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Mayara Pereira Gonçalves, Maria Olívia Mercadante-Simões, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro
Latex is a complex plant secretion with both ecological and economic importance. There is little information currently available on the cytological aspects of the ontogenesis of anastomosed laticifers, the ducts originating through the lysis of adjacent cell walls. Hancornia speciosa is a tree typical of the Cerrado (neotropical savanna) biome. Its latex has medicinal value and is also used to produce rubber. The ontogenesis of its laticifers and the process of latex synthesis are described here. Structural, cytochemical, and ultrastructural analyses of the stem apex and phytochemical analyses of the latex were performed...
May 18, 2018: Protoplasma
Yang Dong, Jing Liu, Peng-Wei Li, Chao-Qun Li, Tian-Feng Lü, Xia Yang, Yin-Zheng Wang
Unlike most crops, which were domesticated through long periods of selection by ancient humans, horticultural plants were primarily domesticated through intentional selection over short time periods. The molecular mechanisms underlying the origin and spread of novel traits in the domestication process have remained largely unexplored in horticultural plants. Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa), whose attractive peloric flowers influenced the thoughts of Darwin, have been cultivated since the early 19th century, but its origin and genetic basis are currently unknown...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Pedro Alexander Rodriguez Clavijo, Allen L Norrbom, Emilio arÉvalo PeÑaranda, Francisco Balseiro Tehran, Paula Andrea DÍaz, Maria Clara Benitez, Jeisson Gallego, Maria Isabel Cruz, JosÉ M Montes, Erick J Rodriguez, Gary J Steck, Bruce D Sutton, Elizabeth Quisberth Ramos, Juan josÉ Lagrava SÁnchez, Freddy Colque
New distribution information, primarily from Colombia, is provided for 60 species of Anastrepha, including the first records of 33 species from Colombia: A. acca Norrbom, A. acris Stone, A. amita Zucchi, A. amplidentata Norrbom, A. atrox (Aldrich), A. barbiellinii Lima, A. bezzii Lima, A. canalis Stone, A. cocorae Norrbom Korytkowski, A. compressa Stone, A. cordata Aldrich, A. crebra Stone, A. cryptostrepha Hendel, A. cryptostrephoides Norrbom Korytkowski, A. furcata Lima, A. fuscicauda Norrbom Korytkowski, A...
March 6, 2018: Zootaxa
Elizabeth M Mudge, Paula N Brown
The AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) approved a method for the quantitation of alkaloids in Mitragynaspeciosa for consideration as First Action Official Method SM status. The previously published method summarized a single-laboratory validation of two alkaloids, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in raw materials and finished products. The methods performance was compared with the AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2015.008. With repeatability precision (RSDr ) ranging from 0.51 to 0.95% and recoveries from 93...
April 20, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Darshan Singh, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Vicknasingam Kasinather, Michelle Su Ann Chan, Eric Tatt Wei Ho, Oliver Grundmann, Nelson Jeng Yeou Chear, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels. AIM OF THE STUDY: Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Luiza Oliveira Silveira, Denes Kaic Alves do Rosário, Ana Carolina Garcia Giori, Syllas Borburema Silva Oliveira, Yhan da Silva Mutz, Clara Suprani Marques, Jussara Moreira Coelho, Patrícia Campos Bernardes
Salmonella outbreaks related to fruits and vegetables have been reported being lettuce one of the most contaminated. Peracetic acid (PA) at 50 mg/L, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SD) at 100 mg/L, and the combination of SD at 100 mg/L and babaçu coconut ( Attalea speciosa ) oil detergent at 100 mg/L were applied to fresh lettuce. Natural contaminant microbiota, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory attributes were evaluated. PA and SD reduced mesophilic aerobic counts by 2.1 and 1.5 log cfu/g, respectively...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Midori A Arai, Ryuta Akamine, Anna Tsuchiya, Tatsuro Yoneyama, Takashi Koyano, Thaworn Kowithayakorn, Masami Ishibashi
Aberrant activation of Notch signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of several different types of cancer, and Notch pathway inhibitors may have significant therapeutic potential. Using a unique cell-based assay system, we isolated twelve compounds, including one new natural product from Garcinia speciosa, that inhibit the Notch signaling pathway. HES1 and HES5 are target genes of the Notch cascade, and compound 2, referred to as cowanin, decreased the protein levels of HES1 and HES5 in assay cells. Furthermore, cowanin (2) showed potent cytotoxicity against human leukemic HPB-ALL cells...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thomas N Kaye, Isaac J Sandlin, Matt A Bahm
Pollinators in general and monarch butterflies in particular are in decline due to habitat loss. Efforts to restore habitats for insects that rely on specific plant groups as larvae or adults depend on the ability of practitioners to grow and produce these plants. Monarch larvae feed exclusively on milkweed species, primarily in the genus Asclepias , making propagation and restoration of these plants crucial for habitat restoration. Seed germination protocols for milkweeds are not well established, in part due to the large number of milkweed species and conflicting reports of seed dormancy in the genus...
