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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544011/changing-trends-in-the-use-of-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-in-southeast-asia
#1
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Ornella Corazza, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu
OBJECTIVE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa. Korth) is an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. This review paper aims to describe the trends of kratom use in Southeast Asia. DESIGN: A literature review search was conducted through ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProMed and Google Scholar. Twenty-five articles illustrating kratom use in humans in Southeast Asia were reviewed. RESULTS: Kratom has long been used by rural populations in Southeast Asia as a remedy for common ailments, to fight fatigue from hard manual work, as a drink during social interaction among men, and in village religious functions...
May 24, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537012/nutraceutical-effects-on-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-patients-with-impaired-fasting-glucose-a-pilot-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial-on-a-combined-product
#2
Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Martino Morbini, Alessandro Colletti, Marilisa Bove, Maddalena Veronesi, Marina Giovannini, Claudio Borghi
INTRODUCTION: A number of natural compounds have individually demonstrated to improve glucose and lipid levels in humans. AIM: To  evaluate the short-term glucose and lipid-lowering activity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. METHODS: To assess the effects of a combination of nutraceuticals based on Lagerstroemia speciosa, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Alpha-lipoic acid, Chrome picolinate and Folic acid, we performed a double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial in 40 adults affected by impaired fasting glucose (FPG = 100-125 mg/dL) in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease...
May 23, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516056/simultaneous-micronization-and-purification-of-bioactive-fraction-by-supercritical-antisolvent-technology
#3
Stevanus Hiendrawan, Bambang Veriansyah, Edward Widjojokusumo, Raymond R Tjandrawinata
Simultaneous micronization and purification of DLBS3233 bioactive fraction, a combination of two Indonesian herbals Lagerstroemia speciosa and Cinnamomum burmannii has been successfully performed via supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) technology. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of SAS technology to micronize and reduce coumarin content of DLBS3233. The effects of four SAS process parameters, i.e. pressure, temperature, concentration and solution flow rate on particle formation were investigated...
April 2017: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501425/the-effects-of-kratom-on-restraint-stress-induced-analgesia-and-its-mechanisms-of-action
#4
José Luis Vázquez López, Lorenz Schild, Thomas Günther, Stefan Schulz, Hartmud Neurath, Axel Becker
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are called kratom (dried leaves, extract). They contain several alkaloids with an affinity for different opioid receptors. They are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases, as a substitute by opiate addicts, and to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Apart from their medical properties, they are used to enhance physical endurance and as a means of overcoming stress. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia which occurs during or following exposure to a stressful or fearful stimulus...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484399/biochemical-benefits-diagnosis-and-clinical-risks-evaluation-of-kratom
#5
REVIEW
Dimy Fluyau, Neelambika Revadigar
BACKGROUND: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472721/isolation-of-quercetin-from-the-methanolic-extract-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa-by-hplc-technique-its-cytotoxicity-against-mcf-7-cells-and-photocatalytic-activity
#6
V Sai Saraswathi, D Saravanan, K Santhakumar
The flavonoids present in the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa were extracted, characterized by spectral methods and studied for its cytotoxicity activity against MCF-cell lines and photocatalytic activity against azo dye. Direct and sequential soxhlet extraction was performed and its concentrated crude extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography. The yield obtained by the isolated compound (MEI-quercetin) from leaves of L. speciosa was found to be 1.8g from the methanolic extract. The phytochemical analysis and the Rf value of the isolated flavonoid was found to be 3...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469784/protective-effect-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa-against-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-ulcerative-colitis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Ghanshyam Chaudhary, Umesh B Mahajan, Sameer N Goyal, Shreesh Ojha, Chandragouda R Patil, Sandeep B Subramanya
The protective effect of methanolic extract of Lagerstroemia speciosaleaves (LS) was evaluated against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6 mice. The administration of DSS (2.5% in drinking water ad libitum) in C57BL/6 mice induced ulcerative colitis in 7 days. The LS was orally administered for 7 days at daily doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. At the end of 7 days of treatment the animals were sacrificed, colonic tissues were removed and processed for further analysis of oxidative stress, and histopathology...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460357/a-biphenyl-derivative-from-the-twigs-of-chaenomeles-speciosa
#8
Won Se Suh, Kyoung Jin Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Lalita Subedi, Sun Yeou Kim, Sang Un Choi, Kang Ro Lee
In our continuing search for bioactive constituents of Korean medicinal sources, we investigated an 80% MeOH extract of the twigs of Chaenomeles speciosa. Column chromatographic purification of the CHCl3 fraction resulted in the isolation of a new biphenyl derivative (1), along with four known biphenyl compounds (2-5) and six triterpenes (6-11). The chemical structure of the new compound was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR data. Among isolates, compound 3 exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and XF498 cell lines (IC50=5...
