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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338911/new-horizons-in-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-older-people
#1
Victoria Ewan, Thomas Hellyer, Julia Newton, John Simpson
Approximately 1.5% of hospital patients develop hospital acquired pneumonia. Aspiration is the major risk factor for pneumonia and is associated with reduced ability to mechanically clear respiratory pathogens into the stomach. Currently non-invasive methods of diagnosing hospital acquired pneumonia are less robust than invasive methods, and lead to over-diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is key to surveillance, prevention and treatment of HAP, and also to improving outcomes; newer imaging modalities such as phase contrast X-ray imaging and nanoparticle enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may help...
February 27, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337660/topgear-a-randomized-phase-iii-trial-of-perioperative-ecf-chemotherapy-with-or-without-preoperative-chemoradiation-for-resectable-gastric-cancer-interim-results-from-an-international-intergroup-trial-of-the-agitg-trog-eortc-and-cctg
#2
Trevor Leong, B Mark Smithers, Karin Haustermans, Michael Michael, Val Gebski, Danielle Miller, John Zalcberg, Alex Boussioutas, Michael Findlay, Rachel L O'Connell, Jaclyn Verghis, David Willis, Tomas Kron, Melissa Crain, William K Murray, Florian Lordick, Carol Swallow, Gail Darling, John Simes, Rebecca Wong
BACKGROUND: Postoperative chemoradiation and perioperative chemotherapy using epirubicin/cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (ECF) represent two standards of care for resectable gastric cancer. In the TOPGEAR (Trial Of Preoperative therapy for Gastric and Esophagogastric junction AdenocaRcinoma) trial, we hypothesized that adding preoperative chemoradiation to perioperative ECF will improve survival; however, the safety and feasibility of preoperative chemoradiation have yet to be determined. METHODS: TOPGEAR is an international phase III trial in which patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach were randomized to perioperative ECF alone or with preoperative chemoradiation...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336550/the-effect-of-intravenous-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-administration-on-esophageal-sensitivity-and-motility-in-health
#3
Charlotte Broers, Chloé Melchior, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Tim Vanuytsel, Brecht Van Houtte, Charlotte Scheerens, Nathalie Rommel, Jan F Tack, Ans Pauwels
BACKGROUND: Esophageal hypersensitivity is important in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients refractory to acid-suppressive therapy. Stress affects visceral sensitivity and exacerbates heartburn in GERD. Peripheral CRH is a key mediator of the gut stress response. We hypothesize that CRH increases esophageal sensitivity and alters esophageal motility in health. METHODS: Esophageal sensitivity to thermal, mechanical, electrical and chemical stimuli was assessed in 14 healthy subjects after placebo or CRH (100μg IV)...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335729/study-protocol-for-the-sofia-project-swallowing-function-oral-health-and-food-intake-in-old-age-a-descriptive-study-with-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#4
Patricia Hägglund, Lena Olai, Katri Ståhlnacke, Mona Persenius, Mary Hägg, Maria Andersson, Susanne Koistinen, Eva Carlsson
BACKGROUND: Extensive studies have shown that older people are negatively impacted by impaired eating and nutrition. The abilities to eat, enjoy food, and participate in social activities associated with meals are important aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and recovery after illness. This project aims to (i) describe and analyze relationships between oral health and oral HRQoL, swallowing ability, eating ability, and nutritional risk among older individuals admitted to short-term care; (ii) compare the perceptions that older individuals and staff report on care quality related to oral hygiene and eating; and (iii) study the feasibility and effects of a training program for people with impaired swallowing (i...
March 23, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330791/value-of-routine-upper-gastrointestinal-swallow-study-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#5
Cyril Chivot, Lionel Rebibo, Brice Robert, Abdennaceur Dhahri, Jean-Marc Regimbeau, Thierry Yzet
BACKGROUND: Gastric leak (GL) is one of the main early-onset postoperative complications of sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Many institutions perform routine upper gastrointestinal (UGI) contrast studies within 24 hours of surgery, looking for GL or gastric stenosis and to determine the need for urgent re-exploration, but this examination delays oral feeding, can cause side effects and is responsible for systematic and probably unnecessary irradiation of the patient. OBJECTIVE: Determine the efficacy of routine UGI contrast studies to predict postoperative complications after SG in a large population...
February 10, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330576/-interests-of-the-ultrasound-guidance-in-the-treatment-of-drooling-through-botulinum-toxin-injections-our-experience-over-10%C3%A2-years
#6
M Mailly, C Rebours, P Koskas, P Klap, D Ayache, M Cohen
OBJECTIVES: To report about our 10 years' experience about the treatment of drooling by ultrasound guided botulinum toxin injections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective monocentric study including all the patients suffering from drooling and treated by ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections into the salivary glands between 2004 and 2015. The etiology of r drooling, the doses of toxin, the injected glands, the size of the glands measured by ultrasonography, the effectiveness of the treatment and the side effects were assessed...
