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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822091/effect-of-ap102-a-subtype-2-and-5-specific-somatostatin-analog-on-glucose-metabolism-in-rats
#1
Erika Tarasco, Petra Seebeck, Svende Pfundstein, Adrian F Daly, Philippe J Eugster, Alan G Harris, Eric Grouzmann, Thomas A Lutz, Christina N Boyle
PURPOSE: Somatostatin analogs are widely used to treat conditions associated with hormonal hypersecretion such as acromegaly and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. First generation somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide and lanreotide, have high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), but have incomplete efficacy in many patients. Pasireotide targets multiple SSTRs, having the highest affinity for SSTR5, but causes hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in preclinical and clinical studies...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822061/co-ultramicronized-palmitoylethanolamide-luteolin-facilitates-the-development-of-differentiating-and-undifferentiated-rat-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#2
Stephen D Skaper, Massimo Barbierato, Laura Facci, Mila Borri, Gabriella Contarini, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have limited capability to bring about repair in chronic CNS neuroinflammatory demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). MS lesions are characterized by a compromised pool of undifferentiated oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) unable to mature into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. An attractive strategy may be to replace lost OLs and/or promote their maturation. N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide signaling molecule with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821956/effects-of-ageing-on-pro-arrhythmic-ventricular-phenotypes-in-incrementally-paced-murine-pgc-1%C3%AE-hearts
#3
Shiraz Ahmad, Haseeb Valli, Charlotte E Edling, Andrew A Grace, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Christopher L-H Huang
A range of chronic clinical conditions accompany cardiomyocyte energetic dysfunction and constitute independent risk factors for cardiac arrhythmia. We investigated pro-arrhythmic and arrhythmic phenotypes in energetically deficient C57BL mice with genetic ablation of the mitochondrial promoter peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β (Pgc-1β), a known model of ventricular arrhythmia. Pro-arrhythmic and cellular action potential (AP) characteristics were compared in intact Langendorff-perfused hearts from young (12-16 week) and aged (> 52 week), wild-type (WT) and Pgc-1β (-/-) mice...
August 18, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821927/control-of-wrist-movement-in-deafferented-man-evidence-for-a-mixed-strategy-of-position-and-amplitude-control
#4
R Chris Miall, P Haggard, J D Cole
There is a continuing debate about control of voluntary movement, with conflicted evidence about the balance between control of movement vectors (amplitude control) that implies knowledge of the starting position for accuracy, and equilibrium point or final position control, that is independent of the starting conditions. We tested wrist flexion and extension movements in a man with a chronic peripheral neuronopathy that deprived him of proprioceptive knowledge of his wrist angles. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that he could scale the amplitude of his wrist movements in flexion/extension, even without visual feedback, and appeared to adopt a strategy of moving via a central wrist position when asked to reach target angles from unknown start locations...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821730/infiltration-of-m1-but-not-m2-macrophages-is-impaired-after-unilateral-ureter-obstruction-in-nrf2-deficient-mice
#5
Yuji Sogawa, Hajime Nagasu, Shigeki Iwase, Chieko Ihoriya, Seiji Itano, Atsushi Uchida, Kengo Kidokoro, Shun'ichiro Taniguchi, Masafumi Takahashi, Minoru Satoh, Tamaki Sasaki, Takafumi Suzuki, Masayuki Yamamoto, Tiffany Horng, Naoki Kashihara
Chronic inflammation can be a major driver of the failure of a variety of organs, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). The NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been shown to play a pivotal role in inflammation in a mouse kidney disease model. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the master transcription factor for anti-oxidant responses, has also been implicated in inflammasome activation under physiological conditions. However, the mechanism underlying inflammasome activation in CKD remains elusive...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821644/calpain-dependent-degradation-of-nucleoporins-contributes-to-motor-neuron-death-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-excitotoxicity
#6
Kaori Sugiyama, Tomomi Aida, Masatoshi Nomura, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Hanns U Zeilhofer, Kohichi Tanaka
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity induces neuronal death by altering various intracellular signaling pathways and is implicated as a common pathogenic pathway in many neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of motor neuron disease, there is significant evidence to suggest that overactivation of AMPA receptors due to deficiencies in the expression and function of glial glutamate transporter GLT1 and GLAST plays an important role in the mechanisms of neuronal death. However, a causal role for glial glutamate transporter dysfunction in motor neuron death remains unknown...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821553/epidemiology-of-discordance-between-symptoms-and-signs-of-dry-eye
#7
Erin S Ong, Elizabeth R Felix, Roy C Levitt, William J Feuer, Constantine D Sarantopoulos, Anat Galor
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The frequent lack of association between dry eye (DE) symptoms and signs leads to challenges in diagnosing and assessing the disease. METHODS: Participants underwent ocular surface examinations to evaluate signs of disease and completed questionnaires to assess ocular symptoms, psychological status and medication use. To assess nociceptive system integrity, quantitative sensory testing (QST), including vibratory and thermal threshold measures and temporal summation of pain were obtained at the forearm and forehead...
