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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896801/high-fat-diet-induced-remission-of-diabetes-in-a-subset-of-k-atp-gof-insulin-secretory-deficient-mice
#1
Zihan Yan, Zeenat A Shyr, Manuela Fortunato, Alecia Welscher, Mariana Alisio, Michael Martino, Brian N Finck, Hannah Conway, Maria S Remedi
Chronic hyperglycemia has been proposed to cause pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and loss of β-cell mass. As in human monogenic neonatal diabetes, mice expressing KATP channel gain-of-function (GOF) mutations demonstrate deficiency in insulin secretion and develop severe diabetes. As diabetes progresses, they show loss of islet insulin content and β-cell mass, secondary consequences of glucotoxicity. Co-morbidity of chronic hyperglycemia and elevated lipids, so called glucolipotoxicity, is also crucial in the pathogenesis of diabetes...
June 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887900/effect-of-fermented-camel-milk-on-glucose-metabolism-insulin-resistance-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-of-adolescents-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-double-blind-randomized-crossover-trial
#2
Zahra Fallah, Awat Feizi, Mahin Hashemipour, Roya Kelishadi
Background: This study, for the first time, aimed to assess the effects of fermented camel milk (FCM) on glycemic and inflammatory parameters related to metabolic syndrome (MetS), an aggregation of cardiometabolic risk factors, in adolescents. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind, randomized crossover trial, overweight/obese adolescents (fulfilling MetS criteria, aged 11-18 years) were randomly assigned to receive FCM 250 cc per day for an 8-week period, a 4-week washout, and then diluted cow's yogurt (DCY) 250 cc/day for another 8-week period, or the reverse sequence...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877881/68ga-dota-exendin-pet-ct-for-detection-of-insulinoma-in-a-patient-with-persistent-hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemia
#3
Ashwin Singh Parihar, Shelvin Kumar Vadi, Rajender Kumar, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Harmandeep Singh, Amanjit Bal, Rama Walia, Jaya Shukla, Saroj Kumar Sinha
Insulinomas are the most common functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and the leading cause of persistent hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinemia in adults. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP) receptor analogs are the latest agents being used in the detection of insulinomas, with initial reports suggesting high sensitivity due to universal GLP1 receptor expression on these tumors. PET/CT imaging in this patient using Ga DOTA-Exendin, a GLP receptor analog, proved useful for accurate localization of the culprit lesion, aiding in the definitive management of the patient...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877623/nutrient-optimization-reduces-phosphorylation-and-hydroxylation-level-on-an-fc-fusion-protein-in-a-cho-fed-batch-process
#4
Ye Hou, Hang Su, Zhiying Luo, Mingying Li, Xiaonan Ma, Ningning Ma
Phosphorylation and hydroxylation are post translational modifications (PTMs) rarely observed or reported in biopharmaceuticals. While developing a stable CHO cell line and a fed-batch process to produce a biosimilar dulaglutide, a GLP1-Fc fusion protein, we identified both serine phosphorylation and lysine hydroxylation. While the innovator dulaglutide contains less than 2% phosphorylated and only approximately 6.5% hydroxylated GLP1-Fc molecules, the clones that we obtained in the platform fed-batch process had approximately 20% phosphorylated and 25% hydroxylated GLP1-Fc molecules...
June 7, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851973/time-course-metabolome-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-confirms-correlation-between-leptin-body-weight-and-the-microbiome
#5
Loqmane Seridi, Gregory C Leo, G Lynis Dohm, Walter J Pories, James Lenhard
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective way to lose weight and reverse type 2 diabetes. We profiled the metabolome of 18 obese patients (nine euglycemic and nine diabetics) that underwent RYGB surgery and seven lean subjects. Plasma samples from the obese patients were collected before the surgery and one week and three months after the surgery. We analyzed the metabolome in association to five hormones (Adiponectin, Insulin, Ghrelin, Leptin, and Resistin), four peptide hormones (GIP, Glucagon, GLP1, and PYY), and two cytokines (IL-6 and TNF)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791170/effectiveness-and-safety-of-lixisenatide-for-treatment-of-diabetes-in-the-real-world-data-from-the-monitoring-registry-in-a-real-life-cohort-in-the-czech-and-slovak-republic
#6
Martin Haluzík, Alena Adamíková, Milan Běhunčík, Marek Macko, Radka Štěpánová
INTRODUCTION: GLP1 receptor agonist lixisenatide has demonstrated its efficacy in numerous clinical trials, nevertheless its real-life effectiveness data is limited. AIM: To describe effectiveness and safety of lixisenatide in routine clinical practice in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as recorded by the Registry-Based Observational Study. METHODS: Multinational, multicenter, observational, non-interventional, 6-month prospective product registry of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged > 18 years who were initiating therapy with lixisenatide...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776406/the-effect-of-dpp-4-inhibition-to-improve-functional-outcome-after-stroke-is-mediated-by-the-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-pathway
#7
Fausto Chiazza, Harald Tammen, Hiranya Pintana, Grazyna Lietzau, Massimo Collino, Thomas Nyström, Thomas Klein, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are approved drugs for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. These effects are mainly mediated by inhibiting endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) cleavage. Interestingly, gliptins can also improve stroke outcome in rodents independently from GLP1. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a DPP-4 substrate and CXCR4 agonist promoting beneficial effects in injured brains...
