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Michael Riverso, Michael Chang, Consuelo Soldevila-Pico, Jinping Lai, Xiuli Liu
Kratom is an herbal product derived from the leaves of Southeast Asian Mitragyna speciosa trees. It has traditionally been used by indigenous people to relieve fatigue and manage pain, diarrhea, or opioid withdrawal. The use of kratom has become more commonplace in the United States for similar purposes. Only rare reports of kratom liver toxicity exist in the literature but without histologic characterization. Herein, we report one case of kratom use-associated liver toxicity in a 38-year-old patient. The patient complained of dark colored urine and light colored stools after using kratom...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Nurul H M Yusoff, Sharif M Mansor, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Mitragynine is the major alkaloid found in the leaves of M. speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), a plant that is native to Southeast Asia. This compound has been used, either traditionally or recreationally, due to its psychostimulant and opioid-like effects. Recently, mitragynine has been shown to exert conditioned place preference (CPP), indicating the rewarding and motivational properties of M. speciosa. Here, the involvement of GABAB receptors in mediating mitragynine reward is studied using a CPP paradigm in rats...
February 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Chaisiri Angkurawaranon, Wichuda Jiraporncharoen, Surinporn Likhitsathian, Kanittha Thaikla, Manop Kanato, Usaneya Perngparn, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Apinun Aramrattana
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Thailand borders some of the world's largest methamphetamine and opioid producing countries and trafficking routes. Thailand's 'War on Drugs' campaign was launched in 2003. This study reports trends in illicit substance use in Thailand over the period 2001-2011. DESIGN AND METHODS: National Household surveys on illicit drug use were conducted in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2011. A stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was implemented for each survey...
February 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Stephanie Basiliere, Kelsie Bryand, Sarah Kerrigan
Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a psychoactive plant that has recently emerged as a recreational drug. Mitragyna alkaloids are not within the scope of traditional forensic toxicology screening methods, which may contribute to under-reporting. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS) were used to identify five alkaloids in urine. Target analytes included the two known psychoactive compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in addition to speciociliatine, speciogynine, and paynantheine...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Geeta Aggarwal, Edward Robertson, James McKinlay, Edward Walter
We present the case of a 26-year-old man who was brought into our emergency department in cardiorespiratory arrest, having taken Kratom 24 h previously. Despite multi-organ support, he deteriorated and died from cardiorespiratory failure and hypoxic brain damage 12 h later. Lipid emulsion was given, with significant temporary improvement in the cardiorespiratory failure. Kratom is derived from Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical deciduous and evergreen tree in the coffee family, and is native to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used as a legal high in some parts of the world...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Javier E Ortiz, Adriana Garro, Natalia B Pigni, María Belén Agüero, German Roitman, Alberto Slanis, Ricardo D Enriz, Gabriela E Feresin, Jaume Bastida, Alejandro Tapia
BACKGROUND: In Argentina, the Amaryllidaceae family (59 species) comprises a wide variety of genera, only a few species have been investigated as a potential source of cholinesterases inhibitors to treat Alzheimer disease (AD). PURPOSE: To study the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of the basic dichloromethane extracts (E) from Hieronymiella aurea, H. caletensis, H. clidanthoides, H. marginata, and H. speciosa species, as well as the isolated compounds from these plant extracts...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Anna Stojakowska, Agnieszka Galanty, Janusz Malarz, Marta Michalik
In addition to known constituents of Telekia speciosa, an acetone extract from ray florets of the plant yielded: 5,5'-dibutoxy-2,2'-bifuran (1), 5,5'-diisobutoxy-2,2'-bifuran (2), α-tocopherol (3), β-tocopherol (4), loliolide palmitate (5), a mixture of calenduladiol esters - 16β-hydroxylupeol-3-O-palmitate (7) and 16β-hydroxylupeol-3-O-myristate (8), 1-epiinuviscolide (12), inuviscolide (13), 3-epiisotelekin (16), 4α-hydroxy-9β,10β-epoxy-1β(H)-11(13)-guaien-8α,12-olide (17), 4α-hydroxy-1β(H)-9(10),11(13)-guaiadien-8α,12-olide (18), loliolide (19) and 4β,10β-dihydroxy-1α(H),5α(H)-11(13)-guaien-8α,12-olide (20)...
