keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Dendritic dynamics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642137/overexpression-cdc42-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-in-developmental-brain-of-rats
#1
Xi Fang, Shiyong Li, Qiang Han, Yilin Zhao, Jie Gao, Jing Yan, Ailin Luo
Nowadays many children receive operations with general anesthesia. Isoflurane is a commonly-used general anesthetic. Numbers of studies demonstrated that isoflurane induced neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral deficiency in young rats, however, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) played an important role in regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking and actin dynamics in neuron, which closely linked to synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation. Meanwhile, cdc42 also involved in many neurodegenerative diseases...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#2
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638071/emergent-stochastic-oscillations-and-signal-detection-in-tree-networks-of-excitable-elements
#3
Justus Kromer, Ali Khaledi-Nasab, Lutz Schimansky-Geier, Alexander B Neiman
We study the stochastic dynamics of strongly-coupled excitable elements on a tree network. The peripheral nodes receive independent random inputs which may induce large spiking events propagating through the branches of the tree and leading to global coherent oscillations in the network. This scenario may be relevant to action potential generation in certain sensory neurons, which possess myelinated distal dendritic tree-like arbors with excitable nodes of Ranvier at peripheral and branching nodes and exhibit noisy periodic sequences of action potentials...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633045/mrna-transport-local-translation-in-neurons
#4
REVIEW
Caspar Glock, Maximilian Heumüller, Erin M Schuman
Neurons are amongst the most structurally complex cells and exhibit a high degree of spatial compartmentalization. Also, neurons exhibit rapid and dynamic signaling by processing information in a precise and, sometimes, spatially-restricted manner. The signaling that occurs in axons and dendrites necessitates the maintenance and modification of their local proteomes. Local translation of mRNAs into protein is one solution that neurons use to meet synaptic demand and activity. Here we review some of the key findings and recent discoveries that have shaped our understanding of local translation in neuronal function and highlight important new techniques that might pave the way for new insights...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630145/activity-dependent-trafficking-of-lysosomes-in-dendrites-and-dendritic-spines
#5
Marisa S Goo, Laura Sancho, Natalia Slepak, Daniela Boassa, Thomas J Deerinck, Mark H Ellisman, Brenda L Bloodgood, Gentry N Patrick
In neurons, lysosomes, which degrade membrane and cytoplasmic components, are thought to primarily reside in somatic and axonal compartments, but there is little understanding of their distribution and function in dendrites. Here, we used conventional and two-photon imaging and electron microscopy to show that lysosomes traffic bidirectionally in dendrites and are present in dendritic spines. We find that lysosome inhibition alters their mobility and also decreases dendritic spine number. Furthermore, perturbing microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics has an inverse relationship on the distribution and motility of lysosomes in dendrites...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628104/active-dendritic-integration-as-a-mechanism-for-robust-and-precise-grid-cell-firing
#6
Christoph Schmidt-Hieber, Gabija Toleikyte, Laurence Aitchison, Arnd Roth, Beverley A Clark, Tiago Branco, Michael Häusser
Understanding how active dendrites are exploited for behaviorally relevant computations is a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex are an attractive model system for addressing this question, as the computation they perform is clear: they convert synaptic inputs into spatially modulated, periodic firing. Whether active dendrites contribute to the generation of the dual temporal and rate codes characteristic of grid cell output is unknown. We show that dendrites of medial entorhinal cortex neurons are highly excitable and exhibit a supralinear input-output function in vitro, while in vivo recordings reveal membrane potential signatures consistent with recruitment of active dendritic conductances...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627135/in-situ-electrochemistry-of-rechargeable-battery-materials-status-report-and-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Yijun Yang, Xizheng Liu, Zhonghua Dai, Fangli Yuan, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg, Xi Wang
The development of rechargeable batteries with high performance is considered to be a feasible way to satisfy the increasing needs of electric vehicles and portable devices. It is of vital importance to design electrodes with high electrochemical performance and to understand the nature of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces during battery operation, which allows a direct observation of the complicated chemical and physical processes within the electrodes and electrolyte, and thus provides real-time information for further design and optimization of the battery performance...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625420/formation-and-remodeling-of-the-brain-extracellular-matrix-in-neural-plasticity-roles-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-hyaluronan
#8
REVIEW
