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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436737/bicycle-helmet-effectiveness-is-not-overstated
#1
Jake Olivier, Igor Radun
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the challenges in estimating bicycle helmet effectiveness from case-control studies of injured cyclists and to estimate helmet effectiveness from cases and available exposure data. METHODS: Data were extracted from studies of cyclists in Seattle, USA, Victoria and New South Wales (NSW), Australia and the Netherlands. Estimates of helmet use were used as exposure to compute relative risks for Seattle and Victorian data. Cycling distance data are routinely collected in the Netherlands; however, this data cannot be disaggregated by helmet use which makes it unsuitable for estimating helmet effectiveness...
March 1, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436569/association-of-waist-circumference-with-outcomes-in-an-acute-general-surgical-unit
#2
Thomas Ryan, Preet Gosal, Alexa Seal, Joe McGirr, Nicholas Williams
BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence is increasing in Australia, particularly in non-metropolitan areas. The effect of obesity on acute surgical outcomes is not known. We aimed to record waist circumference (WC) (surrogate for obesity) amongst acute surgical unit (ASU) patients in a New South Wales regional hospital, and compare outcome measures (length of stay (LOS), unplanned return to theatre, readmission rates, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 4 months of consecutive ASU admissions, excluding age <16, pregnancy, out-of-area transfer and incomplete data...
April 24, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434205/molecular-systematics-reveals-increased-diversity-within-the-south-african-laurencia-complex-rhodomelaceae-rhodophyta
#3
Caitlynne Francis, John J Bolton, Lydiane Mattio, Tshifhiwa G Mandiwana-Neudani, Robert J Anderson
Previous publications list ten species in the Laurencia complex from South Africa with all ascribed to the genus Laurencia sensu stricto. However, the diversity of the complex in South Africa has not yet been reassessed following the numerous recent taxonomic changes. The present study investigated the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of this group in South Africa using recent collections. Methods included a molecular phylogenetic analysis of plastid rbcL gene sequences (a total of 146; including eleven outgroup taxa) using Bayesian Inference, and the examination of morphological and anatomical characters, including the number of corps en cerise when present...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433854/comorbidity-age-of-onset-and-suicidality-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-an-international-collaboration
#4
V Brakoulias, V Starcevic, A Belloch, C Brown, Y A Ferrao, L F Fontenelle, C Lochner, D Marazziti, H Matsunaga, E C Miguel, Ycj Reddy, M C do Rosario, R G Shavitt, A Shyam Sundar, D J Stein, A R Torres, K Viswasam
OBJECTIVES: To collate data from multiple obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment centers across seven countries and five continents, and to report findings in relation to OCD comorbidity, age of onset of OCD and comorbid disorders, and suicidality, in a large clinical and ethnically diverse sample, with the aim of investigating cultural variation and the utility of the psychiatric diagnostic classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. METHODS: Researchers in the field of OCD were invited to contribute summary statistics on current and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, age of onset of OCD and comorbid disorders and suicidality in their patients with OCD...
April 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432993/chemical-biological-and-dna-markers-for-tracing-slaughterhouse-effluent
#5
P J Harvey, M P Taylor, H K Handley, S Foster, M R Gillings, A J Asher
Agricultural practices, if not managed correctly, can have a negative impact on receiving environments via waste disposal and discharge. In this study, a chicken slaughter facility on the rural outskirts of Sydney, Australia, has been identified as a possible source of persistent effluent discharge into a peri-urban catchment. Questions surrounding the facility's environmental management practices go back more than four decades. Despite there having never been a definitive determination of the facility's impact on local stream water quality, the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority (NSW EPA) has implemented numerous pollution reduction requirements to manage noise and water pollution at the slaughter facility...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426892/-i-am-still-passionate-despite-the-challenges-nurses-navigating-the-care-for-refugees
#6
Olayide Ogunsiji, Harrison Ng Chok, Gladys Mashingaidze, Lesley Wilkes
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to report the challenges faced by the nursing workforce in refugee health. BACKGROUND: Nurses are in the forefront of care provision for refugees who are recognised as one of the most vulnerable population groups in the world. The number of refugees in Australia is increasing and more nurses are needed as care providers. Research on the challenges faced by refugee health nurses is sparse. DESIGN: Qualitative research methodology was used to study the experience of refugee health nurses...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425101/australasian-college-of-dermatologists-50th-annual-scientific-meeting-international-convention-centre-sydney-darling-harbour-new-south-wales-australia-6-9-may-2017
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424628/branchial-pathomorphology-of-southern-bluefin-tuna-thunnus-maccoyii-castelnau-1872-infected-by-helminth-and-copepodan-parasites
#8
Mark B Adams, Craig J Hayward, Barbara F Nowak
