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Analytical Techniques

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544816/analytical-characterization-of-three-cathinone-derivatives-4-mpd-4%C3%A2-f-php-and-bk-epdp-purchased-as-bulk-powder-from-online-vendors
#1
Orapan Apirakkan, Anca Frinculescu, Trevor Shine, Mark C Parkin, Agostino Cilibrizzi, Nunzianda Frascione, Vincenzo Abbate
Novel emerging drugs of abuse, also referred as new psychoactive substances (NPS), constitute an ever-changing mixture of chemical compounds designed to circumvent legislative controls by means of chemical modifications of previously banned recreational drugs. One of such class, synthetic cathinones, namely β-keto derivatives of amphetamines, has been largely abused over the past decade. A number of new synthetic cathinones are detected each year, either in bulk powders/crystals or in biological matrices. It is therefore important to continuously monitor the supply of new synthetic derivatives and promptly report them...
May 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543843/white-matter-biomarkers-from-fast-protocols-using-axially-symmetric-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging
#2
Brian Hansen, Ahmad R Khan, Noam Shemesh, Torben E Lund, Ryan Sangill, Simon F Eskildsen, Leif Østergaard, Sune N Jespersen
White matter tract integrity (WMTI) can characterize brain microstructure in areas with highly aligned fiber bundles. Several WMTI biomarkers have now been validated against microscopy and provided promising results in studies of brain development and aging, as well as in a number of brain disorders. Currently, WMTI is mostly used in dedicated animal studies and clinical studies of slowly progressing diseases, and has not yet emerged as a routine clinical tool. To this end, a less data intensive experimental method would be beneficial by enabling high resolution validation studies, and ease clinical applications by speeding up data acquisition compared with typical diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) protocols utilized as part of WMTI imaging...
May 22, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543360/relationship-between-the-uplc-q-tof-ms-fingerprinted-constituents-from-daphne-genkwa-and-their-anti-inflammatory-anti-oxidant-activities
#3
Wen-Juan Du, Jun Ji, Ling Wang, Xin-Yi Lan, Jia Li, Jun-Qiu Lei, Xin He, Chun-Feng Zhang, Wen-Ze Huang, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc. is a well-known medicinal plant. This study was designed to apply the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system to establish a quality control method of Daphne genkwa. Data revealed that there were fifteen common peaks in ten batches of D. genkwa Sieb. Et Zucc.(Thymelaeaceae) from different provinces of China. On this basis, the fingerprint chromatogram was established to provide references for quality control. Afterwards, the chemical constitutions of these common peaks were analyzed using the UPLC-Q-TOF-MS system and nine of them were identified primarily...
May 22, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542338/a-technique-for-setting-analytical-thresholds-in-massively-parallel-sequencing-based-forensic-dna-analysis
#4
Brian Young, Jonathan L King, Bruce Budowle, Luigi Armogida
Amplicon (targeted) sequencing by massively parallel sequencing (PCR-MPS) is a potential method for use in forensic DNA analyses. In this application, PCR-MPS may supplement or replace other instrumental analysis methods such as capillary electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing for STR and mitochondrial DNA typing, respectively. PCR-MPS also may enable the expansion of forensic DNA analysis methods to include new marker systems such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions (indels) that currently are assayable using various instrumental analysis methods including microarray and quantitative PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541719/the-studies-of-archaeological-pottery-with-the-use-of-selected-analytical-techniques
#5
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Angelina Rosiak, Jacek Grams, Karolina Chałupka, Przemysław Makarowicz, Waldemar Maniukiewicz, Elżbieta Szubiakiewicz
Modern analytical methods play an important role in archaeological objects, including ceramics. This review focuses on the use of analytical methods such as: gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) with thermal analysis (TGA-MS) to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of archaeological samples and organic residues preserved inside. In this paper, special attention was paid to the ToF-SIMS method, which allows the determination of characteristic ions on the surface of ceramic samples...
May 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541676/double-sweeping-highly-effective-sample-preconcentration-using-cationic-and-anionic-micelles-and-its-application-to-a-multiple-enzyme-activity-assay
#6
Ryota Sanuki, Kenji Sueyoshi, Tatsuro Endo, Hideaki Hisamoto
In conventional microfluidic bioassays, short optical pathlength and extremely small quantities of analytes sometimes can significantly reduce detectability. Various sample preconcentration techniques have been reported for improving the detectability of bioassays. In the present study, we developed a novel preconcentration technique, 'double sweeping', utilizing cationic and anionic micelles simultaneously. Microscopic observations demonstrated that double sweeping enabled a sample solution, which initially filled a capillary, to be focused into an extremely narrow band...
