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Bin Hua, John Yang, Fengjing Liu, Guocheng Zhu, Baolin Deng, Jingdong Mao
Characterization of dissolved organic matter/nitrogen (DOM/DON) is critical in water quality assessment and nutrient management in watershed or ecosystem. This study was to investigate the link between DOM/DON and its source using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Water samples were collected from various aquatic systems in a watershed located in central Missouri, including rural watershed with various land use and land cover (LULC), landfill, and constructed wetland...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Gregory D Bowden, Kirkwood M Land, Roberta M O'Connor, Heather M Fritz
The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona is the primary etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a serious neurologic disease of horses. Many horses in the U.S. are at risk of developing EPM; approximately 50% of all horses in the U.S. have been exposed to S. neurona and treatments for EPM are 60-70% effective. Advancement of treatment requires new technology to identify new drugs for EPM. To address this critical need, we developed, validated, and implemented a high-throughput screen to test 725 FDA-approved compounds from the NIH clinical collections library for anti-S...
February 16, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Teresa Morales-Ruiz, Álvaro C Romero-Valenzuela, Vanessa M Vázquez-Grande, Teresa Roldán-Arjona, Rafael R Ariza, Dolores Córdoba-Cañero
Base excision repair (BER) is a major defense pathway against spontaneous DNA damage. This multistep process is initiated by DNA glycosylases that recognise and excise the damaged base, and proceeds by the concerted action of additional proteins that perform incision of the abasic site, gap filling and ligation. BER has been extensively studied in bacteria, yeasts and animals. Although knowledge of this pathway in land plants is increasing, there are no reports detecting BER in algae. We describe here an experimental in vitro system allowing the specific analysis of BER in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
March 5, 2018: DNA Repair
Alexander Arévalo-Sandi, Paulo Estefano D Bobrowiec, Victor Juan Ulises Rodriguez Chuma, Darren Norris
There is increasing interest in the restoration/regeneration of degraded tropical habitats yet the potential role of natural regenerators remains unclear. We test the hypothesis that the richness and functional diversity of terrestrial mammals differs between forest regrowth stages. We quantified the richness and functional diversity of eight terrestrial mammal seed-disperser species across a forest regrowth gradient in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We installed camera-traps in 15 sites within small-holder properties with forest regrowth stage classified into three groups, with five sites each of: late second-regrowth forest, early second-regrowth forest and abandoned pasture...
2018: PloS One
Dustin P Joubert, Jorge Z Granados, Jonathan M Oliver, Bethany L Noack, Peter W Grandjean, Christopher R Woodman, Steven E Riechman, Stephen F Crouse
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to compare acute bouts of aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) exercise on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), post-exercise blood pressure (BP), plasma nitrate/nitrite (PN), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in untrained, pre-hypertensive men. DESIGN: In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 19 untrained, pre-hypertensive men completed bouts of ATM and LTM on separate days. FMD was measured pre-exercise and 1-hour post-exercise...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Chuanhui Liao, Jin Hong, Dingtao Zhao, Shuang Zhang, Changhong Chen
Food waste is a worldwide problem due to its effects on carbon emission, water pollution, and arable lands. Previous studies of food waste generation and reduction focus on demographic, psychological, and situational factors, whereas the effects of culture in different countries have been ignored. This paper investigates the influence of Confucian culture on behaviors that waste food, considering additional factors of face saving and group conformity. We used an integrated behavioral intention model combining the TPB model and Lee's modified Fishbein model...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jing Zhang, Siyue Li, Ruozhu Dong, Changsheng Jiang
The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is one of the largest hydropower reservoirs in the world. However, changes of the important physical characteristics of the reservoir covering pre-, during-, and post- dam have not been well studied. This study analyzed the lengths and water surface areas of the TGR using advanced support vector machine method (SVM) combined Landsat images with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM), which showed an increasing trend of lengths and surface areas with variable growth rates from pre-dam period to post-dam period...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lauren K Lempert, Stanton A Glantz
Introduction: American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest commercial tobacco use in the United States, resulting in higher tobacco-caused deaths and diseases than the general population. Some American Indians/Alaska Natives use commercial tobacco for ceremonial as well as recreational uses. Because federally-recognized Tribal lands are sovereign, they are not subject to state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws. This study analyzes tobacco industry promotional efforts specifically targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands to understand appropriate policy responses in light of American Indians'/Alaska Natives' unique sovereign status and culture...
March 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Ashley Jane Riner, Jaime L Rudd, Deana L Clifford, Brian L Cypher, Janet E Foley, Patrick Foley
The San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica Merriam (Carnivora, Canidae)) is an endangered small carnivore endemic to the San Joaquin Valley of California. Commercial and agricultural land expansion has contributed to the species' decline and invasion of more cosmopolitan species, providing means for potential ecological shifts in disease vector and host species. Fleas are common ectoparasites that can serve as important indicators of cross-species interactions and disease risk. We compared flea load and species composition on kit foxes inhabiting urban and nonurban habitats to determine how urbanization affects flea diversity and potential disease spillover from co-occurring species...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Joshu J Mountjoy, Jamie D Howarth, Alan R Orpin, Philip M Barnes, David A Bowden, Ashley A Rowden, Alexandre C G Schimel, Caroline Holden, Huw J Horgan, Scott D Nodder, Jason R Patton, Geoffroy Lamarche, Matthew Gerstenberger, Aaron Micallef, Arne Pallentin, Tim Kane
Although the global flux of sediment and carbon from land to the coastal ocean is well known, the volume of material that reaches the deep ocean-the ultimate sink-and the mechanisms by which it is transferred are poorly documented. Using a globally unique data set of repeat seafloor measurements and samples, we show that the moment magnitude ( M w ) 7.8 November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake (New Zealand) triggered widespread landslides in a submarine canyon, causing a powerful "canyon flushing" event and turbidity current that traveled >680 km along one of the world's longest deep-sea channels...