February 12, 2018: Natural Product Research
Ali Ghasemzadeh, Hawa Z E Jaafar, Mohamad Fhaizal Mohamad Bukhori, Mohd Hafizad Rahmat, Asmah Rahmat
BACKGROUND: Parkia speciosa seeds are a common ingredient in Malay cuisine with traditional interest because of its medicinal importance and content of health-promoting phytochemicals. This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and biological activities (antioxidant and antibacterial activities) of Parkia speciosa Hassk seeds collected from three different regions of Malaysia (Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Johor). Phytochemical constituents (total flavonoid and total phenolic) were measured using the spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography...
February 7, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Dipak J Garole, Bharat C Choudhary, Debajyoti Paul, Amulrao U Borse
In this study, Lagerstroemia speciosa biomass modified by polyethylenimine (PEI-LS) was developed as a potential biosorbent for sorption and recovery of platinum(II) from platinum bearing waste solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of various parameters on the sorption and recovery of platinum(II) using PEI-LS. The equilibrium time for platinum(II) sorption process was found to be 6 h. Both the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherm data fits pseudo second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pedro S Pereira, Ana J Maia, Antônia E Duarte, Cícera Datiane M Oliveira-Tintino, Saulo R Tintino, Luiz M Barros, Maria C Vega-Gomez, Miriam Rolón, Cathia Coronel, Henrique D M Coutinho, Teresinha G da Silva
AlpiniA speciosa K. Schum, known as colônia (colony), is native to tropical Asia and found in parts of tropical America. Its leaves are used to wrap food, rhizomes for food preparation and seeds for health maintenance, and have been widely used by the population as a diuretic, antihypertensive, antiulcerogenic and sedative. The present study aimed to verify the leishmanicidal and trypanocidal potential, as well as the cytotoxicity, of the A. speciosa essential oil, in vitro. A. speciosa presented 1,8-cineole (28...
January 17, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Fei Qiao, Xue-Fei Jiang, Han-Qing Cong, Hua-Peng Sun, Li Li, Peter Nick
It is the first time that formononetin produced by cell culture and its accumulation was shown to be triggered by specific stress signalling linked jasmonate pathway. Callerya speciosa, an endangered traditional Chinese medicine plant, is intensively used in traditional folk medicine. To develop sustainable alternatives for the overexploitation of natural resources, a suspension cell line was created from C. speciosa. Ingredients of C. speciosa, for instance the isoflavone formononetin, are formed during a peculiar swelling response of the root, which is considered as a quality trait for commercial application...
January 22, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Thaisa Moro Cantu-Jungles, Andrea Caroline Ruthes, Marwa El-Hindawy, Roberta Barbara Moreno, Xiaowei Zhang, Lucimara M C Cordeiro, Bruce R Hamaker, Marcello Iacomini
Dietary fiber chemical and physical structures may be critical to the comprehension of how they may modulate gut bacterial composition. We purified insoluble polymers from Cookeina speciosa, and investigated its fermentation profile in an in vitro human fecal fermentation model. Two glucans, characterized as a (1 → 3),(1 → 6)-linked and a (1→3)-linked β-D-glucans were obtained. Both glucans were highly butyrogenic and propiogenic, with low gas production, during in vitro fecal fermentation and led to distinct bacterial shifts if compared to fructooligosaccharides...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Eduardo Neves Costa, Luciano Nogueira, Bruno Henrique Sardinha de Souza, Zulene Antônio Ribeiro, Helder Louvandini, Sarah Natalie Zukoff, Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior
Resistance to insect pests can be found in several native, landrace plants and can be an important alternative to conventional control methods. Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae are important maize (Zea mays L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) root pests and finding native resistance in landraces would greatly contribute to maize-breeding programs aimed at controlling this pest. This study investigated whether the growth, survival, oviposition rhythm, fecundity, and fertility of D. speciosa are negatively influenced by specific maize landraces, and the existence of any morphological barriers in the roots that may correlate with plant resistance to the larval attack...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Hien Thi Thu Le, Young-Chang Cho, Sayeon Cho
Guettarda speciosa Linn. (G. speciosa, Rubiaceae) has been used as a traditional medicinal plant in Asia for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions, including cough, fever and maternal postpartum infection. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti‑inflammatory action of G. speciosa extracts have remained elusive. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of G. speciosa (MGS) were investigated in murine macrophages by measuring the production of inflammatory mediators and the underlying mechanisms of action by performing immunoblotting analysis of proteins that are potentially involved...
