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Dendritic dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924658/two-photon-sted-microscopy-for-nanoscale-imaging-of-neural-morphology-in-vivo
#1
Mirelle J T Ter Veer, Thomas Pfeiffer, U Valentin Nägerl
The advent of super-resolution microscopy offers to bridge the gap between electron and light microscopy. It has opened up the possibility of visualizing cellular structures and dynamic signaling events on the "mesoscale" well below the classic diffraction barrier of light microscopy (10-200 nm), while essentially retaining the advantages of fluorescence microscopy concerning multicolor labeling, detection sensitivity, signal contrast, live-cell imaging, and temporal resolution.From among the new super-resolution techniques, STED microscopy stands out as a laser-scanning imaging modality, which enables nanoscale volume-metric imaging of cellular morphology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922601/substrate-dependence-of-the-freezing-dynamics-of-supercooled-water-films-a-high-speed-optical-microscope-study
#2
Elzbieta Pach, Laura Rodríguez, Albert Verdaguer
The freezing of supercooled water films on silicon-based surfaces was investigated using a high-speed camera coupled to an optical microscope. We were able to study in detail the two phases or stages in during water freezing; the first stage, faster, when dendritic grow occurs co-planar with the cold surface of the substrate and the second stage, slower, when the ice formed on the surface grows vertically until all the film is frozen. Several differentiated processes were identified during the freezing: two dimensional dendrite growing on the substrate interface, vertical dendrite growing, formation and evolution of ice domains, trapping of air bubbles in ice and freezing of the water film surface...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920083/differential-alterations-of-intracellular-ca-2-dynamics-induced-by-cocaine-and-methylphenidate-in-thalamocortical-ventrobasal-neurons
#3
José L Rozas, Belén Goitia, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
The ventrobasal (VB) thalamus relay nucleus processes information from rodents' whiskers, projecting to somatosensory cortex. Cocaine and methylphenidate (MPH) have been described to differentially alter intrinsic properties of, and spontaneous GABAergic input to, VB neurons. Here we studied using bis-fura 2 ratiometric fluorescence the effects of cocaine and MPH on intracellular [Ca(2+)] dynamics at the soma and dendrites of VB neurons. Cocaine increased baseline fluorescence in VB somatic and dendritic compartments...
July 2017: Translational Brain Rhythmicity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919534/glutamate-induced-rapid-induction-of-arc-arg3-1-requires-nmda-receptor-mediated-phosphorylation-of-erk-and-creb
#4
Tao Chen, Jie Zhu, Li-Kun Yang, Yi Feng, Wei Lin, Yu-Hai Wang
Arc/Arg3.1 is a unique immediate early gene whose expression is highly dynamic and correlated with various forms of synaptic plasticity. Many previous reports highlight the complexity of mechanisms that regulate Arc/Arg3.1 expression in neurons. In the present study, the expression and regulation of Arc/Arg3.1 after glutamate treatment in primary cultured cortical neurons were investigated. We found that both Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA and Arc/Arg3.1 protein dynamically increased within 24h after glutamate treatment. The results of immunostaining showed that abundant amounts of Arc/Arg3...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910617/whole-cell-recording-of-neuronal-membrane-potential-during-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Carl C H Petersen
Neuronal membrane potential is of fundamental importance for the mechanistic understanding of brain function. This review discusses progress in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for low-noise measurement of neuronal membrane potential in awake behaving animals. Whole-cell recordings can be combined with two-photon microscopy to target fluorescently labeled neurons, revealing cell-type-specific membrane potential dynamics of retrogradely or genetically labeled neurons. Dual whole-cell recordings reveal behavioral modulation of membrane potential synchrony and properties of synaptic transmission in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904093/sodium-dynamics-in-pyramidal-neuron-dendritic-spines-synaptically-evoked-entry-predominantly-through-ampa-receptors-and-removal-by-diffusion
#6
Kenichi Miyazaki, William N Ross
Dendritic spines are key elements underlying synaptic integration and cellular plasticity, but many features of these important structures are not known or are controversial. We examined these properties with newly developed simultaneous sodium and calcium imaging that had single spine resolution in pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices from either sex. Indicators for both ions were loaded through the somatic patch pipette, which also recorded electrical responses. Fluorescence changes were detected with a high speed, low noise CCD camera...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899819/information-content-of-dendritic-spines-after-motor-learning
#7
Davide Viggiano, Luisa Speranza, Marianna Crispino, Gian Carlo Bellenchi, Umberto di Porzio, Attilio Iemolo, Elvira De Leonibus, Floriana Volpicelli, Carla Perrone-Capano
Dendritic spines, small protrusions emerging from the dendrites of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, are highly dynamic structures and their shape and number is continuously modulated by memory formation and other adaptive changes of the brain. In this study, using a behavioral paradigm of motor learning, we applied the non-linear analysis of dendritic spines to study spine complexity along dendrites of cortical and subcortical neural systems, such as the basal ganglia, that sustain important motor learning processes...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880550/a-polymer-therapeutic-having-universal-heparin-reversal-activity-molecular-design-and-functional-mechanism
#8
Manu Thomas Kalathottukaren, Srinivas Abbina, Kai Yu, Rajesh A Shenoi, A Louise Creagh, Charles Haynes, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
Heparins are widely used to prevent blood clotting during surgeries and for the treatment of thrombosis. However, bleeding associated with heparin therapy is a concern. Protamine, the only approved antidote for unfractionated heparin (UFH) could cause adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we describe a unique molecular design used in the development of a synthetic dendritic polycation named as Universal Heparin Reversal Agent (UHRA), an antidote for all clinically used heparin anticoagulants. We elucidate the mechanistic basis for the selectivity of UHRA to heparins and its non-toxic nature...