March 2018: AoB Plants
Yonathan Asikin, Kusumiyati, Eizo Taira, Koji Wada
Petai seeds are one of the well-known strong-smelling foods of the Southeast Asian region that have been harvested and commercially offered in different ripening forms. The current study focused on alterations in the size, color, sugar composition, and volatile flavor properties of petai seeds in the four ripening stages (unripe, mid ripe, ripe, and over-ripe). The ripening process was mainly indicated by the increase in size and weight as seed color turned paler and less greenish. The total sugar content gradually increased during ripening, and then elevated from 1...
April 2018: Food Research International
Tangchun Zheng, Zhilin Chen, Yiqian Ju, Han Zhang, Ming Cai, Huitang Pan, Qixiang Zhang
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a prevalent method for gene expression analysis, depending on the stability of the reference genes for data normalization. Lagerstroemia indica and L. speciosa are popular ornamental plants which are famous for the long flowering period. However, no systematic studies on reference genes in Lagerstroemia have yet been conducted. In the present study, we selected nine candidate reference genes (GAPDH, TUA, TUB, 18S, RPII, EF-1α, ATC, EIF5A and CYP) and evaluated their expression stability in different tissues during floral development of L...
2018: PloS One
Lauren P Waller, Philip G Hahn, John L Maron, Ylva Lekberg
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can promote plant growth and reproduction, but other plant physiological traits or traits that provide defense against herbivores can also be affected by AM fungi. However, whether responses of different traits to AM fungi are correlated and whether these relationships vary among plants from different populations are unresolved. METHODS: In a common garden experiment, we grew Asclepias speciosa plants from seed collected from populations found along an environmental gradient with and without AM fungi to assess whether the responses of six growth and defense traits to AM fungi are correlated...
March 24, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Walter C Prozialeck, Surash Ramanathan, Hadzliana Zainal, Sabariah Noor Harun
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal value and psychoactive properties. Nonetheless, cessation from regular kratom use is reported to cause unpleasant dose-dependent withdrawal symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the severity of pain and sleep problems following the cessation of kratom tea/juice consumption among regular kratom users. A total of 170 regular users were recruited through snowball sampling for this cross-sectional study. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scales were administered to assess the severity of pain and sleep problems...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Michael Riverso, Michael Chang, Consuelo Soldevila-Pico, Jinping Lai, Xiuli Liu
Kratom is an herbal product derived from the leaves of Southeast Asian Mitragyna speciosa trees. It has traditionally been used by indigenous people to relieve fatigue and manage pain, diarrhea, or opioid withdrawal. The use of kratom has become more commonplace in the United States for similar purposes. Only rare reports of kratom liver toxicity exist in the literature but without histologic characterization. Herein, we report one case of kratom use-associated liver toxicity in a 38-year-old patient. The patient complained of dark colored urine and light colored stools after using kratom...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Nurul H M Yusoff, Sharif M Mansor, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Mitragynine is the major alkaloid found in the leaves of M. speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), a plant that is native to Southeast Asia. This compound has been used, either traditionally or recreationally, due to its psychostimulant and opioid-like effects. Recently, mitragynine has been shown to exert conditioned place preference (CPP), indicating the rewarding and motivational properties of M. speciosa. Here, the involvement of GABAB receptors in mediating mitragynine reward is studied using a CPP paradigm in rats...
