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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907185/antioxidant-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-properties-as-well-as-the-phenolic-content-of-the-extract-from-hancornia-speciosa-gomes
#1
Uilson P Santos, Jaqueline F Campos, Heron Fernandes V Torquato, Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Leticia M Estevinho, Kely de Picoli Souza, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893147/update-on-the-pharmacology-and-legal-status-of-kratom
#2
Walter C Prozialeck
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. In a comprehensive review published in 2012, Prozialeck et al presented evidence that kratom had been increasingly used for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain in the United States. At the time, kratom was classified as a legal herbal product by the US Drug Enforcement Administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861139/in-vitro-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-isolated-compounds-of-ethanol-extract-from-sanchezia-speciosa-leonard-s-leaves
#3
Tung Bui Thanh, Loi Vu Duc, Hai Nguyen Thanh, Vung Nguyen Tien
BACKGROUND: Sanchezia speciosa has been used in traditional medicine for gastritis treatment in Vietnam. Some phytochemical study showed that S. speciosa contains high amounts of flavonoids and cardiac glycoside compounds. In the present study, we isolated four compounds from the ethanol extract of the S. speciosa leaf, and we evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of the isolated compound from the ethanol extract of the S. speciosa leaf. METHODS: The leaf of S...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857843/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-extract-of-parkia-speciosa-hassk-pods-assisted-by-microwave-irradiation
#4
Is Fatimah
This paper reports an investigation of the microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using extract of stinky bean (Parkia speciosa Hassk) pods (BP). The formation of Ag NPs was identified by instrumental analysis consists of UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size analysis. Furthermore, Ag NPs were used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
November 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811992/eliciting-maize-defense-pathways-aboveground-attracts-belowground-biocontrol-agents
#5
Camila Cramer Filgueiras, Denis S Willett, Ramom Vasconcelos Pereira, Alcides Moino Junior, Martin Pareja, Larry W Duncan
Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation of plant defense pathways on the interactions between corn, the aboveground herbivore adult Diabrotica speciosa, the belowground herbivore larval D. speciosa, and the subterranean ento-mopathogenic nematode natural enemy Heterorhabditis amazonensis...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799032/herbal-highs-review-on-psychoactive-effects-and-neuropharmacology
#6
Silvia Graziano, Laura Orsolini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, R Tittarelli, Fabrizio Schifano, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: A new trend among users of new psychoactive substances' the consumption of "herbal highs": plant parts containing psychoactive substances. Most of the substances extracted from herbs, in old centuries were at the centre of religious ceremonies of ancient civilizations. Currently, these herbal products are mainly sold by internet web sites and easily obtained since some of them have no legal restriction. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed psychoactive effects and neuropharmacology of the most used "herbal highs" with characterized active principles, with studies reporting mechanisms of action, pharmacological and subjective effects, eventual secondary effects including intoxications and/or fatalities Method: The PubMed database was searched using the following key...
October 31, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796451/rapid-classification-of-chinese-quince-chaenomeles-speciosa-nakai-fruit-provenance-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-multivariate-calibration
#7
Wenhao Shao, Yanjie Li, Songfeng Diao, Jingmin Jiang, Ruxiang Dong
The quality of Chinese quince fruit is a significant factor for medicinal materials, influencing the quality of the medicine. However, it is difficult to distinguish different types of Chinese quince fruit. The main objective of this work was to use near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, which is a rapid and non-destructive analysis method, to classify the varieties of Chinese quince fruits. Raw spectra in the range of 1000 to 2500 nm were combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and support vector machines (SVMs) for classification...