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the brain is rich in glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronan. These glycosaminoglycans are organized into either diffuse or condensed ECM. Diffuse ECM is distributed throughout the brain and fills perisynaptic spaces, whereas condensed ECM selectively surrounds parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV cells) in mesh-like structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The brain ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neural plasticity and axon regeneration...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616030/time-lapse-changes-of-in-vivo-injured-neuronal-substructures-in-the-central-nervous-system-after-low-energy-two-photon-nanosurgery
#9
Zhikai Zhao, Shuangxi Chen, Yunhao Luo, Jing Li, Smaranda Badea, Chaoran Ren, Wutian Wu
There is currently very little research regarding the dynamics of the subcellular degenerative events that occur in the central nervous system in response to injury. To date, multi-photon excitation has been primarily used for imaging applications; however, it has been recently used to selectively disrupt neural structures in living animals. However, understanding the complicated processes and the essential underlying molecular pathways involved in these dynamic events is necessary for studying the underlying process that promotes neuronal regeneration...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611595/mtorc1-is-a-local-postsynaptic-voltage-sensor-regulated-by-positive-and-negative-feedback-pathways
#10
Farr Niere, Kimberly F Raab-Graham
The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) serves as a regulator of mRNA translation. Recent studies suggest that mTORC1 may also serve as a local, voltage sensor in the postsynaptic region of neurons. Considering biochemical, bioinformatics and imaging data, we hypothesize that the activity state of mTORC1 dynamically regulates local membrane potential by promoting and repressing protein synthesis of select mRNAs. Our hypothesis suggests that mTORC1 uses positive and negative feedback pathways, in a branch-specific manner, to maintain neuronal excitability within an optimal range...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602919/the-fine-tuning-of-retinocollicular-topography-depends-on-reelin-signaling-during-early-postnatal-development-of-the-rat-visual-system
#11
Rachel Antonioli-Santos, Bruna Lanzillotta-Mattos, Cecília Hedin-Pereira, Claudio Alberto Serfaty
During postnatal development, neural circuits are extremely dynamic and develop precise connection patterns that emerge as a result of the elimination of synaptic terminals, a process instructed by molecular cues and patterns of electrical activity. In the rodent visual system, this process begins during the first postnatal week and proceeds during the second and third postnatal weeks as spontaneous retinal activity and finally use dependent fine tuning takes place. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein able to affect several steps of brain development, from neuronal migration to the maturation of dendritic spines and use-dependent synaptic development...
June 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600964/regulation-of-postsynaptic-signaling-in-structural-synaptic-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
Amy Ky Fu, Nancy Y Ip
Morphological changes of dendritic spines are strongly associated with synaptic development and synaptic plasticity, which underlies learning and memory. These changes are driven by alterations of F-actin dynamics under the control of Rho GTPases or by synaptic trafficking and insertion of glutamate receptors. Understanding the molecular events that occur during the formation and stabilization of dendritic spines, and the signaling pathways regulating these processes, provides insights into the mechanisms of learning and memory...
June 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598844/combustion-derived-nanoparticles-in-key-brain-target-cells-and-organelles-in-young-urbanites-culprit-hidden-in-plain-sight-in-alzheimer-s-disease-development
#13
Angélica González-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Partha S Mukherjee, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas
Millions of children and young adults are exposed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Mexico City (MC) children exhibit systemic and brain inflammation, low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ1-42, breakdown of nasal, olfactory, alveolar-capillary, duodenal, and blood-brain barriers, volumetric and metabolic brain changes, attention and short-term memory deficits, and hallmarks of AD and Parkinson's disease. Airborne iron-rich strongly magnetic combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) are present in young urbanites' brains...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598240/classical-autophagy-proteins-lc3b-and-atg4b-facilitate-melanosome-movement-on-cytoskeletal-tracks
#14
Amrita Ramkumar, Divya Murthy, Desingu Ayyappa Raja, Archana Singh, Anusha Krishnan, Sangeeta Khanna, Archana Vats, Lipi Thukral, Pushkar Sharma, Sridhar Sivasubbu, Rajni Rani, Vivek T Natarajan, Rajesh S Gokhale
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a dynamic and inducible catabolic process that responds to a variety of hormonal and environmental cues. Recent studies highlight the interplay of this central pathway in a variety of pathophysiological diseases. Although defective autophagy is implicated in melanocyte proliferation and pigmentary disorders, the mechanistic relationship between the 2 pathways have not been elucidated. In this study, we show that autophagic proteins LC3B and ATG4B mediate melanosome trafficking on cytoskeletal tracks...