September 7, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877993/stabilization-of-dynamic-microtubules-by-mdia1-drives-tau-dependent-a%C3%AE-1-42-synaptotoxicity
#9
Xiaoyi Qu, Feng Ning Yuan, Carlo Corona, Silvia Pasini, Maria Elena Pero, Gregg G Gundersen, Michael L Shelanski, Francesca Bartolini
Oligomeric Amyloid β1-42 (Aβ) plays a crucial synaptotoxic role in Alzheimer's disease, and hyperphosphorylated tau facilitates Aβ toxicity. The link between Aβ and tau, however, remains controversial. In this study, we find that in hippocampal neurons, Aβ acutely induces tubulin posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and stabilizes dynamic microtubules (MTs) by reducing their catastrophe frequency. Silencing or acute inhibition of the formin mDia1 suppresses these activities and corrects the synaptotoxicity and deficits of axonal transport induced by Aβ...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869063/nanoparticles-and-innate-immunity-new-perspectives-on-host-defence
#10
REVIEW
Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani, Roberto Palomba, Paolo Decuzzi, Albert Duschl, Bengt Fadeel, S Moein Moghimi
The innate immune system provides the first line of defence against foreign microbes and particulate materials. Engineered nanoparticles can interact with the immune system in many different ways. Nanoparticles may thus elicit inflammation with engagement of neutrophils, macrophages and other effector cells; however, it is important to distinguish between acute and chronic inflammation in order to identify the potential hazards of nanoparticles for human health. Nanoparticles may also interact with and become internalised by dendritic cells, key antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, where a better understanding of these processes could pave the way for improved vaccination strategies...
August 28, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867286/load-adaptation-of-lamellipodial-actin-networks
#11
Jan Mueller, Gregory Szep, Maria Nemethova, Ingrid de Vries, Arnon D Lieber, Christoph Winkler, Karsten Kruse, J Victor Small, Christian Schmeiser, Kinneret Keren, Robert Hauschild, Michael Sixt
Actin filaments polymerizing against membranes power endocytosis, vesicular traffic, and cell motility. In vitro reconstitution studies suggest that the structure and the dynamics of actin networks respond to mechanical forces. We demonstrate that lamellipodial actin of migrating cells responds to mechanical load when membrane tension is modulated. In a steady state, migrating cell filaments assume the canonical dendritic geometry, defined by Arp2/3-generated 70° branch points. Increased tension triggers a dense network with a broadened range of angles, whereas decreased tension causes a shift to a sparse configuration dominated by filaments growing perpendicularly to the plasma membrane...
August 29, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866426/biophysics-of-biochemical-signaling-in-dendritic-spines-implications-in-synaptic-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
Ryohei Yasuda
Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped postsynaptic compartments that host biochemical signal cascades important for synaptic plasticity and, ultimately, learning and memory. Signaling events in spines involve a signaling network composed of hundreds of signaling proteins interacting with each other extensively. Synaptic plasticity is typically induced by Ca(2+) elevation in spines, which activates a variety of signaling pathways. This leads to changes in the actin cytoskeleton and membrane dynamics, which in turn causes structural and functional changes of the spine...
