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Chronic conditions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926863/chronic-infection-depletes-hematopoietic-stem-cells-through-stress-induced-terminal-differentiation
#1
Katie A Matatall, Mira Jeong, Siyi Chen, Deqiang Sun, Fengju Chen, Qianxing Mo, Marek Kimmel, Katherine Y King
Chronic infections affect a third of the world's population and can cause bone marrow suppression, a severe condition that increases mortality from infection. To uncover the basis for infection-associated bone marrow suppression, we conducted repeated infection of WT mice with Mycobacterium avium. After 4-6 months, mice became pancytopenic. Their hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) were severely depleted and displayed interferon gamma (IFN-γ) signaling-dependent defects in self-renewal. There was no evidence of increased HSPC mobilization or apoptosis...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926639/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-the-risk-of-congenital-malformations
#2
Brian T Bateman, Elisabetta Patorno, Rishi J Desai, Ellen W Seely, Helen Mogun, Sara Z Dejene, Michael A Fischer, Alexander M Friedman, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Krista F Huybrechts
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between first-trimester angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor exposure and the risk of overall major congenital, cardiac, and central nervous system malformations. METHODS: We used a cohort of completed pregnancies linked to liveborn neonates derived from Medicaid claims from 2000 to 2010. We examined the risk of malformations associated with first-trimester exposure to an ACE inhibitor. Propensity score-based methods were used to control for potential confounders including maternal demographics, medical conditions, exposure to other medications, and measures of health care utilization...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926450/changing-health-behavior-motivation-from-i-must-to-i-want
#3
S Knecht, P Kenning
In the past, medicine was dominated by acute diseases. Since treatments were unknown to patients they followed their medical doctors´ directives-at least for the duration of the disease. Behavior was thus largely motivated by avoiding expected costs associated with alternative behaviors (I-must). The health challenges prevailing today are chronic conditions resulting from the way we chose to live. Traditional directive communication has not been successful in eliciting and maintaining appropriate lifestyle changes...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926364/chronic-pancreatitis
#4
REVIEW
Michelle Stram, Shu Liu, Aatur D Singhi
Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis...
December 2016: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925335/the-relationship-between-self-blame-for-the-onset-of-a-chronic-physical-health-condition-and-emotional-distress-a-systematic-literature-review
#5
Leah Callebaut, Philip Molyneux, Tim Alexander
OBJECTIVE: Past literature presents contrasting perspectives regarding the potential influence of self-blame on adjustment to illness. This systematic literature review aimed to summarize findings from all investigations to date that have explored the relationship between self-blame for the onset of a chronic physical health condition and emotional distress. METHOD: Between November 2014 and February 2015, electronic databases were searched for relevant literature...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925214/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-noradrenergic-enhancement-on-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induced-neuroplasticity-in-humans
#6
Hsiao-I Kuo, Walter Paulus, Giorgi Batsikadze, Asif Jamil, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A Nitsche
KEY POINTS: Chronic administration of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine (RBX) increased and prolonged the long-term potentiation-like plasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for over 24 h. Chronic administration of RBX converted cathodal tDCS-induced long-term depression-like plasticity into facilitation for 120 min. Chronic noradrenergic activity enhancement on plasticity of the human brain might partially explain the delayed therapeutic impact of selective NRIs in depression and other neuropsychiatric diseases...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925149/behavioural-interventions-to-promote-workers-use-of-respiratory-protective-equipment
#7
REVIEW
Bao Yen Luong Thanh, Malinee Laopaiboon, David Koh, Pornpun Sakunkoo, Hla Moe
BACKGROUND: Respiratory hazards are common in the workplace. Depending on the hazard and exposure, the health consequences may include: mild to life-threatening illnesses from infectious agents, acute effects ranging from respiratory irritation to chronic lung conditions, or even cancer from exposure to chemicals or toxins. Use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is an important preventive measure in many occupational settings. RPE only offers protection when worn properly, when removed safely and when it is either replaced or maintained regularly...