April 11, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460300/solar-catalysed-activity-against-methyl-orange-dye-cytotoxicity-activity-of-mcf-7-cell-lines-and-identification-of-marker-compound-by-hptlc-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa
#9
V Sai Saraswathi, P Rajaguru, K Santhakumar
The investigation was aimed to quantify the Gallic acid present in Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves (Lythraceae). The High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) quantification was performed for acetone (AE), methanolic (ME) and chloroform (CE) extract of leaves of L. speciosa. The pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 was used for complete separation of compounds using the mobile phase pet. Ether: ethyl acetate: formic acid (5:5:1v/v).The validation of the extracts was carried out using ICH guidelines for precision, repeatability and accuracy showing the Rf 0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458679/association-between-petal-form-variation-and-cyc2-like-genotype-in-a-hybrid-line-of-sinningia-speciosa
#10
Hao-Chun Hsu, Chun-Neng Wang, Chia-Hao Liang, Cheng-Chun Wang, Yan-Fu Kuo
This study used three-dimensional (3D) micro-computed tomography (μCT) imaging to examine petal form variation in a hybrid cross of Sinningia speciosa between a cultivar with actinomorphic flowers and a variety with zygomorphic flowers. The major objectives were to determine the genotype-phenotype associations between the petal form variation and CYCLOIDEA2-like alleles in S. speciosa (SsCYC) and to morphologically investigate the differences in petal types between actinomorphic and zygomorphic flowers. In this study, μCT was used to accurately acquire 3D floral images...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444603/physiological-functioning-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa-l-under-heavy-roadside-traffic-an-approach-to-screen-potential-species-for-abatement-of-urban-air-pollution
#11
H Singh, Savita, R Sharma, S Sinha, M Kumar, P Kumar, A Verma, S K Sharma
The mitigation potential of avenue tree species needs a sound understanding, especially for landscape planning or planting tree species on roadside, especially in city limits where there is huge traffic due to more number of vehicles. A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the impact of heavy traffic movement and pollution thereof on physiological functioning of Lagerstroemia speciosa trees planted on roadside in terms of carbon absorption, mitigation potential and adaptive behavior. Trees on roadside exhibited reduced carbon assimilation (36...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431014/the-draft-genome-of-ruellia-speciosa-beautiful-wild-petunia-acanthaceae
#12
Yongbin Zhuang, Erin A Tripp
The genus Ruellia (Wild Petunias; Acanthaceae) is characterized by an enormous diversity of floral shapes and colours manifested among closely related species. Using Illumina platform, we reconstructed the draft genome of Ruellia speciosa, with a scaffold size of 1,021 Mb (or ∼1.02 Gb) and an N50 size of 17,908 bp, spanning ∼93% of the estimated genome (∼1.1 Gb). The draft assembly predicted 40,124 gene models and phylogenetic analyses of four key enzymes involved in anthocyanin colour production [flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR)] found that most angiosperms here sampled harboured at least one copy of F3H, F3'H, and DFR...
April 1, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330725/a-botanical-phytochemical-and-ethnomedicinal-review-of-the-genus-mitragyna-korth-implications-for-products-sold-as-kratom
#13
REVIEW
Paula N Brown, Jensen A Lund, Susan J Murch
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Mitragyna (Rubiacaeae) has been traditionally used in parts of Africa, Asia and Oceania. In recent years, there has been increased interest in species of Mitragyna with the introduction of products to western markets and regulatory uncertainty. AIM OF THE STUDY: This paper reviewed the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of leaves for species belonging to the genus Mitragyna with reference to the botany and known chemistry in order to highlight areas of interest for products currently being sold as kratom...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319869/biofilm-inhibition-formation-of-clinical-strains-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mutans-photocatalytic-activity-of-azo-dye-and-gc-ms-analysis-of-leaves-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa
#14
V Sai Saraswathi, Neethu Kamarudheen, K V Bhaskara Rao, K Santhakumar
The investigation was conducted to analyse the bioactive compounds from the leaf extracts of L. speciosa by GC-MS. The extracts were screened for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against potential clinical strains. The bioactive compounds from the leaves of L. speciosa were extracted by soxhlet continuous extraction method and their chemical composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against clinical strain like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, P...