June 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Chaisiri Angkurawaranon, Wichuda Jiraporncharoen, Surinporn Likhitsathian, Kanittha Thaikla, Manop Kanato, Usaneya Perngparn, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Apinun Aramrattana
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Thailand borders some of the world's largest methamphetamine and opioid producing countries and trafficking routes. Thailand's 'War on Drugs' campaign was launched in 2003. This study reports trends in illicit substance use in Thailand over the period 2001-2011. DESIGN AND METHODS: National Household surveys on illicit drug use were conducted in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2011. A stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was implemented for each survey...
February 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Stephanie Basiliere, Kelsie Bryand, Sarah Kerrigan
Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a psychoactive plant that has recently emerged as a recreational drug. Mitragyna alkaloids are not within the scope of traditional forensic toxicology screening methods, which may contribute to under-reporting. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS) were used to identify five alkaloids in urine. Target analytes included the two known psychoactive compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in addition to speciociliatine, speciogynine, and paynantheine...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Geeta Aggarwal, Edward Robertson, James McKinlay, Edward Walter
We present the case of a 26-year-old man who was brought into our emergency department in cardiorespiratory arrest, having taken Kratom 24 h previously. Despite multi-organ support, he deteriorated and died from cardiorespiratory failure and hypoxic brain damage 12 h later. Lipid emulsion was given, with significant temporary improvement in the cardiorespiratory failure. Kratom is derived from Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical deciduous and evergreen tree in the coffee family, and is native to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used as a legal high in some parts of the world...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Javier E Ortiz, Adriana Garro, Natalia B Pigni, María Belén Agüero, German Roitman, Alberto Slanis, Ricardo D Enriz, Gabriela E Feresin, Jaume Bastida, Alejandro Tapia
BACKGROUND: In Argentina, the Amaryllidaceae family (59 species) comprises a wide variety of genera, only a few species have been investigated as a potential source of cholinesterases inhibitors to treat Alzheimer disease (AD). PURPOSE: To study the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of the basic dichloromethane extracts (E) from Hieronymiella aurea, H. caletensis, H. clidanthoides, H. marginata, and H. speciosa species, as well as the isolated compounds from these plant extracts...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Anna Stojakowska, Agnieszka Galanty, Janusz Malarz, Marta Michalik
In addition to known constituents of Telekia speciosa, an acetone extract from ray florets of the plant yielded: 5,5'-dibutoxy-2,2'-bifuran (1), 5,5'-diisobutoxy-2,2'-bifuran (2), α-tocopherol (3), β-tocopherol (4), loliolide palmitate (5), a mixture of calenduladiol esters - 16β-hydroxylupeol-3-O-palmitate (7) and 16β-hydroxylupeol-3-O-myristate (8), 1-epiinuviscolide (12), inuviscolide (13), 3-epiisotelekin (16), 4α-hydroxy-9β,10β-epoxy-1β(H)-11(13)-guaien-8α,12-olide (17), 4α-hydroxy-1β(H)-9(10),11(13)-guaiadien-8α,12-olide (18), loliolide (19) and 4β,10β-dihydroxy-1α(H),5α(H)-11(13)-guaien-8α,12-olide (20)...
February 12, 2018: Natural Product Research
Ali Ghasemzadeh, Hawa Z E Jaafar, Mohamad Fhaizal Mohamad Bukhori, Mohd Hafizad Rahmat, Asmah Rahmat
BACKGROUND: Parkia speciosa seeds are a common ingredient in Malay cuisine with traditional interest because of its medicinal importance and content of health-promoting phytochemicals. This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and biological activities (antioxidant and antibacterial activities) of Parkia speciosa Hassk seeds collected from three different regions of Malaysia (Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Johor). Phytochemical constituents (total flavonoid and total phenolic) were measured using the spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography...
February 7, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
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