December 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925132/-modern-day-slavery-as-a-public-health-issue
#8
Luís Henrique da Costa Leão
Modern-day slave labor is one of the most pernicious and persistent social problems in Brazil. In the light of the need to implement a national occupational health policy, this paper discusses slave labor as a public health concern, highlighting possibilities for broadening strategies for vigilance and comprehensive care for this specific working population. Exploratory qualitative research was carried out based on the "social construction of reality" proposed by Lenoir, Berger and Luckmann. The investigation consisted of a theoretical review of modern-day slave labor on the national and international scene within the scope of the human, social and public health sciences and an analysis of social and political practices to tackle modern-day slave labor was conducted in the State of Rio de Janeiro...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924723/clinical-management-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-older-adult-patient
#9
Nana Yaw Adu-Sarkodie
BACKGROUND: In 2009, approximately 40 million people were 65 years or older. Majority of persons over the age of 65 have at least one chronic medical condition. In 2002-2003, the most frequently occurring conditions among older adults were hypertension (51%), arthritis (48%), heart disease (31%), cancer of any type (21%), and diabetes (16%). The cost of diabetes care, both direct and indirect, was $245 billion in 2012. Fifty-nine percent of the direct medical cost was for the population aged 65 and over...
December 6, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924681/factors-associated-with-30-day-mortality-in-elderly-inpatients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-during-two-influenza-seasons
#10
Núria Torner, Conchita Izquierdo, Núria Soldevila, Diana Toledo, Judith Chamorro, Elena Espejo, Amelia Fernández-Sierra, Angela Domínguez
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia unrelated to hospitals or extended-care facilities. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with 30-day mortality in patients with CAP aged ≥65 years admitted to 20 hospitals in seven Spanish regions during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 influenza seasons. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with 30-day mortality. The adjusted model included variables selected by backward elimination with a cut off of < 0.02. A total of 1928 CAP cases were recorded; 60...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924646/influence-of-anti-tnf-immunogenicity-on-safety-in-rheumatic-disease-a-narrative-review
#11
Andrea Matucci, Daniele Cammelli, Fabrizio Cantini, Delia Goletti, Valentina Marino, Giuseppe Maria Milano, Raffaele Scarpa, Giuliano Tocci, Enrico Maggi, Alessandra Vultaggio
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonists have been shown to be effective in the treatment of chronic inflammatory rheumatic conditions. The use of anti-TNF agents, combined with improved diagnosis, aggressive regimens and regular monitoring, have substantially improved patient outcomes. However, all biological agents are immunogenic, resulting in the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), which can neutralize drug activity leading to loss of response and potential relapse. In addition, ADAs can also cause serious adverse events such as infusion hypersensitivity reactions...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924645/cardiovascular-outcomes-and-tumour-necrosis-factor-antagonists-in-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease-a-focus-on-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Giuliano Tocci, Delia Goletti, Valentina Marino, Andrea Matucci, Giuseppe Maria Milano, Fabrizio Cantini, Raffaele Scarpa
Many chronic rheumatic diseases have an inflammatory etiology, leading to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased occurrence of vascular diseases. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a reduction in cardiovascular (CV) events has been reported under treatments reducing systemic inflammation. Areas covered: Given the central role of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in chronic inflammatory conditions and in atherosclerosis, it has been suggested that TNFα-antagonists may reduce CV risk and mortality. Although there are no randomized controlled or head-to-head trials investigating the effect of specific anti-TNF-agents on CV outcomes, observational cohort studies, national registry data, and meta-analyses in RA have reported improved CV outcomes with anti-TNF therapy...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924622/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-preventable-hospitalizations-for-chronic-disease-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#13
Riddhi P Doshi, Robert H Aseltine, Alyse B Sabina, Garth N Graham
BACKGROUND: Hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) result in high morbidity and economic burden on the American healthcare system. Admissions due to chronic ACSCs, in particular, cost the American healthcare system over 30 billion dollars annually. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: This paper presents the current research on racial and ethnic disparities in the burden of hospitalizations due to chronic ACSCs. For this narrative review, we evaluated over 800 abstracts from MEDLINE and Google Scholar and cited 62 articles...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924588/antioxidant-micronutrients-and-oxidative-stress-biomarkers
#14
Iain L C Chapple, Helen R Griffiths, Mike R Milward, Martin R Ling, Melissa M Grant
Chronic inflammatory diseases are the major causes of mortality in humans and recent research has improved our understanding of the major impact of life-style factors upon inflammatory diseases and conditions. One of the most influential of these is nutrition, which may drive both pro-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory cascades at molecular and cellular levels. There are a variety of model systems that may be employed to investigate the impact of micronutrients and macronutrients upon inflammatory pathways, many of which operate through oxidative stress, either at the level of controlling the redox state of the cell and downstream redox-regulated gene transcription factors, and other acting as free radical generating or scavenging agents...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924584/the-health-conditions-and-the-health-care-consumption-of-the-uninsured
#15
Marco A Castaneda, Meryem Saygili
This paper investigates the difference in the health conditions and the health care consumption of uninsured individuals as compared to individuals with private insurance, using a nationally representative data set of inpatient hospital admissions from the US. In line with the previous literature, our results indicate that uninsured individuals are, on average, in worse health conditions. However, if we compare individuals within the same diagnosis category, the uninsured are actually healthier, with a lower number of chronic conditions and a lower risk of mortality...