August 30, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866056/mitochondrial-dynamics-transport-and-quality-control-a-bottleneck-for-retinal-ganglion-cell-viability-in-optic-neuropathies
#13
Yoko A Ito, Adriana Di Polo
Retinal ganglion cells, the neurons that selectively die in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies, are endowed with an exceedingly active metabolism and display a particular vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are exquisitely dynamic organelles that are continually responding to endogenous and environmental cues to readily meet the energy demand of neuronal networks. The highly orchestrated regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, fission, transport and degradation is paramount for the maintenance of energy-expensive synapses at RGC dendrites and axon terminals geared for optimal neurotransmission...
September 1, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865021/role-of-drebrin-in-synaptic-plasticity
#14
Yuko Sekino, Noriko Koganezawa, Toshiyuki Mizui, Tomoaki Shirao
Synaptic plasticity underlies higher brain function such as learning and memory, and the actin cytoskeleton in dendritic spines composing excitatory postsynaptic sites plays a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity. In this chapter, we review the role of drebrin in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton during synaptic plasticity, under long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Dendritic spines have two F-actin pools, drebrin-decorated stable F-actin (DF-actin) and drebrin-free dynamic F-actin (FF-actin)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865020/drebrin-and-spine-formation
#15
Hideto Takahashi, Yusuke Naito
Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic receptive regions of most excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. Thus, spines are supposed to act as a fundamental unit for information processing of the brains. Previous studies have demonstrated the roles of drebrin in the formation of dendritic spines and in the recruitment of synaptic proteins to postsynaptic sites. Further, a live imaging study has revealed the unique dynamics of drebrin in dendritic spines, which help to understand how drebrin is involved in dendritic spine formation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865015/remodeling-of-actin-filaments-by-drebrin-a-and-its-implications
#16
Elena E Grintsevich
Dendritic spines are small protrusions of dendrites that are critical for synaptic transmission. The plasticity and stability of dendritic spines is tightly linked to actin cytoskeleton. However, our understanding of specific properties and the fine-tuning of neuronal actin structures is incomplete. Drebrin A is highly enriched in dendritic spines, but its effects on actin morphology, dynamics, and interplay with other actin regulators are yet to be clarified. Here we review recent advances in understanding drebrin effects on actin morphology and dynamics...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865014/phosphorylation-of-drebrin-and-its-role-in-neuritogenesis
#17
Phillip R Gordon-Weeks
Neuritogenesis is an early event in neuronal development in which newborn neurons first form growth cones, as a prerequisite for the formation of axons and dendrites. Growth cones emerge from segmented regions of the lamellipodium of embryonic neurons and grow away from the cell body leaving behind a neurite that will eventually polarise into an axon or dendrite. Growth cones also function to navigate precise routes through the embryo to locate an appropriate synaptic partner. Dynamic interactions between two components of the neuronal cytoskeleton, actin filaments and microtubules, are known to be essential for growth cone formation and hence neuritogenesis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865013/biochemistry-of-drebrin-and-its-binding-to-actin-filaments
#18
Ryoki Ishikawa
Drebrin is an actin-binding protein mainly expressed in developing neurons and dendritic spine in mature neurons. To understand the functions of drebrin in vivo, we must understand its molecular properties. In this chapter, I will focus on the purification and characterization of drebrin in vitro. Drebrin binds to F-actin with a stoichiometry of 1:5~6 with a K d of 1~3 × 10(-7) M and strongly inhibits the binding of other actin-binding proteins such as tropomyosin, caldesmon, fascin, α-actinin, and cofilin...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858616/inferior-olivary-tmem16b-mediates-cerebellar-motor-learning
#19
Yang Zhang, Zhushan Zhang, Shaohua Xiao, Jason Tien, Son Le, Trieu Le, Lily Y Jan, Huanghe Yang
Ca(2+)-activated ion channels shape membrane excitability and Ca(2+) dynamics in response to cytoplasmic Ca(2+) elevation. Compared to the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, known as BK and SK channels, the physiological importance of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) in neurons has been largely overlooked. Here we report that CaCCs coexist with BK and SK channels in inferior olivary (IO) neurons that send climbing fibers to innervate cerebellar Purkinje cells for the control of motor learning and timing...
August 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855741/the-impact-of-cytoskeletal-organization-on-the-local-regulation-of-neuronal-transport
#20
REVIEW
Jeffrey J Nirschl, Amy E Ghiretti, Erika L F Holzbaur
Neurons are akin to modern cities in that both are dependent on robust transport mechanisms. Like the best mass transit systems, trafficking in neurons must be tailored to respond to local requirements. Neurons depend on both high-speed, long-distance transport and localized dynamics to correctly deliver cargoes and to tune synaptic responses. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that provide localized regulation of the transport machinery, including the cytoskeleton and molecular motors, to yield compartment-specific trafficking in the axon initial segment, axon terminal, dendrites and spines...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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