March 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Gupta Amresh, Vipin Kumar Agarwal, Chandana Venkateswara Rao
Self microemulsifying formulation is an approach used for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly soluble molecules due to their lipidic nature and small particle size. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of poorly soluble hydroxy- and polyhydroxy-organic phytomolecules rich Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves extract in modern formulation i.e. "Self microemulsifying System". Different doses of SME (Self microemulsifying) formulation of L. speciosa leaves extract were evaluated for the hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in rats...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Phanruethai Pailee, Chutima Kuhakarn, Chanyapat Sangsuwan, Sakchai Hongthong, Pawinee Piyachaturawat, Kanoknetr Suksen, Surawat Jariyawat, Radeekorn Akkarawongsapat, Jitra Limthongkul, Chanita Napaswad, Palangpon Kongsaeree, Samran Prabpai, Thaworn Jaipetch, Manat Pohmakotr, Patoomratana Tuchinda, Vichai Reutrakul
Eleven previously undescribed compounds, including four benzophenones (garciosones A-D), four xanthones (garciosones E-H) and three biphenyls (garciosines A-C), along with eighteen known compounds were isolated from the stems, leaves and twigs of Garcinia speciosa Wall. (Clusiaceae). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. For garciosines A-C, the structures were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Most of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and anti-HIV-1 activity using the syncytium inhibition assay and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) assay...
January 2, 2018: Phytochemistry
Marc T Swogger, Zach Walsh
BACKGROUND: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant native to Southeastern Asia that is receiving increased international attention as a potential therapeutic agent. While much of the limited scientific research on kratom is focused on its analgesic potential, kratom use also has important risks and benefits in the domain of mental health. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive systematic review of all studies on kratom use and mental health published between January 1960 and July 2017...
February 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Darshan Singh, Christian P Müller, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Bonnie Avery, Nelson Jeng Yeou Chear, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) from the Rubiaceae family is an indigenous tropical medicinal tree of Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves have been used for decades in Malaysia and Thailand in traditional context for its perceived vast medicinal value, and as a mild stimulant among manual labourers. Kratom consumption has been reported to cause side-effects in kratom users. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate kratom's effects towards hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters among regular kratom users in Malaysia...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
A P Amang, C Mezui, G T Siwe, J Emakoua, G Mbah, E Z Nkwengoua, G E Enow-Orock, P V Tan
Objective: This work investigated the healing and antisecretory effects of the aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa on "unhealed gastric ulcers" associated with gastric acid hypersecretion. Materials and Methods: "Unhealed gastric ulcers" were induced using indomethacin following the establishment of acetic-acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, per os) was administered concomitantly with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously)...
2017: BioMed Research International
Vipin Kumar Agarwal, Gupta Amresh, Phool Chandra
BACKGROUND: Lagerstroemia speciosa (SEL) leaves are a popular folk medicine for diabetes treatment due to presence of corosolic acid. It has low water solubility resulting poor absorption after oral administration. Self micro-emulsified drug delivery system is the way by which we can improve the oral absorption of drug. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop the self micro-emulsifying formulation of standardized extract of SEL leaves and evaluate its pharmacodynamic performance for antidiabetic activity...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
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