May 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541461/screening-with-quantification-for-64-drugs-and-metabolites-in-human-urine-using-uplc-ms-ms-analysis-and-a-threshold-accurate-calibration
#7
Thomas G Rosano, Patrice Y Ohouo, Michelle Wood
Drug and metabolite (analytes) identification together with quantification is an important analytical tool in forensic and clinical toxicology. We report the development and validation of a definitive detection and quantification method (UPLC-MS-MS) for initial screening of 64 analytes in urine. The principle of the method is a quantitative extension of a recently reported threshold accurate calibration (TAC) technique which employs a rapid dual-specimen analysis i.e., with and without addition of a reference-analyte standard for normalization of matrix effects...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541350/ultrasensitive-and-reproducible-sers-platform-of-coupled-ag-grating-with-multibranched-au-nanoparticles
#8
Yevgeniya Kalachyova, David Mares, Vitezslav Jerabek, Pavel Ulbrich, Ladislav Lapcak, Vaclav Svorcik, Oleksiy Lyutakov
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is an extremely sensitive analytical technique that is capable of identifying the vibration signatures of target molecules up to single-molecule sensitivity. In this work, the ultrahigh sensitivity of SERS has been achieved through the immobilization of sharp-edges specific nanoparticles - so-called gold multibranched NPs (AuMs) on the silver grating surface through the biphenyl dithiol. This approach allows combining the extremely high SERS enhancement factor (better than that in the case of AuMs immobilized on the flat Ag film) with perfect reproducibility of Raman signals...
May 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540709/rapd-scar-approaches-for-identification-of-adulterant-breeds-milk-in-dairy-products
#9
Joana T Cunha, Lucília Domingues
Food safety and quality are nowadays a major consumers' concern. In the dairy industry the fraudulent addition of cheaper/lower-quality milks from nonlegitimate species/breeds compromises the quality and value of the final product. Despite the already existing approaches for identification of the species origin of milk, there is little information regarding differentiation at an intra-species level. In this protocol we describe a low-cost, sensitive, fast, and reliable analytical technique-Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA/Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (RAPD/SCAR)-capable of an efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fraudulent manufacturing of dairy products and suitable for the detection of milk adulteration in processed dairy foods...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540557/dissolution-of-steel-slags-in-aqueous-media
#10
Shashikant Yadav, Anurag Mehra
Steel slag is a major industrial waste in steel industries, and its dissolution behavior in water needs to be characterized in the larger context of its potential use as an agent for sequestering CO2. For this purpose, a small closed system batch reactor was used to conduct the dissolution of steel slags in an aqueous medium under various dissolution conditions. In this study, two different types of steel slags were procured from steel plants in India, having diverse structural features, mineralogical compositions, and particle sizes...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540461/quantitative-analysis-of-curcumin-loaded-alginate-nanocarriers-in-hydrogels-using-raman-and-attenuated-total-reflection-infrared-spectroscopy
#11
Lynda Miloudi, Franck Bonnier, Dominique Bertrand, Hugh J Byrne, Xavier Perse, Igor Chourpa, Emilie Munnier
Core-shell nanocarriers are increasingly being adapted in cosmetic and dermatological fields, aiming to provide an increased penetration of the active pharmaceutical or cosmetic ingredients (API and ACI) through the skin. In the final form, the nanocarriers (NC) are usually prepared in hydrogels, conferring desired viscous properties for topical application. Combined with the high chemical complexity of the encapsulating system itself, involving numerous ingredients to form a stable core and quantifying the NC and/or the encapsulated active without labor-intensive and destructive methods remains challenging...
May 25, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540255/comparison-and-validation-of-elisa-assays-for-plasma-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-the-horse
#12
Courtnay L Baskerville, Nicholas J Bamford, Patricia A Harris, Simon R Bailey
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays several important physiological roles, and IGF-related pathways have been implicated in developmental osteochondral disease and endocrinopathic laminitis. This factor is also a downstream marker of growth hormone activity and its peptide mimetics. Unfortunately, previously used assays for measuring equine IGF-1 (radioimmunoassays and ELISAs) are no longer commercially available, and many of the kits on the market give poor results when used on horse samples. The aim of the present study was to compare three different ELISA assays (two human and one horse-specific)...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540178/scanometry-as-microplate-reader-for-high-throughput-method-based-on-dpph-dry-reagent-for-antioxidant-assay
#13
Mochammad Amrun Hidayat, Aulia Fitri, Bambang Kuswandi
The stable chromogenic radical 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) solution was immobilized on the microwell plate as dry reagent to construct a simple antioxidant sensor. Then, a regular flatbed scanner was used as microplate reader to obtain analytical parameters for antioxidant assay using one-shot optical sensors as scanometry technique. Variables affecting the acquisition of the images were optimized and the analytical parameters are obtained from an area of the sensing zone inside microwell using the average luminosity of the sensing zone captured as the mean of red, green, and blue (RGB) value using ImageJ(®) program...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538916/policies-for-fostering-health-science-technology-and-innovation-in-brazil-and-the-role-of-clinical-research
#14
Marge Tenório, Guilherme Arantes Mello, Ana Luiza D'Ávila Viana
The purpose of this article is to highlight a number of underlying issues that may be useful for a comprehensive review of the management of Health-Related Science, Technology and Innovation policies (ST&I/H), and its strategies and priorities. It is an analytical study supported by an extensive review of the technical and journalistic literature, clippings, legislation and federal government directives. The results show that the Healthcare Production Complex undeniably and increasingly needs science to maintain itself...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538653/development-of-diamond-and-silicon-mems-sensor-arrays-with-integrated-readout-for-vapor-detection
#15
Maira Possas-Abreu, Farbod Ghassemi, Lionel Rousseau, Emmanuel Scorsone, Emilie Descours, Gaelle Lissorgues
This paper reports on the development of an autonomous instrument based on an array of eight resonant microcantilevers for vapor detection. The fabricated sensors are label-free devices, allowing chemical and biological functionalization. In this work, sensors based on an array of silicon and synthetic diamond microcantilevers are sensitized with polymeric films for the detection of analytes. The main advantage of the proposed system is that sensors can be easily changed for another application or for cleaning since the developed gas cell presents removable electrical connections...
