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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932246/implementation-and-evaluation-of-an-intervention-for-children-in-afghanistan-at-risk-for-substance-use-or-actively-using-psychoactive-substances
#1
Abdul Subor Momand, Elizabeth Mattfeld, Brian Morales, Manzoor Ul Haq, Thom Browne, Kevin E O'Grady, Hendrée E Jones
The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD) protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment's start and end and 12 weeks later...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904336/the-relation-between-cesarean-birth-and-child-cognitive-development
#2
Cain Polidano, Anna Zhu, Joel C Bornstein
This is the first detailed study of the relation between cesarean birth and child cognitive development. We measure differences in child cognitive performance at 4 to 9 years of age between cesarean-born and vaginally-born children (n = 3,666) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). LSAC is a nationally representative birth cohort surveyed biennially. Using multivariate regression, we control for a large range of confounders related to perinatal risk factors and the socio-economic advantage associated with cesarean-born children...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884617/strengths-and-gaps-in-physicians-risk-communication-a-scenario-study-of-the-influence-of-numeracy-on-cancer-screening-communication
#3
Dafina Petrova, Olga Kostopoulou, Brendan C Delaney, Edward T Cokely, Rocio Garcia-Retamero
OBJECTIVE: Many patients have low numeracy, which impedes their understanding of important information about health (e.g., benefits and harms of screening). We investigated whether physicians adapt their risk communication to accommodate the needs of patients with low numeracy, and how physicians' own numeracy influences their understanding and communication of screening statistics. METHODS: UK family physicians ( N = 151) read a description of a patient seeking advice on cancer screening...
September 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868781/long-term-outcomes-for-large-for-gestational-age-infants-born-at-term
#4
Amina Z Khambalia, Charles S Algert, Jennifer R Bowen, Rebecca J Collie, Christine L Roberts
AIM: Large for gestational age (LGA) babies have increased risks for short-term outcomes such as shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycaemia and longer hospital stay. Little is known of long-term health, development and educational outcomes of LGA babies. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term health, mortality, development and educational outcomes for infants born LGA at term. METHODS: A population-based record linkage study of live singletons born at term (37-41 weeks of gestation) in New South Wales, Australia, from 2001 to 2006...
September 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858147/toward-meaningful-care-plan-clinical-decision-support-feasibility-and-effects-of-a-simulated-pilot-study
#5
Gail M Keenan, Karen Dunn Lopez, Yingwei Yao, Vanessa E C Sousa, Janet Stifter, Alessandro Febretti, Andrew Johnson, Diana J Wilkie
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision support (CDS) tools-with easily understood and actionable information, at the point of care-are needed to help registered nurses (RNs) make evidence-based decisions. Not clear are the optimal formats of CDS tools. Thorough, preclinical testing is desirable to avoid costly errors associated with premature implementation in electronic health records. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine feasibility of the protocol designed to compare multiple CDS formats and evaluate effects of numeracy and graph literacy on RN adoption of best practices and care planning time in a simulated environment...
September 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837862/childhood-deprivation-and-later-life-cognitive-function-in-a-population-based-study-of-older-rural-south-africans
#6
Lindsay C Kobayashi, M Maria Glymour, Kathleen Kahn, Collin F Payne, Ryan G Wagner, Livia Montana, Farrah J Mateen, Stephen M Tollman, Lisa F Berkman
RATIONALE: Little research has evaluated the life course drivers of cognitive aging in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationships of self-rated childhood health and father's occupation during childhood with later-life cognitive function score and whether educational attainment mediated these relationships among older South Africans living in a former region of Apartheid-era racial segregation. METHODS: Data were from baseline assessments of "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community" (HAALSI), a population-based study of 5059 men and women aged ≥40 years in 2015 in rural Agincourt sub-district, South Africa...
