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First Major Depressive Episode

Esma Akpınar, Cem Cerit, Anıl Talas, Ümit Tural
Objective: In this open-labeled, 12 weeks follow-up study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine with sertraline. Methods: The outpatients of adult psychiatry clinic who have a new onset of depression and diagnosed as 'major depressive episode' by clinician according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition and prescribed agomelatine (25 mg/day) or sertraline (50 mg/day) were included in the study. Results: The decline of mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores of agomelatine group was significantly higher than the sertraline group at the end of 2nd week; however, the difference was not significant at the end of 3 months...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
M J J Kunst, M Van de Wiel
The current study investigated whether mental health practitioners are influenced by the narrative fallacy when assessing the psychological injuries of trauma victims. The narrative fallacy is associated with our tendency to establish logical links between different facts. In psychodiagnostic assessments, this tendency may result in overdiagnosis of mental disorders when psychological symptoms can be attributed to a traumatic event. Consequently, legal decision makers may be at risk of awarding compensation for psychological injuries which are not severe enough to justify financial reimbursement...
2016: Psychological Injury and Law
Elayne Ahern, Maria Semkovska
Objective: Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in major depression. Yet, when these deficits emerge and how they relate to the depressed state is unclear. The aim of this 2-part systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the pattern and extent of cognitive deficits during a first-episode of depression (FED) and their persistence following FED remission. Method: Published, peer-reviewed articles on cognitive function in FED patients through October 2015 were searched. Meta-analyses with random-effects modeling were conducted...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
Mary de Groot, Kent A Crick, Molly Long, Chandan Saha, Jay H Shubrook
OBJECTIVE: Depression in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with long-term complications, disability, and early mortality. No studies have systematically examined the length of episodes and remission in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and T2D. This study examined the course of depressive disorders in patients with T2D and MDD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants (N = 50) enrolled in a behavioral intervention for adults with T2D and MDD were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR to assess history of depressive disorders at baseline (lifetime history), postintervention, and 3-month follow-up...
October 11, 2016: Diabetes Care
Stefanie Schreiter, Johanna Winkler, Joachim Bretz, Meryam Schouler-Ocak
Clinical diagnostics of mental disorders especially among refugees and asylum seekers come with unique difficulties: language barriers, different forms of expression and concepts of the understanding of mental illness as well as a different cultural background. Therefore professional interpreters are needed but associated with a higher effort related to costs and time. We conducted a retrospective analysis of costs, which incurred by the use of professional interpreters in our outpatient clinic in Berlin, Germany, in the first quarter 2016 for the treatment of refugees and asylum seekers...
September 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Rikke Thaarup Wesselhöft
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a frequent and painful mental disorder considered among the five leading causes of disability in Western countries by the World Health Organization. MDD occurs at all ages, but childhood onset MDD has a more severe course with longer depressive episodes, more suicidality, and more frequent hospitalization, than later onset MDD. Childhood seems to be a window of opportunity for prevention of mental disorders, and subsequently prevention of MDD onset in childhood is recommended...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Y Cheng, J Xu, D Arnone, B Nie, H Yu, H Jiang, Y Bai, C Luo, R A A Campbell, B Shan, L Xu, X Xu
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated alteration of brain resting-state activity induced by antidepressant treatment and attempted to investigate whether treatment efficacy can be predicted at an early stage of pharmacological treatment. METHOD: Forty-eight first-episode medication-free patients diagnosed with major depression received treatment with escitalopram. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was administered prior to treatment, 5 h after the first dose, during the course of pharmacological treatment (week 4) and at endpoint (week 8)...
October 4, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Zonglin Shen, Yuqi Cheng, Shuran Yang, Nan Dai, Jing Ye, Xiaoyan Liu, Jin Lu, Na Li, Fang Liu, Yi Lu, Xuejin Sun, Xiufeng Xu
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the pathological mechanism of early adult onset depression (EOD) and later adult onset depression (LOD). We seek to determine whether grey matter volume (GMV) change in EOD and LOD are different, which could also delineate EOD and LOD. METHODS: In present study, 147 first-episode, drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), age between 18 and 45, were divided into two groups on the basis of age of MDD onset: the early adult onset group (age 18-29) and the later adult onset group (age 30-44), and a total of 130 gender-, and age-, matched healthy controls (HC) were also divided into two groups which fit for each patient group...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Catherine Gigot, Christine Reynaert, Nicolas Zdanowicz
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we compared the family relationships of patients hospitalized in a psychiatry unit from either psychiatric consultations or after passing emergency room (E.R.). The intensity of depression was statistically comparable in both groups. What distinguishes patients transiting emergencies is that their families and couples are more cohesive and adaptable. In this study, we compare both groups in terms of coping mechanisms and multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC)...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Xue Zhong, Weidan Pu, Shuqiao Yao
BACKGROUND: The neurobiological mechanisms of depression are increasingly being explored through resting-state brain imaging studies. However, resting-state fMRI findings have varied, perhaps because of differences between study populations, which included the disorder course and medication use. The aim of our study was to integrate studies of resting-state fMRI and explore the alterations of abnormal brain activity in first-episode, drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger S McIntyre
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) mixed features specifier provides a less restrictive definition of mixed mood states, compared to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), including mood episodes that manifest with subthreshold symptoms of the opposite mood state. A limited number of studies have assessed the efficacy of treatments specifically for DSM-5-defined mixed features in mood disorders. As such, there is currently an inadequate amount of data to appropriately inform evidence-based treatment guidelines of DSM-5 defined mixed features...