October 28, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768072/rapid-high-throughput-species-identification-of-botanical-material-using-direct-analysis-in-real-time-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#8
Ashton D Lesiak, Rabi A Musah
We demonstrate that direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry can be used to produce mass spectral profiles of botanical material, and that these chemical fingerprints can be used for plant species identification. The mass spectral data can be acquired rapidly and in a high throughput manner without the need for sample extraction, derivatization or pH adjustment steps. The use of this technique bypasses challenges presented by more conventional techniques including lengthy chromatography analysis times and resource intensive methods...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752985/suspected-adulteration-of-commercial-kratom-products-with-7-hydroxymitragynine
#9
Alicia G Lydecker, Abhisheak Sharma, Christopher R McCurdy, Bonnie A Avery, Kavita M Babu, Edward W Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725074/determination-of-mitragynine-in-mitragyna-speciosa-raw-materials-and-finished-products-by-liquid-chromatography-with-uv-detection-single-laboratory-validation
#10
Elizabeth M Mudge, Paula N Brown
Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a tree indigenous to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used in herbal formulations because they contain indole alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxy (7-OH) mitragynine. An HPLC method was developed, optimized, and validated using single-laboratory validation guidelines to quantify mitragynine in kratom raw materials and finished products. The method optimization evaluated several extraction parameters including solvent type, solvent volume, time, and extraction method. The separation of the mitragynine alkaloids was achieved in 18 min with a fused-core C18 EVO column using gradient separation with ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9...
October 8, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714492/carcass-characteristics-and-meat-quality-of-lambs-fed-babassu-cake-orbignya-speciosa-as-a-replacement-for-elephant-grass-silage
#11
Janaina Barros Luz, Kaliandra Souza Alves, Rafael Mezzomo, Ernestina Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Daiany Íris Gomes, Luis Rennan Sampaio Oliveira, Josiane Costa Silva, Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Forty-five castrated male Santa Ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%DM) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to 60 % concentrate...
October 6, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706595/genetic-diversity-in-natural-populations-of-mangaba-in-sergipe-the-largest-producer-state-in-brazil
#12
A N R Soares, M F Vitória, A L S Nascimento, A S Ledo, A R C Rabbani, A V C Silva
Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) is found in areas of coastal tablelands in the Brazilian Northeast and Cerrado regions. This species has been subjected to habitat fragmentation that is mainly due to human activity, and requires conservation strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure and inter- and intrapopulation genetic diversity of natural populations of H. speciosa Gomes using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. A total of 155 individuals were sampled in 10 natural populations (ITA, PAC, IND, EST, BC, PIR, JAP, BG, NEO, and SANT) in the State of Sergipe, Brazil...
August 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697029/fatty-acid-composition-of-mangrove-wild-legume-seeds-sesbania-speciosa-in-southwestern-india
#13
Kandikere R Sridhar, Dorathy D Anita, Sudeep D Ghate
This study compares the composition of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in seeds of Sesbania speciosa (dry and mature) after processing (uncooked and cooked) and extraction (hot and cold). Among PUFA, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were common to uncooked and cooked dry seeds which were high on cold extraction. Only two fatty acid ratios were favorable in hot extraction [(C14:0 + C15:0 + (C16:0 / C18:0) and C18:1 / C18:2]. Cold extraction yielded docosahexaenoic acid in uncooked as well as cooked dry seeds and all fatty acid ratios were nutritionally favorable...