May 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728598/glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Andreas Andersen, Asger Lund, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
In healthy individuals, the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) potentiates insulin release and suppresses glucagon secretion in response to the ingestion of nutrients. GLP1 also delays gastric emptying and increases satiety. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), supraphysiological doses of GLP1 normalize the endogenous insulin response during a hyperglycaemic clamp. Owing to the short plasma half-life of native GLP1, several GLP1 receptor agonists (GLP1RAs) with longer half-lives have been developed for the treatment of T2DM...
May 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704228/a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-metabolic-effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-with-transit-bipartition
#9
Fernanda R Azevedo, Sergio Santoro, Maria L Correa-Giannella, Marcos T Toyoshima, Daniel Giannella-Neto, Daniela Calderaro, Danielle M Gualandro, Pai C Yu, Bruno Caramelli
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of the sleeve gastrectomy with transit bipartition (SG + TB) procedure with standard medical therapy (SMT) in mildly obese patients with type II diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Twenty male adults, ≤ 65 years old, with T2D, body mass index (BMI) > 28 kg/m2 and < 35 kg/m2 , and HbA1c level > 8% were randomized to SG + TB or to SMT. Outcomes were the remission in the metabolic and cardiovascular risk variables up to 24 months...
April 27, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674332/potent-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-sglt1-2-dual-inhibition-improves-glycemic-control-without-marked-gastrointestinal-adaptation-or-colonic-microbiota-changes-in-rodents
#10
Fuyong Du, Simon A Hinke, Cassandre Cavanaugh, David Polidori, Nathanial Wallace, Thomas Kirchner, Matthew Jennis, Wensheng Lang, Gee-Hong Kuo, Micheal D Gaul, James Lenhard, Keith Demarest, Nadim J Ajami, Yin Liang, Pamela J Hornby
The sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLT1 and SGLT2) transport glucose across the intestinal brush border and kidney tubule. Dual SGLT1/2 inhibition could reduce hyperglycemia more than SGLT2-selective inhibition in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, questions remain about altered gastrointestinal (GI) luminal glucose and tolerability, and this was evaluated in slc5a1-/- mice or with a potent dual inhibitor (compound 8; SGLT1 K i = 1.5 ± 0.5 nM 100-fold greater potency than phlorizin; SGLT2 K i = 0.4 ± 0...
June 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547706/clinical-implications-of-current-cardiovascular-outcome-trials-with-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors
#11
REVIEW
Soo Lim, Robert H Eckel, Kwang Kon Koh
The final goal in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is reduction in cardiovascular (CV) complications and total mortality. Various factors including hyperglycemia contribute to these complications and mortality directly and indirectly. In recent years, large-scale CV outcome trials with new antidiabetic medications, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor agonists, and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, have been completed...
May 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531541/sitagliptin-accelerates-endothelial-regeneration-after-vascular-injury-independent-from-glp1-receptor-signaling
#12
Friederike Remm, Nicolle Kränkel, Daniela Lener, Daniel J Drucker, Sieghart Sopper, Christoph Brenner
Introduction: DPP4 inhibitors (gliptins) are commonly used antidiabetic drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Gliptins also act in a glucose-independent manner and show vasoregenerative effects. We have shown that gliptins can remarkably accelerate vascular healing after vascular injury. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined potential signaling pathways linking gliptins to enhanced endothelial regeneration. Methods and Results: We used wild-type and GLP1 receptor knockout ( Glp1r -/- ) mice to investigate the underlying mechanisms of gliptin-induced reendothelialization...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509291/short-bowel-syndrome-influence-of-nutritional-therapy-and-incretin-glp1-on-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue
#13
Luciana T Parreiras-E-Silva, Iana M de Araújo, Jorge Elias, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa, Vivian M M Suen, Julio S Marchini, Jéssica Bonella, Andressa K Nahas, Carlos E G Salmon, Francisco J A de Paula
Energy deprivation leads to a decrease in white adipose tissue and bone mineral density (BMD), while simultaneously inducing the expansion of marrow adipose tissue (MAT). In short bowel syndrome (SBS), parenteral nutrition mitigates the deterioration of nutritional status, including decreases in MAT. Osteoporosis is, however, a frequent complication of SBS. The objective of our study here was to evaluate the association of fat deposit sites (subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues: intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and MAT) and the incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) with BMD in individuals with SBS...
