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Dendritic dynamics

Ryusuke Koshida, Saki Tome, Yosuke Takei
Dendritic spines, the postsynaptic compartments at excitatory synapses, are capable of changing their shape and size to modulate synaptic transmission. The actin cytoskeleton and a variety of actin-binding proteins play a critical role in the dynamics of dendritic spines. Class I myosins are monomeric motor proteins that move along actin filaments using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Of these class I myosins, myosin Id, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila Myo31DF, has been reported to be expressed in neurons, whereas its subcellular localization in neurons remained unknown...
March 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Zewdu M Gebeyehu, Aloïs Arrighi, Marius V Costache, Clivia M Sotomayor-Torres, Maria J Esplandiu, Sergio O Valenzuela
Exposing graphene to a hydrogen post-etching process yields dendritic graphene shapes. Here, we demonstrate that similar dendritic structures can be achieved at long growth times without adding hydrogen externally. These shapes are not a result of a surface diffusion controlled growth but of the competing backward reaction (etching), which dominates the growth dynamics at long times due to an in situ rise in the hydrogen partial pressure. We have performed a systematic study on the growth of graphene as a function of time to identify the onset and gradual evolution of graphene shapes caused by etching and then demonstrated that the etching can be stopped by reducing the flow of hydrogen from the feed...
February 22, 2018: RSC Advances
Michael J Ziller, Juan A Ortega, Katharina A Quinlan, David P Santos, Hongcang Gu, Eric J Martin, Christina Galonska, Ramona Pop, Susanne Maidl, Alba Di Pardo, Mei Huang, Herbert Y Meltzer, Andreas Gnirke, C J Heckman, Alexander Meissner, Evangelos Kiskinis
The somatic DNA methylation (DNAme) landscape is established early in development but remains highly dynamic within focal regions that overlap with gene regulatory elements. The significance of these dynamic changes, particularly in the central nervous system, remains unresolved. Here, we utilize a powerful human embryonic stem cell differentiation model for the generation of motor neurons (MNs) in combination with genetic mutations in the de novo DNAme machinery. We quantitatively dissect the role of DNAme in directing somatic cell fate with high-resolution genome-wide bisulfite-, bulk-, and single-cell-RNA sequencing...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Kelly Barford, Austin Keeler, Lloyd McMahon, Kathryn McDaniel, Chan Choo Yap, Christopher D Deppmann, Bettina Winckler
The development of the peripheral nervous system relies on long-distance signaling from target organs back to the soma. In sympathetic neurons, this long-distance signaling is mediated by target derived Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) interacting with its axonal receptor, TrkA. This ligand receptor complex internalizes into what is commonly referred to as the signaling endosome which is transported retrogradely to the soma and dendrites to mediate survival signaling and synapse formation, respectively. The molecular identity of signaling endosomes in dendrites has not yet been determined...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Venkatraman Ravi, Aditi Jain, Faiz Ahamed, Nowrin Fathma, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Nagalingam R Sundaresan
Heart is a dynamic organ that undergoes remodeling in response to both physiological and pathological stimuli. One of the fundamental cellular processes that facilitates changes in the size and shape of this muscular organ is the protein synthesis. Traditionally changes in cardiac protein synthesis levels were measured by radiolabeled tracers. However, these methods are often cumbersome and suffer from radioactive risk. Recently a nonradioactive method for detecting protein synthesis under in vitro conditions called the Surface Sensing of Translation (SUnSET) was described in cell lines of mouse dendrites and T cells...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Krzysztof Kucharz, Martin Lauritzen
Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Brittany P Lassiter, Siqi Guo, Stephen J Beebe
Nano-pulse stimulation (NPS), previously called nsPEFs, induced a vaccine-like effect after ablation of orthotopic N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), protecting rats from subsequent challenges with N1-S1 cells. To determine immunity, immune cell phenotypes were analyzed in naïve, treated and protected rats. NPS provides a positive, post-ablation immuno-therapeutic outcome by alleviating immunosuppressive T regulatory cells (Treg) in the tumor microenvironment (TME), allowing dendritic cell influx and inducing dynamic changes in natural killer cells (NKs), NKT-cells and T-lymphocytes in blood, spleen and liver...