December 2016: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924374/pain-relief-after-triamcinolone-infiltration-in-patients-with-bladder-pain-syndrome-with-hunner-s-ulcers
#16
Laura Mateu, Laura Izquierdo, Agustín Franco, Meritxell Costa, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Antonio Alcaraz
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a chronic condition with severe implications in the patient's quality of life with no definitive treatment. Our objective was to assess pain relief after triamcinolone injection in patients with BPS with Hunner's ulcers (HU). METHODS: Retrospective study of 20 consecutive patients with BPS treated at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona with triamcinolone injection with flexible cystoscope between 2015 and 2016...
December 6, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924323/the-use-of-a-quartz-crystal-microbalance-as-an-analytical-tool-to-monitor-particle-surface-and-particle-particle-interactions-under-dry-ambient-and-pressurized-conditions-a-study-using-common-inhaler-components
#17
N W Turner, M Bloxham, S A Piletsky, M J Whitcombe, I Chianella
Metered dose inhalers (MDI) and multidose powder inhalers (MPDI) are commonly used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and asthma. Currently, analytical tools to monitor particle/particle and particle/surface interaction within MDI and MPDI at the macro-scale do not exist. A simple tool capable of measuring such interactions would ultimately enable quality control of MDI and MDPI, producing remarkable benefits for the pharmaceutical industry and the users of inhalers. In this paper, we have investigated whether a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) could become such a tool...
December 7, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924166/dental-erosion-and-dentin-hypersensitivity-among-adult-asthmatics-and-non-asthmatics-hospital-based-a-preliminary-study
#18
Zahra Hassan Abdelaziz Farag, Elhadi Mohieldin Awooda
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the airways leading to spasm and swelling of the airways. The medications taken for the treatment of asthma can result in dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the severity of dental erosion amongst adult asthmatics according to: gender, type and duration of medication taken and to compare dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity between asthmatics and non-asthmatics...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923951/maternal-antibody-responses-and-nonprimary-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-of-hiv-1-exposed-infants
#19
Kristy M Bialas, Daniel Westreich, Eduardo Cisneros de la Rosa, Cody S Nelson, Lawrence M Kauvar, Tong-Ming Fu, Sallie R Permar
Risk of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) transmission is highly dependent on the presence of preexisting maternal immunity, with the lowest rates observed in CMV-seroimmune populations. Among infants of CMV-seroimmune women, those who are exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of acquiring cCMV infection as compared to HIV-unexposed infants. To better understand the risk factors of nonprimary cCMV transmission in HIV-infected women, we performed a case-control study in which CMV-specific plasma antibody responses from 19 CMV-transmitting and 57 CMV-nontransmitting women with chronic CMV/HIV coinfection were evaluated for the ability to predict the risk of cCMV infection...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923838/the-effect-of-limited-english-proficiency-on-pediatric-hospital-readmissions
#20
Mindy Ju, Nathan Luna, K T Park
BACKGROUND: The relationship between limited English proficiency (LEP) and worse pediatric health outcomes is well documented. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between LEP status and pediatric hospital readmissions. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of children ≤ 18 years old admitted to a tertiary children's hospital from 2008 to 2014. The main exposure was LEP status. Independent variables included sex, age, race/ethnicity, insurance, median household income, surgical/medical status, severity of illness (SOI), the presence of a complex chronic condition, and length of stay...
December 6, 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
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