May 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536476/a-chemometrics-driven-strategy-for-the-bioactivity-evaluation-of-complex-multicomponent-systems-and-the-effective-selection-of-bioactivity-predictive-chemical-combinations
#16
Yoshinori Fujimura, Chihiro Kawano, Ayaka Maeda-Murayama, Asako Nakamura, Akiko Koike-Miki, Daichi Yukihira, Eisuke Hayakawa, Takanori Ishii, Hirofumi Tachibana, Hiroyuki Wariishi, Daisuke Miura
Although understanding their chemical composition is vital for accurately predicting the bioactivity of multicomponent drugs, nutraceuticals, and foods, no analytical approach exists to easily predict the bioactivity of multicomponent systems from complex behaviors of multiple coexisting factors. We herein represent a metabolic profiling (MP) strategy for evaluating bioactivity in systems containing various small molecules. Composition profiles of diverse bioactive herbal samples from 21 green tea extract (GTE) panels were obtained by a high-throughput, non-targeted analytical procedure...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535884/development-of-surface-imprinted-nanospheres-using-the-inverse-suspension-polymerization-method-for-electrochemical-ultra-sensing-of-dacarbazine
#17
Bhim Bali Prasad, Purnendu Kumar Pathak
A new ultra sensing molecularly imprinted polymer beads modified pencil graphite electrode was fabricated, with the help of the inverse suspension polymerization technique, for ascertaining the adequate supplementation of dacarbazine in the cancer treatment. The inverse suspension polymerization technique was beneficial in obtaining surface imprinted polymer-based electrocatalytic nanospheres with narrow size distribution. These nanospheres were found to be superior to the corresponding microspheres and planar films, in terms of electrode kinetics and sensitivity, with the differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric transduction...
June 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535883/paper-based-microfluidic-devices-on-the-crime-scene-a-simple-tool-for-rapid-estimation-of-post-mortem-interval-using-vitreous-humour
#18
Paulo T Garcia, Ellen F M Gabriel, Gustavo S Pessôa, Júlio C Santos Júnior, Pedro C Mollo Filho, Ruggero B F Guidugli, Nelci F Höehr, Marco A Z Arruda, Wendell K T Coltro
This paper describes for the first time the use of paper-based analytical devices at crime scenes to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI), based on the colorimetric determination of Fe(2+) in vitreous humour (VH) samples. Experimental parameters such as the paper substrate, the microzone diameter, the sample volume and the 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen) concentration were optimised in order to ensure the best analytical performance. Grade 1 CHR paper, microzone with diameter of 5 mm, a sample volume of 4 μL and an o-phen concentration of 0...
June 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535878/newest-applications-of-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-for-extraction-of-contaminants-from-environmental-and-food-matrices-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Andrea Speltini, Andrea Scalabrini, Federica Maraschi, Michela Sturini, Antonella Profumo
This paper presents an overview of the recent applications of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) to sample preparation. The review is thought to cover analytical procedures for extraction of contaminants (mainly illegal/noxious organic compounds) from food and environmental matrices, with a particular focus on the various pre-concentration/cleanup techniques, that is offline and online solid-phase extraction (SPE), dispersive SPE (d-SPE), magnetic SPE (MSPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), applied before instrumental quantification...
June 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535476/examination-of-polytrauma-typologies-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#20
Erin Sullivan, Ateka A Contractor, Monica M Gerber, Craig Neumann
Potentially traumatizing events (PTE) are highly prevalent, and are associated with detrimental effects on psychological health, including increased risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multiple endorsed PTEs (polytraumatization) may have even greater effects on a person's health than the impact of a single index event. To better understand patterns of polytraumatization, person-centered analytic techniques such as Latent class analysis (LCA) are recommended. The current study used LCA to explore latent subgroupings of people based on their endorsement of PTEs, thus defining patterns in PTE exposure...
May 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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