, Xi-Feng Zhang, Guo-Liang Zhang, Yi-Fan Huang, Sangiliyandi Gurunathan
BACKGROUND: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are frequently used in industrial products such as paint, surface coating, and cosmetics, and recently, they have been explored in biologic and biomedical applications. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ZnO NPs on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3). METHODS: ZnO NPs with a crystalline size of 20 nm were characterized with various analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919751/combination-of-palladium-nanoparticles-and-tubastatin-a-potentiates-apoptosis-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-cancer
#18
Yu-Guo Yuan, Qiu-Ling Peng, Sangiliyandi Gurunathan
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease that occurs in women. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has recently emerged as an effective and attractive target for the treatment of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a combined treatment of tubastatin A (TUB-A) and palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells using two different cytotoxic agents that work by two different mechanisms, thereby decreasing the probability of chemoresistance in cancer cells and increasing the efficacy of toxicity, to provide efficient therapy for advanced stage of cancer without any undesired side effects...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919750/silver-nanoparticles-enhance-the-apoptotic-potential-of-gemcitabine-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cells-combination-therapy-for-effective-cancer-treatment
#19
Yu-Guo Yuan, Qiu-Ling Peng, Sangiliyandi Gurunathan
BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine (GEM) is widely used as an anticancer agent in several types of solid tumors. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) possess unique cytotoxic features and can induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of GEM and AgNPs can exert synergistic cytotoxic effects in the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780. METHODS: We synthesized AgNPs using resveratrol as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized using various analytical techniques...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919643/misconceptions-in-the-exploding-flask-demonstration-resolved-through-students-critical-thinking
#20
Rick Spierenburg, Leon Jacobse, Iris de Bruin, Daan J van den Bos, Dominique M Vis, Ludo B F Juurlink
As it connects to a large set of important fundamental ideas in chemistry and analytical techniques discussed in high school chemistry curricula, we review the exploding flask demonstration. In this demonstration, methanol vapor is catalytically oxidized by a Pt wire catalyst in an open container. The exothermicity of reactions occurring at the catalytic surface heats the metal to the extent that it glows. When restricting reactant and product gas flow, conditions may favor repetitive occurrence of a small explosion...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Education
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