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Dendritic dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903737/allergen-induced-cd4-t-cell-cytokine-production-within-airway-mucosal-dendritic-cell-t-cell-clusters-drives-the-local-recruitment-of-myeloid-effector-cells
#1
Tibor Z Veres, Tamás Kopcsányi, Nicholas van Panhuys, Michael Y Gerner, Zhiduo Liu, Pia Rantakari, Johannes Dunkel, Masayuki Miyasaka, Marko Salmi, Sirpa Jalkanen, Ronald N Germain
Allergic asthma develops in the mucosal tissue of small bronchi. At these sites, local cytokine production by Th2/Th17 cells is believed to be critical for the development of tissue eosinophilia/neutrophilia. Using the mouse trachea as a relevant model of human small airways, we performed advanced in vivo dynamic and in situ static imaging to visualize individual cytokine-producing T cells in the airway mucosa and to define their immediate cellular environment. Upon allergen sensitization, newly recruited CD4(+) T cells formed discrete Ag-driven clusters with dendritic cells (DCs)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894419/epidermal-cell-turnover-across-tight-junctions-based-on-kelvin-s-tetrakaidecahedron-cell-shape
#2
Mariko Yokouchi, Toru Atsugi, Mark van Logtestijn, Reiko J Tanaka, Mayumi Kajimura, Makoto Suematsu, Mikio Furuse, Masayuki Amagai, Akiharu Kubo
In multicellular organisms, cells adopt various shapes, from flattened sheets of endothelium to dendritic neurons, that allow the cells to function effectively. Here, we elucidated the unique shape of cells in the cornified stratified epithelia of the mammalian epidermis that allows them to achieve homeostasis of the tight junction (TJ) barrier. Using intimate in vivo 3D imaging, we found that the basic shape of TJ-bearing cells is a flattened Kelvin's tetrakaidecahedron (f-TKD), an optimal shape for filling space...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893786/extending-integrate-and-fire-model-neurons-to-account-for-the-effects-of-weak-electric-fields-and-input-filtering-mediated-by-the-dendrite
#3
Florian Aspart, Josef Ladenbauer, Klaus Obermayer
Transcranial brain stimulation and evidence of ephaptic coupling have recently sparked strong interests in understanding the effects of weak electric fields on the dynamics of brain networks and of coupled populations of neurons. The collective dynamics of large neuronal populations can be efficiently studied using single-compartment (point) model neurons of the integrate-and-fire (IF) type as their elements. These models, however, lack the dendritic morphology required to biophysically describe the effect of an extracellular electric field on the neuronal membrane voltage...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877113/the-effects-of-realistic-synaptic-distribution-and-3d-geometry-on-signal-integration-and-extracellular-field-generation-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-cells-and-inhibitory-neurons
#4
Attila I Gulyás, Tamás F Freund, Szabolcs Káli
In vivo and in vitro multichannel field and somatic intracellular recordings are frequently used to study mechanisms of network pattern generation. When interpreting these data, neurons are often implicitly considered as electrotonically compact cylinders with a homogeneous distribution of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. However, the actual distributions of dendritic length, diameter, and the densities of excitatory and inhibitory input are non-uniform and cell type-specific. We first review quantitative data on the dendritic structure and synaptic input and output distribution of pyramidal cells (PCs) and interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 area...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870961/design-and-construction-of-multifunctional-hyperbranched-polymers-coated-magnetite-nanoparticles-for-both-targeting-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cancer-therapy
#5
Asemeh Mashhadi Malekzadeh, Ali Ramazani, Seyed Jamal Tabatabaei Rezaei, Hassan Niknejad
Magnetic drug targeting is a drug delivery strategy that can be used to improve the therapeutic efficiency on tumor cells and reduce the side effects on normal cells and tissues. The aim in this study is designing a novel multifunctional drug delivery system based on superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron oxide followed by coating with poly citric acid (PCA) dendritic macromolecules via bulk polymerization strategy. It was further surface-functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and then to achieve tumor cell targeting property, folic acid was further incorporated to the surface of prepared carriers via a facile coupling reaction between the hydroxyl end group of the PEG and the carboxyl group of folic acid...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865451/astrocytic-contributions-to-synaptic-and-learning-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#6
Jennifer L Hodges, Xinzhu Yu, Anthony Gilmore, Hannah Bennett, Michelle Tjia, James F Perna, Chia-Chien Chen, Xiang Li, Ju Lu, Yi Zuo
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common type of mental retardation attributable to a single-gene mutation. It is caused by FMR1 gene silencing and the consequent loss of its protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein. Fmr1 global knockout (KO) mice recapitulate many behavioral and synaptic phenotypes associated with FXS. Abundant evidence suggests that astrocytes are important contributors to neurological diseases. This study investigates astrocytic contributions to the progression of synaptic abnormalities and learning impairments associated with FXS...