April 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316633/medicinal-plants-from-northeastern-brazil-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Alexandre Batista Penido, Selene Maia De Morais, Alan Bezerra Ribeiro, Daniela Ribeiro Alves, Ana Livya Moreira Rodrigues, Leonardo Hunaldo Dos Santos, Jane Eire Silva Alencar de Menezes
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293192/indole-alkaloids-from-plants-as-potential-leads-for-antidepressant-drugs-a-mini-review
#16
Hazrulrizawati A Hamid, Aizi N M Ramli, Mashitah M Yusoff
Depression is the most common illness observed in the elderly, adults, and children. Antidepressants prescribed are usually synthetic drugs and these can sometimes cause a wide range of unpleasant side effects. Current research is focussed on natural products from plants as they are a rich source of potent new drug leads. Besides Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), the plants studied include Passiflora incarnata L. (passion flower), Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), Piper methysticum G. Forst (kava) and Valeriana officinalis L...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284435/identification-of-cannabis-sativa-l-using-the-1-kbthca-synthase-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-probe
#17
Pattraporn Jeangkhwoa, Achirapa Bandhaya, Puangpaka Umpunjun, Ngarmnij Chuenboonngarm, Nathinee Panvisavas
This study reports a successful application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in the identification of Cannabis sativa L. cells recovered from fresh and dried powdered plant materials. Two biotin-16-dUTP-labeled FISH probes were designed from the Cannabis-specific tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) gene and the ITS region of the 45S rRNA gene. Specificity of probe-target hybridization was tested against the target and 4 non-target plant species, i.e., Humulus lupulus, Mitragyna speciosa, Papaver sp...
March 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273504/photocatalytic-activity-against-azo-dye-and-cytotoxicity-on-mcf-7-cell-lines-of-zirconium-oxide-nanoparticle-mediated-using-leaves-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa
#18
V Sai Saraswathi, K Santhakumar
Metal oxide nanoparticles are gaining interest in recent years. The present paper explains about the green synthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO NPs) mediated from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa. The prepared ZrO NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic activity of ZrO NPs was studied for azo dye by exposing to sunlight...
April 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212517/phytoremediation-of-dyes-using-lagerstroemia-speciosa-mediated-silver-nanoparticles-and-its-biofilm-activity-against-clinical-strains-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
V Sai Saraswathi, Neethu Kamarudheen, K V BhaskaraRao, K Santhakumar
The aim of this study was to prepare silver nanoparticles by a green method using the aqueous leaves extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized, studied for its photocatalytic and biofilm inhibition studies. The maximum absorbance peak was found at 427nm and thus confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. The average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized was found to be 12nm using XRD and it was spherical in shape. The nanoparticles synthesized was investigated for photocatalytic activity for to two different dye molecules, methyl orange and methylene blue showing 310 and 290min degradation time respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191023/major-phytochemical-as-%C3%AE-sitosterol-disclosing-and-toxicity-testing-in-lagerstroemia-species
#20
Prapaparn Sirikhansaeng, Tawatchai Tanee, Runglawan Sudmoon, Arunrat Chaveerach
Medicinal plants in genus Lagerstroemia were investigated for phytochemical contents by GC-MS and HPLC with ethanol and hexane extracts and their toxicity MTT and comet assay on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). γ-Sitosterol is the major component found in all species at 14.70-34.44%. All of the extracts, except for L. speciosa ethanol extract, showed high percentages of cell viability. The IC50 value, 0.24 mg/mL, of ethanol L. speciosa extract predicted an LD50 of 811.78 mg/kg, which belongs to WHO Class III of toxic chemicals...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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