August 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771221/childhood-outcomes-following-preterm-prelabor-rupture-of-the-membranes-pprom-a-population-based-record-linkage-cohort-study
#7
C L Roberts, P Wagland, S Torvaldsen, J R Bowen, J P Bentley, J M Morris
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine child health, development and educational outcomes for infants born following preterm prelabor rupture of the membrane (PPROM). STUDY DESIGN: Population-based record linkage cohort study using data from NSW, Australia, 2001 to 2014. RESULTS: Of 121 822 births at 20 to 37 weeks, 18 799 (15%) followed PPROM, 56 406 (46%) followed spontaneous labor and 46 617 (38%) were planned. Compared with infants of a similar gestational age born following spontaneous labor or planned delivery, exposure to PPROM did not increase the risk of childhood mortality, childhood hospitalization, developmentally vulnerable at school entry, low reading or numeracy scores...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750907/barriers-to-technology-use-among-older-heart-failure-individuals-in-managing-their-symptoms-after-hospital-discharge
#8
Linda Nguyen, Karim Keshavjee, Norm Archer, Christopher Patterson, Femida Gwadry-Sridhar, Catherine Demers
BACKGROUND: In North America, heart failure (HF) is the leading cause for hospital readmission. Supportive technology, such as computers and tablets, could potentially assist patients with self-care to manage their condition after hospital discharge; however, older individuals have difficulties in adopting technology to manage their condition. METHOD: This study used a mixed methods design to identify barriers to technology use in HF self-care. In the qualitative phase, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 HF patients and 10 informal caregivers or care partners (CP)...
September 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736251/patient-centered-approaches-to-creating-understandable-health-information
#9
REVIEW
Anobel Y Odisho, John L Gore
As care delivery shifts to further include patients in shared decision-making, patient-centered health information can balance the information asymmetry between patients and providers. Patient health literacy, numeracy, and graph literacy must match that of health information materials to create understandable health information that empowers patients to participate in shared decision-making. We consider an iterative approach focused on three key steps: assessment of the specific information needs of the selected patient community, assessment of that community's ability to receive and understand health information, and evaluation of the materials developed to assess effectiveness...
September 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704410/improving-numeracy-through-values-affirmation-enhances-decision-and-stem-outcomes
#10
Ellen Peters, Brittany Shoots-Reinhard, Mary Kate Tompkins, Dan Schley, Louise Meilleur, Aleksander Sinayev, Martin Tusler, Laura Wagner, Jennifer Crocker
Greater numeracy has been correlated with better health and financial outcomes in past studies, but causal effects in adults are unknown. In a 9-week longitudinal study, undergraduate students, all taking a psychology statistics course, were randomly assigned to a control condition or a values-affirmation manipulation intended to improve numeracy. By the final week in the course, the numeracy intervention (statistics-course enrollment combined with values affirmation) enhanced objective numeracy, subjective numeracy, and two decision-related outcomes (financial literacy and health-related behaviors)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691169/academic-performance-in-primary-school-children-with-common-emotional-and-behavioral-problems
#11
Lisa K Mundy, Louise Canterford, Dawn Tucker, Jordana Bayer, Helena Romaniuk, Susan Sawyer, Petra Lietz, Gerry Redmond, Jenny Proimos, Nicholas Allen, George Patton
BACKGROUND: Many emotional and behavioral problems first emerge in primary school and are the forerunners of mental health problems occurring in adolescence. However, the extent that these problems may be associated with academic failure has been explored less. We aimed to quantify the association between emotional and behavioral problems with academic performance. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 8- to 9-year-olds (N = 1239) were recruited from schools in Australia...
August 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652467/systolic-blood-pressure-and-biochemical-assessment-of-adherence-a-cross-sectional-analysis-in-the-emergency-department
#12
Candace D McNaughton, Nancy J Brown, Russell L Rothman, Dandan Liu, Edmond K Kabagambe, Phillip D Levy, Wesley H Self, Alan B Storrow, Sean P Collins, Christianne L Roumie
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is common in the emergency department (ED), but the relationship between antihypertensive medication adherence and BP in the ED is unclear. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that higher antihypertensive adherence is associated with lower systolic BP (SBP) in the ED among adults with hypertension who sought ED care at an academic hospital from July 2012 to April 2013. Biochemical assessment of antihypertensive adherence was performed using a mass spectrometry blood assay, and the primary outcome was average ED SBP...
August 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614954/using-visual-aids-to-enhance-physician-patient-discussions-and-increase-health-literacy
#13
Michelle Pratt, Gordon E Searles
Health literacy refers to the comprehension required to make well-informed decisions regarding one's health. It is a critical component in helping patients to understand how to take their medications appropriately. However, many patients do not possess the comprehension necessary for medication adherence. The result of poor literacy is a higher incidence of misunderstanding medication instructions. Visual aids have the ability to transcend language and numeracy barriers and can therefore improve the effectiveness of communication and broaden target audiences...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595599/designing-persuasive-health-materials-using-processing-fluency-a-literature-review
#14
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Masahumi Okada, Mio Kato, Takahiro Kiuchi
BACKGROUND: Health materials to promote health behaviors should be readable and generate favorable evaluations of the message. Processing fluency (the subjective experience of ease with which people process information) has been increasingly studied over the past decade. In this review, we explore effects and instantiations of processing fluency and discuss the implications for designing effective health materials. We searched seven online databases using "processing fluency" as the key word...