October 3, 2016: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663281/corosolic-acid-protects-hepatocytes-against-ethanol-induced-damage-by-modulating-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-and-activating-autophagy
#14
Xiaolan Guo, Ruibing Cui, Jianjian Zhao, Rui Mo, Lei Peng, Ming Yan
The reactive oxygen species(ROS)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) destroyed autophagy and the reactive oxygen species/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway are considered closely related to ethanol-induced hepatocellular injury. Previous work indicated that corosolic acid, the natural extracts of leaves of the banaba tree, Lagerstroemia speciosa L., could protect the liver against ethanol-induced damage, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the study we found that corosolic acid significantly inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis, increased level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species accumulation in vitro...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630733/immunomodulatory-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-babassu-mesocarp-improves-the-survival-in-lethal-sepsis
#15
Elizabeth S B Barroqueiro, Dayanna S Prado, Priscila S Barcellos, Tonicley A Silva, Wanderson S Pereira, Lucilene A Silva, Márcia C G Maciel, Rodrigo B Barroqueiro, Flávia R F Nascimento, Azizedite G Gonçalves, Rosane N M Guerra
Attalea speciosa syn Orbignya phalerata Mart. (babassu) has been used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Aim of the study. To investigate the antimicrobial and immunological activity of babassu mesocarp extract (EE). Material and Methods. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion assay and by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556704/mitragynine-corynantheidine-pseudoindoxyls-as-opioid-analgesics-with-mu-agonism-and-delta-antagonism-which-do-not-recruit-%C3%AE-arrestin-2
#16
András Váradi, Gina F Marrone, Travis C Palmer, Ankita Narayan, Márton R Szabó, Valerie Le Rouzic, Steven G Grinnell, Joan J Subrath, Evelyn Warner, Sanjay Kalra, Amanda Hunkele, Jeremy Pagirsky, Shainnel O Eans, Jessica M Medina, Jin Xu, Ying-Xian Pan, Attila Borics, Gavril W Pasternak, Jay P McLaughlin, Susruta Majumdar
Natural products found in Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom, represent diverse scaffolds (indole, indolenine, and spiro pseudoindoxyl) with opioid activity, providing opportunities to better understand opioid pharmacology. Herein, we report the pharmacology and SAR studies both in vitro and in vivo of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl (3), an oxidative rearrangement product of the corynanthe alkaloid mitragynine. 3 and its corresponding corynantheidine analogs show promise as potent analgesics with a mechanism of action that includes mu opioid receptor agonism/delta opioid receptor antagonism...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529077/chemical-composition-and-antimicrobial-potential-of-palm-leaf-extracts-from-baba%C3%A3-u-attalea-speciosa-buriti-mauritia-flexuosa-and-maca%C3%A3%C2%BAba-acrocomia-aculeata
#17
Adriana Idalina Torcato de Oliveira, Talal Suleiman Mahmoud, Guilherme Nobre L do Nascimento, Juliana Fonseca Moreira da Silva, Raphael Sanzio Pimenta, Paula Benevides de Morais
Babaçu (A. speciosa), Buriti (M. flexuosa), and Macaúba (A. aculeata) are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525283/effects-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-eremomastax-speciosa-acanthaceae-on-sexual-behavior-in-normal-male-rats
#18
B Nchegang, C Mezui, F Longo, Z E Nkwengoua, A P Amang, P V Tan
Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment)). The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg) was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 mg/kg), or atropine (5 mg/kg). Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c.) before the test)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496015/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-aqueous-extract-and-bioactive-compounds-identified-from-the-fruits-of-hancornia-speciosa-gomes-apocynaceae
#19
Manoela Torres-Rêgo, Allanny Alves Furtado, Mariana Angélica Oliveira Bitencourt, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza Lima, Rafael Caetano Lisbôa Castro de Andrade, Eduardo Pereira de Azevedo, Thaciane da Cunha Soares, José Carlos Tomaz, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
BACKGROUND: Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "mangabeira," has been used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, hypertension, dermatitis, diabetes, liver diseases and gastric disorders. Although the ethnobotany indicates that its fruits can be used for the treatment of ulcers and inflammatory disorders, only few studies have been conducted to prove such biological activities. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract of the fruits of H...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492752/seasonal-importance-of-flowers-to-costa-rican-capuchins-cebus-capucinus-imitator-implications-for-plant-and-primate
#20
Jeremy D Hogan, Amanda D Melin, Krisztina N Mosdossy, Linda M Fedigan
OBJECTIVES: Our goal is to investigate flower foraging by capuchin monkeys, a behavior rarely studied in wild primates. We ask what drives seasonal variation in florivory rates: flower quality and abundance or fluctuations in fruit and invertebrate abundances. We explore how capuchins affect the reproductive success of flower food species by quantifying the potential pollination rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We followed capuchin groups from dawn to dusk and recorded all flower foraging bouts...
December 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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