March 2018: Science Advances
Yunuen Avalos-Padilla, Roland L Knorr, Rosario Javier-Reyna, Guillermina García-Rivera, Reinhard Lipowsky, Rumiana Dimova, Esther Orozco
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) orchestrates cell membrane-remodeling mechanisms in eukaryotes, including endocytosis. However, ESCRT functions in phagocytosis (ingestion of ≥250 nm particles), has been poorly studied. In macrophages and amoebae, phagocytosis is required for cell nutrition and attack to other microorganisms and cells. In Entamoeba histolytica , the voracious protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, phagocytosis is a land mark of virulence. Here, we have investigated the role of ESCRT-III in the phagocytosis of E...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Shumeng Kou, Gilles Vincent, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Frederic E Pitre, Michel Labrecque, Nicholas J B Brereton
Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yinhong Hu, Xiaolin Dou, Juanyong Li, Feng Li
The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete), permeable pavement (bricks with round holes), shrub coverage ( Buxus megistophylla Levl...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christopher B Skinner, Christopher J Poulsen, Justin S Mankin
Plants influence extreme heat events by regulating land-atmosphere water and energy exchanges. The contribution of plants to changes in future heat extremes will depend on the responses of vegetation growth and physiology to the direct and indirect effects of elevated CO2 . Here we use a suite of earth system models to disentangle the radiative versus vegetation effects of elevated CO2 on heat wave characteristics. Vegetation responses to a quadrupling of CO2 increase summer heat wave occurrence by 20 days or more-30-50% of the radiative response alone-across tropical and mid-to-high latitude forests...
March 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Dominique Berteaux, Marylène Ricard, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Nicolas Casajus, Catherine Périé, Frieda Beauregard, Sylvie de Blois
The Northern Biodiversity Paradox predicts that, despite its globally negative effects on biodiversity, climate change will increase biodiversity in northern regions where many species are limited by low temperatures. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of a northern network of 1,749 protected areas spread over >600,000 km2 in Quebec, Canada. Using ecological niche modeling, we calculated potential changes in the probability of occurrence of 529 species to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change on (1) species gain, loss, turnover, and richness in protected areas, (2) representativity of protected areas, and (3) extent of species ranges located in protected areas...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Richard Potts, Anna K Behrensmeyer, J Tyler Faith, Christian A Tryon, Alison S Brooks, John E Yellen, Alan L Deino, Rahab Kinyanjui, Jennifer B Clark, Catherine Haradon, Naomi E Levin, Hanneke J M Meijer, Elizabeth G Veatch, R Bernhart Owen, Robin W Renaut
Development of the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) before 300 thousand years ago (ka) raises the question of how environmental change influenced the evolution of behaviors characteristic of early Homo sapiens We use temporally well-constrained sedimentological and paleoenvironmental data to investigate environmental dynamics before and after the appearance of the early MSA in the Olorgesailie Basin, Kenya. In contrast to the Acheulean archeological record in the same basin, MSA sites are associated with a dramatically different faunal community, more pronounced erosion-deposition cycles, tectonic activity, and enhanced wet-dry variability...
March 15, 2018: Science
Sebhat Erqou, Jane E Clougherty, Oladipupo Olafiranye, Jared W Magnani, Aryan Aiyer, Sheila Tripathy, Ellen Kinnee, Kevin E Kip, Steven E Reis
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess racial differences in air pollution exposures to ambient fine particulate matter (particles with median aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm [PM2.5 ]) and black carbon (BC) and their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, arterial endothelial function, incident CVD events, and all-cause mortality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Data from the HeartSCORE study (Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation) were used to estimate 1-year average air pollution exposure to PM2...
March 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Stanimir Georgiev, Daniel Tanase, Peter Ewert, Christian Meierhofer, Alfred Hager, Jelena Pabst von Ohain, Andreas Eicken
BACKGROUND: To investigate the feasibility and mid-term results of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) in patients with conduit free or "native" right ventricular outflow tracts (RVOT). METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified all 18 patients with conduit free or "native" right ventricular outflow tract, who were treated with percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) in our institution. They were divided into two groups - these in whom the central pulmonary artery was used as an anchoring point for the preparation of the landing zone (n=10) for PPVI and these, in whom a pulmonary artery branch was used for this purpose (n=8)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Mengli Xiao, Yongbo Zhang, Huimin Fu, Zhihua Wang
High-precision navigation algorithm is essential for the future Mars pinpoint landing mission. The unknown inputs caused by large uncertainties of atmospheric density and aerodynamic coefficients as well as unknown measurement biases may cause large estimation errors of conventional Kalman filters. This paper proposes a derivative-free version of nonlinear unbiased minimum variance filter for Mars entry navigation. This filter has been designed to solve this problem by estimating the state and unknown measurement biases simultaneously with derivative-free character, leading to a high-precision algorithm for the Mars entry navigation...
March 12, 2018: ISA Transactions
Marguerite A Renouf, Steven J Kenway, Ka Leung Lam, Tony Weber, Estelle Roux, Silvia Serrao-Neumann, Darryl Low Choy, Edward A Morgan
Water sensitive interventions are being promoted to reduce the adverse impacts of urban development on natural water cycles. However it is currently difficult to know the best strategy for their implementation because current and desired urban water performance is not well quantified. This is particularly at the city-region scale, which is important for strategic urban planning. This work aimed to fill this gap by quantifying the water performance of urban systems within city-regions using 'urban water metabolism' evaluation, to inform decisions about water sensitive interventions...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
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