February 2017: J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324950/a-preliminary-evaluation-of-myoelectrical-energy-distribution-of-the-front-neck-muscles-in-pharyngeal-phase-during-normal-swallowing
#7
Mingxing Zhu, Wanzhang Yang, Oluwarotimi Williams Samuel, Yun Xiang, Jianping Huang, Haiqing Zou, Guanglin Li
Pharyngeal phase is a central hub of swallowing in which food bolus pass through from the oral cavity to the esophageal. Proper understanding of the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase is useful for assessing swallowing function and the occurrence of dysphagia in humans. In this study, high-density (HD) surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to study the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase during swallowing tasks involving three healthy male subjects. The root mean square (RMS) of the HD sEMG data was computed by using a series of segmented windows as myoelectrical energy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324903/instrumental-assessment-of-pediatric-dysphagia
#8
Joan C Arvedson, Maureen A Lefton-Greif
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have fulfilled primary roles in the evaluation and management of children with feeding/swallowing disorders for more than five decades. The increased incidence and prevalence of newborns, infants, and children with feeding and swallowing disorders has resulted in increased use of instrumental swallowing evaluations. The videofluoroscopic swallow study and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing are the two most commonly used swallowing assessments by SLPs, with ultrasound used less frequently...
April 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324897/neonatal-feeding-behavior-as-a-complex-dynamical-system
#9
Eugene C Goldfield, Jennifer Perez, Katherine Engstler
The requirements of evidence-based practice in 2017 are motivating new theoretical foundations and methodological tools for characterizing neonatal feeding behavior. Toward that end, this article offers a complex dynamical systems perspective. A set of critical concepts from this perspective frames challenges faced by speech-language pathologists and allied professionals: when to initiate oral feeds, how to determine the robustness of neonatal breathing during feeding and appropriate levels of respiratory support, what instrumental assessments of swallow function to use with preterm neonates, and whether or not to introduce thickened liquids...
April 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322006/aspiration-and-dysphagia-screening-in-acute-stroke-the-gugging-swallowing-screen-revisited
#10
T Warnecke, S Im, C Kaiser, C Hamacher, S Oelenberg, R Dziewas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS) is a tool to screen aspiration risk in acute stroke. We aimed to replicate its validity in a larger second cohort of patients with acute stroke, including the more severe with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥ 15. METHODS: In a prospective, double-blind design, the GUSS was validated with the Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing scale. Patients were categorized into different stroke severities as assessed by the NIHSS, and the diagnostic properties were calculated separately for each subgroup...
April 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319880/the-importance-of-the-reproducibility-of-oropharyngeal-swallowing-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-an-electrophysiological-study
#11
G Cosentino, E Alfonsi, L Mainardi, E Alvisi, F Brighina, F Valentino, B Fierro, G Sandrini, G Bertino, M Berlangieri, R De Icco, M Fresia, A Moglia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate electrophysiologically the reproducibility of oropharyngeal swallowing in patients with ALS. METHODS: We enrolled 26 ALS patients, both with and without clinical signs of dysphagia, and 30 age-matched controls. The reproducibility of the electrophysiological signals related to the oral phase (electromyographic activity of the submental/suprahyoid muscles) and the pharyngeal phase (laryngeal-pharyngeal mechanogram) of swallowing across repeated swallows was assessed...
February 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300962/association-between-functionality-assessment-scales-and-the-severity-of-dysphagia-post-stroke
#12
Karen de Oliveira Dos Passos, Maria Cristina de Almeida Freitas Cardoso, Betina Scheeren
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the results of functionality scales and dysphagia severity determined from videofluoroscopy swallowing study (VSS) in post-stroke patients. Methods: A retrospective study of 109 VSS analysis of post-stroke patients. From the exams was collected information on the diagnosis of dysphagia severity and evaluated regarding the swallowing functionality in an independent way by two evaluators. Results: A high number of discrete dysphagia was observed...
March 9, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300572/the-potential-role-of-aspiration-in-the-asthmatic-airway
#13
Eoin B Hunt, Chris Ward, Stephen Power, Ashley Sullivan, Jeffrey Pearson, Susan Lapthorne, Paul M O'Byrne, Joseph Eustace, Barry J Plant, Michael M Maher, John MacSharry, Desmond M Murphy
BACKGROUND: Many asthmatics remain sub-optimally controlled despite current treatments. Reasons include comorbidities that could aggravate asthma, including gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). We aimed to investigate whether aspiration occurs in asthmatic patients and if so does it correlate with asthma control. METHODS: Patients had ACQ-7, FeNO, and spirometry performed to characterize their level of asthma control. Barium swallow with provocation was performed to assess for predisposition to aspiration...