June 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541513/improving-health-literacy-through-adult-basic-education-in-australia
#15
Suzanne Morony, Emma Lamph, Danielle Muscat, Don Nutbeam, Haryana M Dhillon, Heather Shepherd, Sian Smith, Aisha Khan, Julie Osborne, Wedyan Meshreky, Karen Luxford, Andrew Hayen, Kirsten J McCaffery
Adults with low literacy are less empowered to take care of their health, have poorer health outcomes and higher healthcare costs. We facilitated partnerships between adult literacy teachers and community health providers to deliver a health literacy training program in adult basic education classrooms. Following course completion we interviewed 19 adult education teachers (15 delivering the health literacy program; 4 delivering standard literacy classes) and four community health providers (CHPs) about their experiences, and analysed transcripts using Framework analysis...
May 25, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537364/psychometric-properties-of-the-english-version-of-the-oral-health-literacy-adults-questionnaire-ohl-aq
#16
P M Flynn, M T John, A Naik, N Kohli, J J VanWormer, K Self
Objective: To test the psychometric properties of the Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire (OHL-AQ) in English. The OHL-AQ was designed to test functional oral health literacy in general populations and was initially validated in Iran. Methods: The instrument was administered to 405 adult subjects (mean age 45 (SD 16) years and 67% female) attending the 2014 Minnesota State Fair. The OHL-AQ is composed of 17 items measuring four conceptual dimensions: reading comprehension, numeracy, listening, and decision-making...
December 2016: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525723/effectiveness-of-a-decision-aid-in-potentially-vulnerable-patients-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-chest-pain-choice-multicenter-randomized-trial
#17
Kristin L Rising, Judd E Hollander, Jason T Schaffer, Jeffrey A Kline, Carlos A Torres, Deborah B Diercks, Russell Jones, Kelly P Owen, Zachary F Meisel, Michel Demers, Annie Leblanc, Nilay D Shah, Jonathan Inselman, Jeph Herrin, Victor M Montori, Erik P Hess
BACKGROUND: We test the hypotheses that use of the Chest Pain Choice (CPC) decision aid (DA) would be similarly effective in potentially vulnerable subgroups but increase knowledge more in patients with higher education and trust in physicians more in patients from racial minority groups. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial in adults with chest pain potentially due to acute coronary syndrome. The trial compared an intervention group engaged in shared decision making (SDM) using CPC to a control group receiving usual care (UC)...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523960/the-health-literacy-dyad-the-contribution-of-future-gps-in-england
#18
Oana R Groene, Jane Wills, Nicola Crichton, Gill Rowlands, Rima R Rudd
BACKGROUND: Health literacy studies have primarily focused on the cognitive and social skills of individuals needed to gain access to, understand, and use health information. This area of study is undergoing a paradigm shift with increased attention being paid to the skills of practitioners and an examination of their contribution to the link between literacy and health outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe the health literacy related competencies of General Practice (GP) trainees who will soon be responsible for the clinical encounter...
May 19, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520750/awareness-and-trust-of-the-fda-and-cdc-results-from-a-national-sample-of-us-adults-and-adolescents
#19
Sarah D Kowitt, Allison M Schmidt, Anika Hannan, Adam O Goldstein
Trust in government agencies plays a key role in advancing these organizations' agendas, influencing behaviors, and effectively implementing policies. However, few studies have examined the extent to which individuals are aware of and trust the leading United States agencies devoted to protecting the public's health. Using two national samples of adolescents (N = 1,125) and adults (N = 5,014), we examined demographic factors, with a focus on vulnerable groups, as correlates of awareness of and trust in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the federal government...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514977/cross-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-newest-vital-sign-nvs-health-literacy-instrument-in-general-population-and-highly-educated-samples-of-brazilian-adults
#20
Renne Rodrigues, Selma Maffei de Andrade, Alberto Durán González, Marcela Maria Birolim, Arthur Eumann Mesas
OBJECTIVE: The present work aimed at cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the health literacy assessment tool Newest Vital Sign (NVS) in general population (GP) and highly educated (HE) samples of Brazilian adults. DESIGN: An expert committee reviewed the translation and back-translation processes and the cultural adaptation. The construct validity was analysed with confirmatory factor analysis and via associations with features of the study population. SETTING: The final validation test was performed in two different populations from Londrina, a large town in southern Brazil...
August 2017: Public Health Nutrition
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