March 13, 2018: Cancers
P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Seham Alaiyed, Eunyoung Kim, Sonia Villapol, Katherine Conant
The perineuronal net (PNN) represents a lattice-like structure that is prominently expressed along the soma and proximal dendrites of parvalbumin- (PV-) positive interneurons in varied brain regions including the cortex and hippocampus. It is thus apposed to sites at which PV neurons receive synaptic input. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in PNN integrity may affect glutamatergic input to PV interneurons, a population that is critical for the expression of synchronous neuronal population discharges that occur with gamma oscillations and sharp-wave ripples...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Kenji Hanamura, Yousuke Kamata, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Nobuhiko Kojima, Tomoaki Shirao
Dendritic spines have stable filamentous actin (F-actin) and dynamic F-actin. The formation of stable F-actin plays a pivotal role in spine formation. Drebrin binds to and stabilizes F-actin in dendritic spines. Interestingly, the conversion of the drebrin E isoform to drebrin A occurs in parallel with synapse formation, suggesting that this conversion promotes synapse formation via F-actin accumulation. In this study, we measured the dynamics of GFP-tagged drebrin E (GFP-DE) and drebrin A (GFP-DA) in cultured hippocampal neurons by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Shen-Ju Chou, Shubha Tole
A hundred years after Lhx2 ortholog apterous was identified as a critical regulator of wing development in Drosophila, LIM-HD gene family members have proved to be versatile and powerful components of the molecular machinery that executes the blueprint of embryogenesis across vertebrate and invertebrate species. Here, we focus on the spatio-temporally varied functions of LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LHX2 in the developing mouse forebrain. Right from its earliest known role in telencephalic and eye field patterning, to the control of the neuron-glia cell fate switch, and the regulation of axon pathfinding and dendritic arborization in late embryonic stages, LHX2 has been identified as a fundamental, temporally dynamic, always necessary, and often sufficient factor in a range of critical developmental phenomena...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research
Lifu Sheng, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk
The neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2) is encoded by a gene on chromosome 21 in humans. NCAM2 accumulates in synapses, but its role in regulation of synapse formation remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that an increase in NCAM2 levels results in increased instability of dendritic protrusions and reduced conversion of protrusions to dendritic spines in mouse cortical neurons. NCAM2 overexpression induces an increase in the frequency of submembrane Ca2+ spikes localized in individual dendritic protrusions and promotes propagation of submembrane Ca2+ spikes over segments of dendrites or the whole dendritic tree...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Andrew Coleman, Thomas Biederer
In this issue of Neuron, Mikhaylova et al. (2018) report how the Ca2+ sensor caldendrin interacts in dendritic spines with cortactin to control actin remodeling. Combining molecular and functional approaches, this work gains insights into postsynaptic dynamics relevant for synaptic plasticity.
March 7, 2018: Neuron
Domantas Peckus, Tomas Matulaitis, Marius Franckevičius, Viktorija Mimaitė, Tomas Tamulevičius, Jurate Simokaitiene, Dmytro Volyniuk, Vidmantas Gulbinas, Sigitas Tamulevicius, Juozas Vidas Grazulevicius
Excited state dynamics of trinary star-shaped dendritic compounds with triphenylamine arms and different cores were studied by means of time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption. Under optical excitation, nonpolar C3 symmetry molecules form polar excited states localized on one of the molecular substituents. Conformational excited state stabilization of molecules with an electron-accepting core causes a formation of twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) states in polar solvents. Low transition dipole moment from TICT state to the ground state causes very weak fluorescence of those compounds and its strong dependence on the solvent polarity...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Daisuke Kurotaki, Jun Nakabayashi, Akira Nishiyama, Haruka Sasaki, Wataru Kawase, Naofumi Kaneko, Kyoko Ochiai, Kazuhiko Igarashi, Keiko Ozato, Yutaka Suzuki, Tomohiko Tamura
Monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), mononuclear phagocytes essential for immune responses, develop from hematopoietic stem cells via monocyte-DC progenitors (MDPs). The molecular basis of their development remains unclear. Because promoter-distal enhancers are key to cell fate decisions, we analyzed enhancer landscapes during mononuclear phagocyte development in vivo. Monocyte- and DC-specific enhancers were gradually established at progenitor stages before the expression of associated genes. Of the transcription factors predicted to bind to these enhancers, IRF8, essential for monocyte and DC development, was found to be required for the establishment of these enhancers, particularly those common to both monocyte and DC lineages...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Dawn S Lin, Andrey Kan, Jerry Gao, Edmund J Crampin, Philip D Hodgkin, Shalin H Naik