March 11, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294083/tensor-veli-palatini-electromyography-for-monitoring-eustachian-tube-rehabilitation-in-otitis-media
#14
P M Picciotti, G Della Marca, L D'Alatri, D Lucidi, M Rigante, E Scarano
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of otitis media is related to Eustachian tube dysfunction. The tensor veli palatini muscle actively opens the Eustachian tube and promotes middle-ear ventilation. This study describes a technique for paratubal electromyography that uses a surface, non-invasive electrode able to record tensor veli palatini muscle activity during swallowing. METHODS: Twenty otitis media patients and 10 healthy patients underwent tensor veli palatini electromyography...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289859/diagnosis-of-swallowing-disorders-how-we-interpret-pharyngeal-manometry
#15
REVIEW
Charles Cock, Taher Omari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of the clinical application of novel pharyngeal high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) with pressure flow analysis (PFA) in our hands with example cases. RECENT FINDINGS: In our Centre, we base our interpretation of HRIM recordings upon a qualitative assessment of pressure-impedance waveforms during individual swallows, as well as a quantitative assessment of averaged PFA swallow function variables. We provide a description of two global swallowing efficacy measures, the swallow risk index (SRI), reflecting global swallowing dysfunction (higher SRI = greater aspiration risk) and the post-swallow impedance ratio (PSIR) detecting significant post-swallow bolus residue...
March 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289630/recommendation-of-nasogastric-tube-removal-in-acute-stroke-patients-based-on-videofluoroscopic-swallow-study
#16
Jong-Moon Hwang, Youn-Soo Cheong, Min-Gu Kang, Seong Min Chun, Yu-Sun Min, Yang-Soo Lee, Tae-Du Jung
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of nasogastric tube (NGT) removal and change to oral feeding with a food thickener for acute stroke patients in whom a videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) confirmed thin liquid aspiration. METHODS: We retrospectively examined data of 199 patients with first stroke who were diagnosed with dysphagia from 2011 to 2015. Swallowing function was evaluated using VFSS. Patients included in this study were monitored for 4 weeks to identify the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286927/murray-secretion-scale-and-fiberoptic-endoscopic-evaluation-of-swallowing-in-predicting-aspiration-in-dysphagic-patients
#17
Chia-Wei Kuo, Clint Tanner Allen, Chu-Chun Huang, Chia-Jung Lee
The objective of this retrospective review is to evaluate the ability of the Murray secretion scale to predict aspiration as determined by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Patients with dysphagia undergoing a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing study between January 2013 and November 2015 from a single, tertiary care institution were retrospectively reviewed. The Murray secretion scale and penetration aspiration scale on fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing examination were determined...
March 12, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282484/a-systematic-review-of-isometric-lingual-strength-training-programs-in-adults-with-and-without-dysphagia
#18
Victoria S McKenna, Bin Zhang, Morgan B Haines, Lisa N Kelchner
Purpose: This systematic review summarizes the effects of isometric lingual strength training on lingual strength and swallow function in adult populations. Furthermore, it evaluates the designs of the reviewed studies and identifies areas of future research in isometric lingual strength training for dysphagia remediation. Method: A comprehensive literature search of 3 databases and additional backward citation search identified 10 studies for inclusion in the review...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278160/hyperleptinemia-in-children-with-autosomal-recessive-spinal-muscular-atrophy-type-i-iii
#19
Heike Kölbel, Berthold P Hauffa, Stefan A Wudy, Anastasios Bouikidis, Adela Della Marina, Ulrike Schara
BACKGROUND: Autosomal-recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) are disorders characterized by a ubiquitous deficiency of the survival of motor neuron protein that leads to a multisystemic disorder, which mostly affects alpha motor neurons. Disease progression is clinically associated with failure to thrive or weight loss, mainly caused by chewing and swallowing difficulties. Although pancreatic involvement has been described in animal models, systematic endocrinological evaluation of the energy metabolism in humans is lacking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277952/agricultural-intensification-is-linked-to-constitutive-innate-immune-function-in-a-wild-bird-population
#20
Clarence Schmitt, Dany Garant, Marc Bélisle, Fanie Pelletier
Immunity represents an important defense mechanism against pathogens and is intimately linked to fitness. Previous studies have found significant interindividual variation of immune responses in wild populations and have emphasized the importance of ecological factors in explaining this variability. A deterioration of environmental conditions, such as agricultural intensification, can modify resource availability and, as a result, alter immune functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of agricultural intensification on innate immune functions in breeding adult tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) over 6 yr...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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