Three metazoan parasites, a monogenean Hexostoma thynni and two species of copepods Pseudocycnus appendiculatus and Euryphorus brachypterus are known to parasitize the gills of ranched southern bluefin tuna (SBT) and other tuna species. However, there is no detailed information describing the pathological response to infection by these parasites in this species. Wild southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii (approximately 3 years of age), captured and towed to a grow-out site in the waters immediately south of Port Lincoln, South Australia were subsequently sampled (n = 10) monthly from March until August 2004 during commercial harvest operations...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424049/findings-in-young-adults-at-colonoscopy-from-a-hospital-service-database-audit
#9
Stephanie Wong, Ilmars Lidums, Christophe Rosty, Andrew Ruszkiewicz, Susan Parry, Aung Ko Win, Yoko Tomita, Sina Vatandoust, Amanda Townsend, Dainik Patel, Jennifer E Hardingham, David Roder, Eric Smith, Paul Drew, Julie Marker, Wendy Uylaki, Peter Hewett, Daniel L Worthley, Erin Symonds, Graeme P Young, Timothy J Price, Joanne P Young
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed at <50 years is predominantly located in the distal colon and rectum. Little is known about which lesion subtypes may serve as CRC precursors in young adults. The aim of this work was to document the prevalence and histological subtype of lesions seen in patients aged <50 years, and any associated clinical features. METHODS: An audit of the colonoscopy database at The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Adelaide, South Australia over a 12-month period was undertaken...
April 19, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423461/attributes-of-the-complete-dental-record
#10
Kate J Amos, Deborah J Cockrell, Claire Palermo, Samuel Rosehill, Margaret Bearman
BACKGROUND: Adherence to the Dental Board of Australia Guidelines on dental records is not universal and remediation of deficient practice requires clarity in the practical application of standards. The aim of this research is to clarify practical requirements of dental record keeping in New South Wales. METHODS: Seventeen experts were invited to participate in an electronically administered series of Delphi questionnaires. Concepts were refined until consensus was reached...
April 19, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421268/using-a-population-model-to-inform-the-management-of-river-flows-and-invasive-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#11
John D Koehn, Charles R Todd, Brenton P Zampatti, Ivor G Stuart, Anthony Conallin, Leigh Thwaites, Qifeng Ye
Carp are a highly successful invasive fish species, now widespread, abundant and considered a pest in south-eastern Australia. To date, most management effort has been directed at reducing abundances of adult fish, with little consideration of population growth through reproduction. Environmental water allocations are now an important option for the rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems, particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin. As carp respond to flows, there is concern that environmental watering may cause floodplain inundation and provide access to spawning habitats subsequently causing unwanted population increase...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419432/a-global-synthesis-of-managing-groundwater-dependent-ecosystems-under-sustainable-groundwater-policy
#12
Melissa M Rohde, Ray Froend, Jeanette Howard
Groundwater is a vital water supply worldwide for people and nature. However, species and ecosystems that depend on groundwater for some or all of their water needs, known as groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs), are increasingly becoming threatened worldwide due to growing human water demands. Over the past two decades, the protection and management of GDEs have been incorporated into several water management policy initiatives worldwide including jurisdictions within Australia, the European Union, South Africa, and the United States...
April 17, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416500/cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-consumer-behaviour-intervention-to-improve-healthy-food-purchases-from-online-canteens-study-protocol
#13
Tessa Delaney, Rebecca Wyse, Sze Lin Yoong, Rachel Sutherland, John Wiggers, Kylie Ball, Karen Campbell, Chris Rissel, Luke Wolfenden
INTRODUCTION: School canteens represent an opportune setting in which to deliver public health nutrition strategies given their wide reach, and frequent use by children. Online school canteen ordering systems, where students order and pay for their lunch online, provide an avenue to improve healthy canteen purchases through the application of consumer behaviour strategies that impact on purchasing decisions. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a consumer behaviour intervention implemented in an online school canteen ordering system in reducing the kilojoule, saturated fat, sugar and sodium content of primary student lunch orders...
April 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415977/perspectives-of-frailty-and-frailty-screening-protocol-for-a-collaborative-knowledge-translation-approach-and-qualitative-study-of-stakeholder-understandings-and-experiences
#14
Mandy M Archibald, Rachel Ambagtsheer, Justin Beilby, Mellick J Chehade, Tiffany K Gill, Renuka Visvanathan, Alison L Kitson
BACKGROUND: Accompanying the unprecedented growth in the older adult population worldwide is an increase in the prevalence of frailty, an age-related clinical state of increased vulnerability to stressor events. This increased vulnerability results in lower social engagement and quality of life, increased dependency, and higher rates of morbidity, health service utilization and mortality. Early identification of frailty is necessary to guide implementation of interventions to prevent associated functional decline...