September 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855783/long-term-intravital-imaging-of-the-multicolor-coded-tumor-microenvironment-during-combination-immunotherapy
#7
Shuhong Qi, Hui Li, Lisen Lu, Zhongyang Qi, Lei Liu, Lu Chen, Guanxin Shen, Ling Fu, Qingming Luo, Zhihong Zhang
The combined-immunotherapy of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) is one of the most efficient treatments for melanoma patients. However, synergistic effects of CTX and ACT on the spatio-temporal dynamics of immunocytes in vivo have not been described. Here, we visualized key cell events of immunotherapy-elicited immunoreactions in a multicolor-coded tumor microenvironment, and then established an optimal strategy of metronomic combined-immunotherapy to enhance anti-tumor efficacy. Intravital imaging data indicated that regulatory T cells formed an 'immunosuppressive ring' around a solid tumor...
November 18, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844289/transcriptional-elongation-regulator-1-affects-transcription-and-splicing-of-genes-associated-with-cellular-morphology-and-cytoskeleton-dynamics-and-is-required-for-neurite-outgrowth-in-neuroblastoma-cells-and-primary-neuronal-cultures
#8
Juan Pablo Muñoz-Cobo, Noemí Sánchez-Hernández, Sara Gutiérrez, Younes El Yousfi, Marta Montes, Carme Gallego, Cristina Hernández-Munain, Carlos Suñé
TCERG1 is a highly conserved human protein implicated in interactions with the transcriptional and splicing machinery that is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Biochemical, neuropathological, and genetic evidence suggests an important role for TCERG1 in Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. At present, the molecular mechanism underlying TCERG1-mediated neuronal effects is unknown. Here, we show that TCERG1 depletion led to widespread alterations in mRNA processing that affected different types of alternative transcriptional or splicing events, indicating that TCERG1 plays a broad role in the regulation of alternative splicing...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832318/immunological-effects-of-a-novel-rna-based-adjuvant-in-liver-cancer-patients
#9
Luisa Circelli, Annacarmen Petrizzo, Maria Tagliamonte, Regina Heidenreich, Maria Lina Tornesello, Franco M Buonaguro, Luigi Buonaguro
Evaluation of biological effects of adjuvants on immune cells has been assessed in a limited number of studies. Moreover, no data are available on samples derived from cancer patients who may have a severe immune impairment. The effects of a novel RNA-based adjuvant (RNAdjuvant(®) developed by CureVac) were assessed in an ex vivo setting on PBMCs obtained from 8 healthy volunteers and 17 HCC patients, using a multiparametric approach to analyze network dynamics of early immune responses. Evaluation of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, cytokine production as well as gene expression was performed...