August 18, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821468/design-and-development-of-a-stepped-care-behavioral-intervention-to-support-parents-of-young-children-newly-diagnosed-with-type-1-diabetes
#8
Marisa E Hilliard, Carrie Tully, Maureen Monaghan, Jichuan Wang, Randi Streisand
One of the most common chronic conditions of childhood, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in young children is increasing. Early childhood development complicates optimal T1D management and glycemic outcomes. Parents are at risk for elevated psychological distress, especially immediately following diagnosis. Few empirically supported interventions are available to support parents and promote optimal T1D management during this vulnerable period. This paper reports on the development and study design of First STEPS: Study of Type 1 in Early childhood and Parenting Support...
August 15, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821454/low-dose-anti-thymocyte-globulin-for-graft-versus-host-disease-prophylaxis-in-matched-unrelated-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#9
A Bryant, R Mallick, L Huebsch, D Allan, H Atkins, G Anstee, M Sabloff, N Scrivens, D Maze, C Bredeson, N Kekre
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT). Prophylactic in-vivo T-Cell depletion with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has been associated with decreased GVHD rates many alloHCT settings. Despite decades of clinical study, optimal ATG dosing has not been established. Understanding that higher rates of GVHD are observed with matched unrelated (MUD) versus matched related donor (MRD) alloHCT, at our institution MUD alloHSCT recipients have historically had low dose thymoglobulin (total dose 2...
August 15, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821440/apelin-protects-against-liver-x-receptor-mediated-steatosis-through-ampk-and-ppar%C3%AE-in-human-and-mouse-hepatocytes
#10
Jin Huang, Saeromi Kang, Soo-Jin Park, Dong-Soon Im
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most commonly occurring chronic liver disease, and hepatic steatosis, a condition defined as extensive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, is associated with liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases, such as, obesity and type II diabetes. Apelin is an adipokine that acts on a G protein-coupled receptor named APJ, and has been established to play pivotal roles in various physiological conditions. However, the function of apelin in hepatocytes has not been fully investigated...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820786/models-of-care-delivery-for-patients-with-parkinson-disease-living-in-rural-areas
#11
Kristin A Schuller, Brooke Vaughan, Ian Wright
The elderly who suffer from chronic conditions have an increasingly difficult time accessing health care in rural areas compared with their healthy counterparts who seek and utilize less specialty care. Parkinson disease affects approximately 0.3% to 5% of the elderly population. However, a large portion of that population has difficulty accessing health care. The purpose of this study was to obtain an understanding of the access to care issues for patients with Parkinson disease and review solutions to aid their provision of care...
October 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820612/the-potential-of-signal-peptide-peptidase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-hepatitis-c
#12
Kohji Moriishi
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver steatosis, cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome with inflammation, and eventually leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV core protein is a well-known capsid protein and pathogenic factor related to lipid accumulation, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and carcinogenesis. Cleavage of the C-terminal transmembrane region by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is required for maturation of the core protein. Areas covered: Herein, this review details the general aspects of the structure, lifecycle, pathogenesis, and maturation of the HCV core protein, the function of SPP, and clinically available direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820545/assessment-and-management-of-acute-severe-mitral-regurgitation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#13
Marina Leitman, Vladimir Tyomkin, Ehud Raanani, Ram Sharony, Ludmila Tzatskin, Eli Peleg, Alex Blatt, Zvi Vered
BACKGROUND: Acute severe mitral regurgitation (MR) is a serious medical condition. Whilst clear guidelines exist regarding the management of chronic MR, acute severe MR is usually treated on an individual basis. Currently, few data exist regarding acute MR in the era of primary coronary interventions (PCI). The present study included patients admitted to the Department of Cardiology during recent years with acute severe MR of different etiologies, and an analysis of these data in the light of previous investigations...