September 15, 2016: CNS Spectrums
G Brand, B Schaal
Research on sensorial interactions with psychiatric diseases and particularly with the depressive syndrome has mainly focused on visual or auditory processes and much less on olfaction. The depressive illness is one of the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in the community, with approximately one in five women and one in eight men experiencing a major depressive episode during their lifetime. Although genetic, epigenetic, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroimmunological changes can be detected during depression, the etiology of depression remains partly unclear...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Marina A Khusid, Meena Vythilingam
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been increasingly utilized in the management of mental health conditions. This first review of a two-part series evaluates the efficacy, mechanism, and safety of mindfulness meditation for mental health conditions frequently seen after return from deployment. Standard databases were searched until August 4, 2015. 52 systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials were included. The Strength of Recommendation (SOR) Taxonomy was used to assess the quality of individual studies and to rate the strength of evidence for each clinical condition...
September 2016: Military Medicine
Mercedes Fernández Gacio, Ana Maria Agrelo Lousame, Susana Pereira, Clara Castro, Juliana Santos
BACKGROUND: Several locoregional techniques have been described for the management of acute and chronic pain after breast surgery. The optimal technique should be easy to perform, reproducible, with little discomfort to the patient, little complications, allowing good control of acute pain and a decreased incidence of chronic pain, namely intercostobrachial neuralgia for being the most frequent entity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the paravertebral block with preoperative single needle prick for major breast surgery and assess initially the control of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and acute pain in the first 24h and secondly the incidence of neuropathic pain in the intercostobrachial nerve region six months after surgery...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Adomas Bunevicius, Paulius Cikotas, Vesta Steibliene, Vytenis P Deltuva, Arimantas Tamsauskas
BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysms most commonly present following rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. Mental disorders are common among patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms and in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage survivors. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published report of unruptured intracranial aneurysm presenting as a mental disorder. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 69-year-old male without a past history of mental disorders and neurological symptoms presented with a 2-month history of anxiety, sadness, lack of pleasure in usual activities, fatigue, difficulties falling asleep and waking up early in the morning, reduced appetite, and weight loss...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Samuel T Wilkinson, Robert B Ostroff, Gerard Sanacora
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility and potential efficacy of providing computer-assisted cognitive behavior therapy (CCBT) after an index course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to prevent relapse. METHODS: In an open-label trial, subjects with major depressive episode who achieved response or remission after an acute treatment with ECT were recruited to enroll in a 9-module CCBT course. Subjects completed the CCBT modules in their own home at their own pace, but were asked to do at least 1 lesson per week, such that all 9 lessons would be completed in the first 2 months...
August 26, 2016: Journal of ECT
Chien-Han Lai, Yu-Te Wu, Cheng-Yu Chen, Yi-Cheng Hou
We investigated the treatment effects of aripiprazole monotherapy in first-episode medication-naïve patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The accompanying changes in the gray matter volume (GMV) were also explored.Fifteen patients completed the trial and received structural scans by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and partially responding state (sixth week). To account for the test-retest bias, 27 healthy controls were scanned twice within 6 weeks. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry with different comparisons between groups...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Donna L Littlewood, Patricia Gooding, Simon D Kyle, Daniel Pratt, Sarah Peters
OBJECTIVE: Sleep problems are associated with increased risk of suicide, independent of depression. This analysis explores narrative accounts of the role of sleep in relation to suicidal thoughts and behaviours. DESIGN: Qualitative study, based on in-depth semistructured interviews which were analysed with an inductive, latent thematic analysis. PARTICIPANTS: A maximum variation sample of 18 people with experience of a major depressive episode, and suicidal thoughts and behaviours...
2016: BMJ Open
Mark Zimmerman, Carolina Guzman Holst, Heather L Clark, Matthew Multach, Emily Walsh, Lia K Rosenstein, Douglas Gazarian
BACKGROUND: Concerns about the generalizability of pharmacotherapy efficacy trials to "real-world" patients have been raised for more than 40 years. Almost all of this literature has focused on treatment studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to review the psychiatric inclusion and exclusion criteria used in placebo-controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of medications for bipolar depression (bipolar disorder efficacy trials [BDETs]) and compare the criteria used in BDETs with those used in efficacy trials of antidepressants to treat MDD (antidepressant efficacy trials [AETs])...
August 19, 2016: CNS Drugs
Li Wang, Xueni Li, Ke Li, Yunai Su, Yawei Zeng, Qinge Zhang, Gang Wang, Zhen Jin, Qingmei Kong, Tianmei Si
Antidepressant medications represent the most common treatment option for major depressive disorder (MDD), but the neuro-psychological mechanisms by which antidepressants act to improve depressive symptoms remain under-specified. We designed this study to assess the effects of escitalopram treatment on spontaneous brain activity of MDD patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty first-episode drug-naive MDD patients received resting-state fMRI scans before and after 8 weeks of treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor - escitalopram...
August 15, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
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