November 10, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822498/the-x-linked-autism-protein-kiaa2022-kidlia-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-via-n-cadherin-and-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#10
James Gilbert, Heng-Ye Man
Our previous work showed that loss of the KIAA2022 gene protein results in intellectual disability with language impairment and autistic behavior (KIDLIA, also referred to as XPN). However, the cellular and molecular alterations resulting from a loss of function of KIDLIA and its role in autism with severe intellectual disability remain unknown. Here, we show that KIDLIA plays a key role in neuron migration and morphogenesis. We found that KIDLIA is distributed exclusively in the nucleus. In the developing rat brain, it is expressed only in the cortical plate and subplate region but not in the intermediate or ventricular zone...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819336/phase-transitions-and-self-organized-criticality-in-networks-of-stochastic-spiking-neurons
#11
Ludmila Brochini, Ariadne de Andrade Costa, Miguel Abadi, Antônio C Roque, Jorge Stolfi, Osame Kinouchi
Phase transitions and critical behavior are crucial issues both in theoretical and experimental neuroscience. We report analytic and computational results about phase transitions and self-organized criticality (SOC) in networks with general stochastic neurons. The stochastic neuron has a firing probability given by a smooth monotonic function Φ(V) of the membrane potential V, rather than a sharp firing threshold. We find that such networks can operate in several dynamic regimes (phases) depending on the average synaptic weight and the shape of the firing function Φ...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817978/activity-dependent-regulation-of-distinct-transport-and-cytoskeletal-remodeling-functions-of-the-dendritic-kinesin-kif21b
#12
Amy E Ghiretti, Edda Thies, Mariko K Tokito, Tianming Lin, E Michael Ostap, Matthias Kneussel, Erika L F Holzbaur
The dendritic arbor is subject to continual activity-dependent remodeling, requiring a balance between directed cargo trafficking and dynamic restructuring of the underlying microtubule tracks. How cytoskeletal components are able to dynamically regulate these processes to maintain this balance remains largely unknown. By combining single-molecule assays and live imaging in rat hippocampal neurons, we have identified the kinesin-4 KIF21B as a molecular regulator of activity-dependent trafficking and microtubule dynamicity in dendrites...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803888/genetic-and-epigenetic-interspecies-networks-for-cross-talk-mechanisms-in-human-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells-during-mtb-infection
#13
Cheng-Wei Li, Yun-Lin Lee, Bor-Sen Chen
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Mtb is one of the oldest human pathogens, and evolves mechanisms implied in human evolution. The lungs are the first organ exposed to aerosol-transmitted Mtb during gaseous exchange. Therefore, the guards of the immune system in the lungs, such as macrophages (Mϕs) and dendritic cells (DCs), are the most important defense against Mtb infection. There have been several studies discussing the functions of Mϕs and DCs during Mtb infection, but the genome-wide pathways and networks are still incomplete...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803478/development-of-a-drug-delivery-system-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Takashi Nakamura
 Delivery systems are a powerful technology for enhancing the effect of cancer immunotherapy. We have been in the process of developing lipid-based delivery systems for controlling the physical properties and dynamics of immunofunctional molecules such as antigens and adjuvants. The lipid nanoparticulation of these molecules improves their physical properties, resulting in a good water dispensability, greater stability, and small size. The cell wall skeleton of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG-CWS) could be used to replace live BCG as a drug for treating bladder cancer, but problems associated with the physical properties of BCG-CWS have prevented its use...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802838/chronic-early-life-lead-pb-2-exposure-alters-presynaptic-vesicle-pools-in-hippocampal-synapses
#15
Sara Rose Guariglia, Kirstie H Stansfield, Jennifer McGlothan, Tomas R Guilarte
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure has been shown to impair presynaptic neurotransmitter release in both in vivo and in vitro model systems. The mechanism by which Pb(2+) impairs neurotransmitter release has not been fully elucidated. In previous work, we have shown that Pb(2+) exposure inhibits vesicular release and reduces the number of fast-releasing sites in cultured hippocampal neurons. We have also shown that Pb(2+) exposure inhibits vesicular release and alters the distribution of presynaptic vesicles in Shaffer Collateral - CA1 synapses of rodents chronically exposed to Pb(2+) during development...