March 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820420/alterations-in-placenta-redox-status-during-experimental-model-of-hypoxia-induced-preeclampsia
#14
A Sharashenidze, L Panchulidze, T Sanikidze
An important pathogenetic link of preeclampsia (PE) is hypoxia of uterine-placental tissues, accompanied by damage of the vascular endothelium and the release of vasoactive mediators, violate vascular tone and microcirculation in the maternal organism and placenta and development of a number of pathological processes in the mother's and fetus body. The aim of the study was to establish metabolic abnormalities of oxidative metabolism of the placenta during experimental model of PE (uterine/placental hypoxia)...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820073/immunomodulatory-role-of-arsenic-on-regulatory-t-cells
#15
Rizwanul Haque, Archana Chaudhary, Nadra Sadaf
Background and objective-Chronic Arsenic (As) exposure continued to be a cause of major problem associated with different kind of diseases including skin problem and different types of cancer. As exposure leads to numerous other pathological conditions that affect millions of people worldwide on a regular basis. It was recently established that As toxicity affects immune system and modulate the function and survival of cells involved in immune regulation. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) was reported to be an effective apoptosis inducer in a variety of cell types...
August 17, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820052/new-insights-on-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-as-targets-for-pain-and-inflammation-a-focus-on-%C3%AE-7-nachrs
#16
Deniz Bagdas, Mine S Gurun, Pamela Flood, Roger L Papke, M Imad Damaj
Nicotine and nicotinic receptors have been explored for the past three decades as targets for pain control. Accumulating evidences suggest that selective ligands for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) hold promise in the treatment of chronic pain conditions as they lack many of side effects associated with other nicotinic receptor types. This review provides the reader recent insights on α7 nAChRs from structure and function to the latest findings on the pharmacology and therapeutic targeting of these receptors for the treatment of pain and inflammation...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819605/recurrent-extra-and-intra-articular-synovial-chondromatosis-of-the-ankle-with-tarsal-tunnel-syndrome-a-rare-case-report
#17
Jonathan A Isbell, Andrew C Morris, Ibukunoluwa Araoye, Sameer Naranje, Ashish B Shah
INTRODUCTION: Synovial chondromatosis is a rare, benign monoarticular condition characterized by the metaplastic formation of cartilaginous nodules from the synovium of joints (intra-articular), tendons and bursae (extra-articular). These nodules have the potential to detach and form loose bodies within the joint space. The most common locations are the large joints such as the knees, hips, elbows, and shoulders, with less common locations being the foot and ankle joints. Synovial chondromatosis primarily occurs in men between the third and fifth decades of life, and it typically presents as chronic joint pain with swelling, decreased joint range of motion, and osteoarthritis...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819358/surgical-treatment-for-chronic-pancreatitis-past-present-and-future
#18
REVIEW
Stephanie Plagemann, Maria Welte, Jakob R Izbicki, Kai Bachmann
The pancreas was one of the last explored organs in the human body. The first surgical experiences were made before fully understanding the function of the gland. Surgical procedures remained less successful until the discovery of insulin, blood groups, and finally the possibility of blood donation. Throughout the centuries, the surgical approach went from radical resections to minimal resections or only drainage of the gland in comparison to an adequate resection combined with drainage procedures. Today, the well-known and standardized procedures are considered as safe due to the high experience of operating surgeons, the centering of pancreatic surgery in specialized centers, and optimized perioperative treatment...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819298/transcriptome-based-network-analysis-reveals-renal-cell-type-specific-dysregulation-of-hypoxia-associated-transcripts
#19
Natallia Shved, Gregor Warsow, Felix Eichinger, David Hoogewijs, Simone Brandt, Peter Wild, Matthias Kretzler, Clemens D Cohen, Maja T Lindenmeyer
Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of hypoxia-regulated transcriptional mechanisms is involved in development of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, it remains unclear how hypoxia-induced transcription factors (HIFs) and subsequent biological processes contribute to CKD development and progression. In our study, genome-wide expression profiles of more than 200 renal biopsies from patients with different CKD stages revealed significant correlation of HIF-target genes with eGFR in glomeruli and tubulointerstitium...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819200/periostin-binding-dna-aptamer-treatment-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-under-diabetic-conditions
#20
Jae Eun Um, Jung Tak Park, Bo Young Nam, Jung Pyo Lee, Jong Ha Jung, Youndong Kim, Seonghun Kim, Jimin Park, Meiyan Wu, Seung Hyeok Han, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang
Diabetic nephropathy, the major cause of chronic kidney disease, is associated with progressive renal fibrosis. Recently, accumulation of periostin, an extracellular matrix protein, was shown to augment renal fibrosis. Aptamers have higher binding affinities without developing the common side effects of antibodies. Thus, we evaluated the effect of periostin inhibition by an aptamer-based inhibitor on renal fibrosis under diabetic conditions. In vitro, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) treatment significantly upregulated periostin, fibronectin, and type I collagen mRNA and protein expressions in inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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