April 17, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414631/rathayibacter-toxicus-other-rathayibacter-species-inducing-bacterial-head-blight-of-grasses-and-the-potential-for-livestock-poisonings
#15
Timothy D Murray, Brenda K Schroeder, William Schneider, Doug Luster, Aaron Sechler, Elizabeth E Rogers, Sergei Subbotin
Rathayibacter toxicus, a Select Agent in the United States, is one of six recognized species in the genus Rathayibacter and the best known due to its association with Annual Ryegrass Toxicity (ARGT), which occurs only in parts of Australia. The Rathayibacter species are unusual among phytopathogenic bacteria in that they are transmitted by anguinid seed gall nematodes and produce extracellular polysaccharides in infected plants resulting in bacteriosis diseases with common names such as yellow slime and bacterial head blight...
April 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412766/integrative-governance-of-environmental-water-in-australia-s-murray-darling-basin-evolving-challenges-and-emerging-pathways
#16
Zachary Bischoff-Mattson, Amanda H Lynch
Integration, a widely promoted response to the multi-scale complexities of social-environmental sustainability, is diversely and sometimes poorly conceptualized. In this paper we explore integrative governance, which we define as an iterative and contextual process for negotiating and advancing the common interest. We ground this definition in a discussion of institutional factors conditioning integrative governance of environmental water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. The Murray-Darling Basin is an iconic system of social-ecological complexity, evocative of large-scale conservation challenges in other developed arid river basins...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411530/the-influence-of-intrapartum-opioid-use-on-breastfeeding-experience-at-6-weeks-post-partum-a-secondary-analysis
#17
Julie-Anne Fleet, Meril Jones, Ingrid Belan
OBJECTIVE: To examine breastfeeding experiences up to 6 weeks postpartum for mothers administered intranasal fentanyl, subcutaneous fentanyl or intramuscular pethidine for intrapartum analgesia. DESIGN: A secondary analysis was undertaken using the per-protocol dataset to examine the third phase of a larger randomised controlled trial. This phase of the study examined breastfeeding intention and experience from the first hour of birth to 6 weeks postpartum. Medical records were audited and women were contacted at 6 weeks postpartum to complete a telephone questionnaire...
April 3, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409386/nocturnal-oviposition-behavior-of-blowflies-diptera-calliphoridae-in-the-southern-hemisphere-south-africa-and-australia-and-its-forensic-implications
#18
Kirstin A Williams, James F Wallman, Bryan D Lessard, Christopher R J Kavazos, D Nkosinathi Mazungula, Martin H Villet
Published research has offered contradictory evidence of the occurrence of nocturnal oviposition by carrion-breeding blowflies, a behavior that can affect the interpretation of forensic estimates of a minimum post mortem interval (minPMI) by up to 12 hours, depending on latitude and season. The majority of published studies are from the northern hemisphere. Field experiments were conducted in South Africa and Australia that extend observations to species of the southern hemisphere. Various vertebrate carrion was exposed at night in summer under different lunar phases and/or artificial lighting, and in woodland and pasture areas...
April 13, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407457/dynamics-of-sediment-carbon-stocks-across-intertidal-wetland-habitats-of-moreton-bay-australia
#19
Matthew A Hayes, Amber Jesse, Bruce Hawke, Jeff Baldock, Basam Tabet, David Lockington, Catherine E Lovelock
Coastal wetlands are known for high carbon storage within their sediments, but our understanding of the variation in carbon storage among intertidal habitats, particularly over geomorphological settings and along elevation gradients, are limited. Here, we collected 352 cores from 18 sites across Moreton Bay, Australia. We assessed variation in sediment organic carbon (OC) stocks among different geomorphological settings (wetlands within riverine settings along with those with reduced riverine influence located on tide-dominated sand islands), across elevation gradients, with distance from shore and among habitat and vegetation types...
April 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407069/managing-transient-ischaemic-attacks-in-australia-a-qualitative-study
#20
Andrew R Davey, Daniel S Lasserson, Christopher R Levi, Parker J Magin
Background.: Stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is highest in the first few days. It is greatly reduced by commencing commonly used medications. Current Australian guidelines recommend that all TIAs be managed urgently by secondary-care specialists (mandatory for high-risk TIAs). The majority of TIAs present to general practice which creates a dilemma when specialist care is not readily accessible. There is a lack of evidence relating to the determinants of general practitioners' (GPs) actions in this situation...
April 12, 2017: Family Practice
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