November 2, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801616/visualization-of-newly-synthesized-neuronal-rna-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-using-click-chemistry
#16
Güney Akbalik, Kasper Langebeck-Jensen, Georgi Tushev, Sivakumar Sambandan, Jennifer Rinne, Irina Epstein, Iván Cajigas, Irena Vlatkovic, Erin Schuman
The neuronal transcriptome changes dynamically to adapt to stimuli from the extracellular and intracellular environment. In this study, we adapted for the first time a click chemistry technique to label the newly synthesized RNA in cultured hippocampal neurons and intact larval zebrafish brain. Ethynyl uridine (EU) was incorporated into neuronal RNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Newly synthesized RNA granules observed throughout the dendrites were colocalized with mRNA and rRNA markers. In zebrafish larvae, the application of EU to the swim water resulted in uptake and labeling throughout the brain...
November 1, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796283/the-pseudokinase-camkv-is-required-for-the-activity-dependent-maintenance-of-dendritic-spines
#17
Zhuoyi Liang, Yi Zhan, Yang Shen, Catherine C L Wong, John R Yates, Florian Plattner, Kwok-On Lai, Nancy Y Ip
Dendritic spine stabilization depends on afferent synaptic input and requires changes in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and protein synthesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we report the identification of 'calmodulin kinase-like vesicle-associated' (CaMKv), a pseudokinase of the CaMK family with unknown function, as a synaptic protein crucial for dendritic spine maintenance. CaMKv mRNA localizes at dendrites, and its protein synthesis is regulated by neuronal activity. CaMKv function is inhibited upon phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) at Thr345...
October 31, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795858/actin-dependent-alterations-of-dendritic-spine-morphology-in-shankopathies
#18
REVIEW
Tasnuva Sarowar, Andreas M Grabrucker
Shank proteins (Shank1, Shank2, and Shank3) act as scaffolding molecules in the postsynaptic density of many excitatory neurons. Mutations in SHANK genes, in particular SHANK2 and SHANK3, lead to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in both human and mouse models. Shank3 proteins are made of several domains-the Shank/ProSAP N-terminal (SPN) domain, ankyrin repeats, SH3 domain, PDZ domain, a proline-rich region, and the sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain. Via various binding partners of these domains, Shank3 is able to bind and interact with a wide range of proteins including modulators of small GTPases such as RICH2, a RhoGAP protein, and βPIX, a RhoGEF protein for Rac1 and Cdc42, actin binding proteins and actin modulators...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795747/dynamic-analysis-of-immune-and-cancer-cell-interactions-at-single-cell-level-in-microfluidic-droplets
#19
S Sarkar, P Sabhachandani, D Stroopinsky, K Palmer, N Cohen, J Rosenblatt, D Avigan, T Konry
Cell-cell communication mediates immune responses to physiological stimuli at local and systemic levels. Intercellular communication occurs via a direct contact between cells as well as by secretory contact-independent mechanisms. However, there are few existing methods that allow quantitative resolution of contact-dependent and independent cellular processes in a rapid, precisely controlled, and dynamic format. This study utilizes a high-throughput microfluidic droplet array platform to analyze cell-cell interaction and effector functions at single cell level...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791158/glutamate-induced-rna-localization-and-translation-in-neurons
#20
Young J Yoon, Bin Wu, Adina R Buxbaum, Sulagna Das, Albert Tsai, Brian P English, Jonathan B Grimm, Luke D Lavis, Robert H Singer
Localization of mRNA is required for protein synthesis to occur within discrete intracellular compartments. Neurons represent an ideal system for studying the precision of mRNA trafficking because of their polarized structure and the need for synapse-specific targeting. To investigate this targeting, we derived a quantitative and analytical approach. Dendritic spines were stimulated by glutamate uncaging at a diffraction-limited spot, and the localization of single β-actin mRNAs was measured in space and time...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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