June 9, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588297/targeted-patching-and-dendritic-ca-2-imaging-in-nonhuman-primate-brain-in-vivo
#15
Ran Ding, Xiang Liao, Jingcheng Li, Jianxiong Zhang, Meng Wang, Yu Guang, Han Qin, Xingyi Li, Kuan Zhang, Shanshan Liang, Jiangheng Guan, Jia Lou, Hongbo Jia, Bingbo Chen, Hui Shen, Xiaowei Chen
Nonhuman primates provide an important model not only for understanding human brain but also for translational research in neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, many high-resolution techniques for recording neural activity in vivo that were initially established for rodents have not been yet applied to the nonhuman primate brain. Here, we introduce a combination of two-photon targeted patching and dendritic Ca(2+) imaging to the neocortex of adult common marmoset, an invaluable primate model for neuroscience research...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572759/dendritic-actin-cytoskeleton-structure-functions-and-regulations
#16
REVIEW
Anja Konietzny, Julia Bär, Marina Mikhaylova
Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin) that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570534/quantification-of-endosome-and-lysosome-motilities-in-cultured-neurons-using-fluorescent-probes
#17
Fuminori Tsuruta, Tomomi Okajima, Sarasa Yano, Tomoki Chiba
In the brain, membrane trafficking systems play important roles in regulating neuronal functions, such as neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity, survival, and glial communications. To date, numerous studies have reported that defects in these systems cause various neuronal diseases. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying vesicle dynamics may provide influential clues that could aid in the treatment of several neuronal disorders. Here, we describe a method for quantifying vesicle motilities, such as motility distance and rate of movement, using a software plug-in for the ImageJ platform...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559377/calcineurin-nfat-signaling-in-activated-astrocytes-drives-network-hyperexcitability-in-a%C3%AE-bearing-mice
#18
Pradoldej Sompol, Jennifer L Furman, Melanie M Pleiss, Susan D Kraner, Irina A Artiushin, Seth R Batten, Jorge E Quintero, Linda A Simmerman, Tina L Beckett, Mark A Lovell, M Paul Murphy, Greg A Gerhardt, Christopher M Norris
Hyperexcitable neuronal networks are mechanistically-linked to the pathologic and clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Astrocytes are a primary defense against hyperexcitability, but their functional phenotype during AD is poorly understood. Here, we found that activated astrocytes in the 5xFAD mouse model were strongly associated with proteolysis of the protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN), and the elevated expression of the CN-dependent transcription factor, NFAT4. Intrahippocampal injections of AAV vectors containing the astrocyte specific promoter, Gfa2, and the NFAT inhibitory peptide, VIVIT, reduced signs of glutamate-mediated hyperexcitability in 5xFAD mice, measured in vivo with microelectrode arrays (MEA) and ex vivo brain slices, using whole-cell voltage clamp...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559323/contacts-between-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-other-membranes-in-neurons
#19
Yumei Wu, Christina Whiteus, C Shan Xu, Kenneth J Hayworth, Richard J Weinberg, Harald F Hess, Pietro De Camilli
Close appositions between the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other intracellular membranes have important functions in cell physiology. These include lipid homeostasis, regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics, and control of organelle biogenesis and dynamics. Although these membrane contacts have previously been observed in neurons, their distribution and abundance have not been systematically analyzed. Here, we have used focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy to generate 3D reconstructions of intracellular organelles and their membrane appositions involving the ER (distance ≤30 nm) in different neuronal compartments...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555636/pyk2-modulates-hippocampal-excitatory-synapses-and-contributes-to-cognitive-deficits-in-a-huntington-s-disease-model
#20
Albert Giralt, Veronica Brito, Quentin Chevy, Clémence Simonnet, Yo Otsu, Carmen Cifuentes-Díaz, Benoit de Pins, Renata Coura, Jordi Alberch, Sílvia Ginés, Jean-Christophe Poncer, Jean-Antoine Girault
The structure and function of spines and excitatory synapses are under the dynamic control of multiple signalling networks. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is involved, its regulation and importance are not well understood. Here we study the role of Pyk2, a non-receptor calcium-dependent protein-tyrosine kinase highly expressed in the hippocampus. Hippocampal-related learning and CA1 long-term potentiation are severely impaired in Pyk2-deficient mice and are associated with alterations in NMDA receptors, PSD-95 and dendritic spines...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
keyword
keyword
27522
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"