March 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487593/transglycosylated-starch-modulates-the-gut-microbiome-and-expression-of-genes-related-to-lipid-synthesis-in-liver-and-adipose-tissue-of-pigs
#14
Monica A Newman, Renée M Petri, Dietmar Grüll, Qendrim Zebeli, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Dietary inclusion of resistant starches can promote host health through modulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles, and lipid metabolism. This study investigated the impact of a transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on gastric, ileal, cecal, proximal-colonic, and mid-colonic bacterial community profiles and fermentation metabolites using a growing pig model. It additionally evaluated the effect of TGS on the expression of host genes related to glucose and SCFA absorption, incretins, and satiety in the gut as well as host genes related to lipid metabolism in hepatic and adipose tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466062/management-of-diabetes-during-air-travel-a-systematic-literature-review-of-current-recommendations-and-their-supporting-evidence
#15
James Pavela, Rahul Suresh, Rebecca S Blue, Charles H Mathers, L Maria Belalcazar
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with diabetes are increasingly seeking pretravel advice, but updated professional recommendations remain scant. We performed a systematic review on diabetes management during air travel to summarize current recommendations, assess supporting evidence, and identify areas of future research. METHODS: A systematic review of the English literature on diabetes management during air travel was undertaken utilizing PubMed and MEDLINE. Publications regarding general travel advice; adjustment of insulin and noninsulin therapies; and the use of insulin pumps, glucometers and subcutaneous glucose sensors at altitude were included...
February 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461566/nya-glukoss%C3%A3-nkande-l%C3%A3-kemedel-%C3%A3-r-kardiovaskul%C3%A3-rt-s%C3%A3-kra-enstaka-diabetesl%C3%A3-kemedel-har-%C3%A3-ven-visats-skydda-mot-kardiovaskul%C3%A3-ra-och-renala-komplikationer
#16
Eva Toft, Mikael Rydén
Do novel therapies in type 2 diabetes have protective effects on cardiovascular and renal complications? A number of new antidiabetic drug classes have been introduced on the market in the last decade. Regulatory authorities have required that their safety in type 2 diabetes populations with high cardiovascular risk must be assessed. Consequently, a large number of outcome studies have been initiated, several of which have been published in recent years. Overall, this has so far shown that long-acting insulin analogues, DPP4-inhibitors, GLP1-receptor agonists and SGLT2-inhibitors are safe...
February 20, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450114/flavonoid-rich-extract-of-chromolaena-odorata-modulate-circulating-glp-1-in-wistar-rats-computational-evaluation-of-tgr5-involvement
#17
Olaposi Idowu Omotuyi, Oyekanmi Nash, Olumide Kayode Inyang, Joyce Ogidigo, Ojochenemi Enejoh, Okiemute Okpalefe, Tsuyoshi Hamada
Chromolaena odorata is a major bio-resource in folkloric treatment of diabetes. In the present study, its anti-diabetic component and underlying mechanism were investigated. A library containing 140 phytocompounds previously characterized from C. odorata was generated and docked (Autodock Vina) into homology models of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4, Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 (TGR5), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor, renal sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLUT)-1/2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins 1&2...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416857/glp1-and-gip-are-involved-in-the-action-of-synbiotics-in-broiler-chickens
#18
Pawel Antoni Kolodziejski, Maciej Sassek, Daniela Chalupka, Natalia Leciejewska, Leszek Nogowski, Pawel Mackowiak, Damian Jozefiak, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Maria Siwek, Marek Bednarczyk, Tomasz Szwaczkowski, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek
Background: In order to discover new strategies to replace antibiotics in the post-antibiotic era in meat-type chicken production, two new synbiotics were tested: ( Lactobacillus salivarius IBB3154 plus galactooligosaccharide (Syn1) and Lactobacillus plantarum IBB3036 plus raffinose family oligosaccharides (Syn2). Methods: The synbiotics were administered via syringe, using a special automatic system, into the egg air chamber of Cobb 500 broiler chicks on the 12th day of egg incubation (2 mg of prebiotics + 105 cfu bacteria per egg)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416634/loss-of-epithelium-specific-gpx2-results-in-aberrant-cell-fate-decisions-during-intestinal-differentiation
#19
Claudia Lennicke, Jette Rahn, Claudia Wickenhauser, Rudolf Lichtenfels, Andreas S Müller, Ludger A Wessjohann, Anna P Kipp, Barbara Seliger
The selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) is expressed in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract, where it is thought to be involved in maintaining mucosal homeostasis. To gain novel insights into the role of GPx2, proteomic profiles of colonic tissues either derived from wild type (WT) or GPx2 knockout (KO) mice, maintained under selenium (Se) deficiency or adequate Se supplementation conditions were established and analyzed. Amongst the panel of differentially expressed proteins, the calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) was significantly down-regulated in GPx2 KO versus WT mice regardless of the given Se status...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412812/intestinal-peptide-changes-after-bariatric-and-minimally-invasive-surgery-relation-to-diabetes-remission
#20
REVIEW
Lidia Castagneto Gissey, James Casella Mariolo, Geltrude Mingrone
Bariatric surgery is very effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss but it is also associated with improvement of obesity metabolic complications, primarily type 2 diabetes (T2D). Remission of T2D or at least a net improvement of glycemic control persists for at least 5 years. The bypass of duodenum and of the first portion of the jejunum up to the Treitz ligament as in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), or the bypass of the duodenum, the entire jejunum and the first tract of the ileum, such as in Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion (BPD), achieve different results on insulin sensitivity...
February 2018: Peptides
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