A thorough understanding of cellular development is incumbent on assessing the complexities of fate and kinetics of individual clones within a population. Here, we develop a system for robust periodical assessment of lineage outputs of thousands of transient clones and establishment of bona fide cellular trajectories. We appraise the development of dendritic cells (DCs) in fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand culture from barcode-labeled hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) by serially measuring barcode signatures and visualize these multidimensional data using developmental interpolated t-distributed stochastic neighborhood embedding (DiSNE) time-lapse movies...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Marta Perez-Rando, Esther Castillo-Gomez, Clara Bueno-Fernandez, Juan Nacher
BDNF and its receptor TrkB have important roles in neurodevelopment, neural plasticity, learning, and memory. Alterations in TrkB expression have been described in different CNS disorders. Therefore, drugs interacting with TrkB, specially agonists, are promising therapeutic tools. Among them, the recently described 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF), an orally bioactive compound, has been successfully tested in animal models of these diseases. Recent studies have shown the influence of this drug on the structure of pyramidal neurons, specifically on dendritic spine density...
March 2, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Md Mohibbullah, Jae-Suk Choi, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Khalilur Rahman, Il Soo Moon, Yong-Ki Hong
Exogenous neurotrophins can induce neuronal differentiation, outgrowth, survival, and synaptic function in the central nervous system. In primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, an ethanol extract of the red alga Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) and its active compound arachidonic acid (AA) significantly increased the densities of dendritic filopodia and spines, promoted the expression of presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), induced robust synaptogenesis, and increased the expression of cell division control protein 42 (CDC42) and actin-related protein 2 (ARP2), which are important for actin organization in dendritic protrusions, and facilitated presynaptic plasticity by increasing the size of the synaptic vesicle pool at presynaptic nerve terminals...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Estefanía Moreno, Júlia Canet, Eduard Gracia, Carme Lluís, Josefa Mallol, Enric I Canela, Antoni Cortés, Vicent Casadó
Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that acts in all living systems as a homeostatic network regulator through many pathways, which are adenosine receptor (AR)-dependent and -independent. From a metabolic point of view, adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an essential protein in the regulation of the total intracellular and extracellular adenosine in a tissue. In addition to its cytosolic localization, ADA is also expressed as an ecto-enzyme on the surface of different cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) and some ARs act as binding proteins for extracellular ADA in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lindsey A Muir, Samadhi Kiridena, Cameron Griffin, Jennifer B DelProposto, Lynn Geletka, Gabriel Martinez-Santibañez, Brian F Zamarron, Hannah Lucas, Kanakadurga Singer, Robert W O' Rourke, Carey N Lumeng
Obesity-related changes in adipose tissue leukocytes, in particular adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and dendritic cells (ATDCs), are implicated in metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered regulation of adipocyte function. We evaluated stromal cell and white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion dynamics with high fat diet (HFD) feeding for 3-56 days, quantifying ATMs, ATDCs, endothelial cells (ECs), and preadipocytes (PAs) in visceral epididymal WAT and subcutaneous inguinal WAT. To better understand mechanisms of the early response to obesity, we evaluated ATM proliferation and lipid accumulation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Silvia Rodriguez-Fernandez, Irma Pujol-Autonell, Ferran Brianso, David Perna-Barrull, Mary Cano-Sarabia, Sonia Garcia-Jimeno, Adrian Villalba, Alex Sanchez, Eva Aguilera, Federico Vazquez, Joan Verdaguer, Daniel Maspoch, Marta Vives-Pi
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease caused by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. With its incidence increasing worldwide, to find a safe approach to permanently cease autoimmunity and allow β-cell recovery has become vital. Relying on the inherent ability of apoptotic cells to induce immunological tolerance, we demonstrated that liposomes mimicking apoptotic β-cells arrested autoimmunity to β-cells and prevented experimental T1D through tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) generation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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