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Dendritic dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445462/cell-diversity-and-network-dynamics-in-photosensitive-human-brain-organoids
#1
Giorgia Quadrato, Tuan Nguyen, Evan Z Macosko, John L Sherwood, Sung Min Yang, Daniel R Berger, Natalie Maria, Jorg Scholvin, Melissa Goldman, Justin P Kinney, Edward S Boyden, Jeff W Lichtman, Ziv M Williams, Steven A McCarroll, Paola Arlotta
In vitro models of the developing brain such as three-dimensional brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity to study aspects of human brain development and disease. However, the cells generated within organoids and the extent to which they recapitulate the regional complexity, cellular diversity and circuit functionality of the brain remain undefined. Here we analyse gene expression in over 80,000 individual cells isolated from 31 human brain organoids. We find that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which are related to endogenous classes, including cells from the cerebral cortex and the retina...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435999/neonatal-propofol-anesthesia-changes-expression-of-synaptic-plasticity-proteins-and-increases-stereotypic-and-anxyolitic-behavior-in-adult-rats
#2
Desanka Milanovic, Vesna Pesic, Natasa Loncarevic-Vasiljkovic, Vladimir Avramovic, Vesna Tesic, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Selma Kanazir, Sabera Ruzdijic
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain...
April 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432872/human-effector-memory-t-helper-cells-engage-with-mouse-macrophages-and-cause-graft-versus-host-like-pathology-in-skin-of-humanized-mice-used-in-a-nonclinical-immunization-study
#3
Bala S Sundarasetty, Valery Volk, Sebastian J Theobald, Susanne Rittinghausen, Dirk Schaudien, Vanessa Neuhaus, Constanca Figueiredo, Andreas Schneider, Laura Gerasch, Adele Mucci, Thomas Moritz, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Loukia M Spineli, Katherina Sewald, Armin Braun, Henning Weigt, Arnold Ganser, Renata Stripecke
Humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells and developing functional human T-cell adaptive responses are in critical demand to test human-specific therapeutics. We previously showed that humanized mice immunized with long-lived induced-dendritic cells loaded with the pp65 viral antigen (iDCpp65) exhibited a faster development and maturation of T cells. Herein, we evaluated these effects in a long-term (36 weeks) nonclinical model using two stem cell donors to assess efficacy and safety. Relative to baseline, iDCpp65 immunization boosted the output of effector memory CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428560/combination-of-high-density-microelectrode-array-and-patch-clamp-recordings-to-enable-studies-of-multisynaptic-integration
#4
David Jäckel, Douglas J Bakkum, Thomas L Russell, Jan Müller, Milos Radivojevic, Urs Frey, Felix Franke, Andreas Hierlemann
We present a novel, all-electric approach to record and to precisely control the activity of tens of individual presynaptic neurons. The method allows for parallel mapping of the efficacy of multiple synapses and of the resulting dynamics of postsynaptic neurons in a cortical culture. For the measurements, we combine an extracellular high-density microelectrode array, featuring 11'000 electrodes for extracellular recording and stimulation, with intracellular patch-clamp recording. We are able to identify the contributions of individual presynaptic neurons - including inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs - to postsynaptic potentials, which enables us to study dendritic integration...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425622/targeted-disruption-of-nf1-in-osteocyte-increases-fgf23-and-osteoid-with-osteomalacia-like-bone-phenotype
#5
Nobuhiro Kamiya, Ryosuke Yamaguchi, Olumide Aruwajoye, Audrey Kim, Gen Kuroyanagi, Matthew Phipps, Naga Suresh Adapala, Jian Q Feng, Harry K W Kim
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, OMIM 162200), caused by NF1 gene mutations, exhibits multi-system abnormalities including skeletal deformities in humans. Osteocytes play critical roles in controlling bone modeling and remodeling. However, the role of neurofibromin, the protein product of the NF1 gene, in osteocytes is largely unknown. This study investigated the role of neurofibromin in osteocytes by disrupting Nf1 under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (Nf1 cKO) mice displayed serum profile of a metabolic bone disorder with an osteomalacia-like bone phenotype...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424683/novel-strategy-to-expand-super-charged-nk-cells-with-significant-potential-to-lyse-and-differentiate-cancer-stem-cells-differences-in-nk-expansion-and-function-between-healthy-and-cancer-patients
#6
Kawaljit Kaur, Jessica Cook, So-Hyun Park, Paytsar Topchyan, Anna Kozlowska, Nick Ohanian, Changge Fang, Ichiro Nishimura, Anahid Jewett
Natural killer (NK) cells are known to target cancer stem cells and undifferentiated tumors. In this paper, we provide a novel strategy for expanding large numbers of super-charged NK cells with significant potential to lyse and differentiate cancer stem cells and demonstrate the differences in the dynamics of NK cell expansion between healthy donors and cancer patients. Decline in cytotoxicity and lower interferon (IFN)-γ secretion by osteoclast (OC)-expanded NK cells from cancer patients correlates with faster expansion of residual contaminating T cells within purified NK cells, whereas healthy donors' OCs continue expanding super-charged NK cells while limiting T cell expansion for up to 60 days...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424590/geometrical-determinants-of-neuronal-actin-waves
#7
Caterina Tomba, Céline Braïni, Ghislain Bugnicourt, Floriane Cohen, Benjamin M Friedrich, Nir S Gov, Catherine Villard
Hippocampal neurons produce in their early stages of growth propagative, actin-rich dynamical structures called actin waves. The directional motion of actin waves from the soma to the tip of neuronal extensions has been associated with net forward growth, and ultimately with the specification of neurites into axon and dendrites. Here, geometrical cues are used to control actin wave dynamics by constraining neurons on adhesive stripes of various widths. A key observable, the average time between the production of consecutive actin waves, or mean inter-wave interval (IWI), was identified...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423323/liberated-pka-catalytic-subunits-associate-with-the-membrane-via-myristoylation-to-preferentially-phosphorylate-membrane-substrates
#8
Shane E Tillo, Wei-Hong Xiong, Maho Takahashi, Sheng Miao, Adriana L Andrade, Dale A Fortin, Guang Yang, Maozhen Qin, Barbara F Smoody, Philip J S Stork, Haining Zhong
Protein kinase A (PKA) has diverse functions in neurons. At rest, the subcellular localization of PKA is controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). However, the dynamics of PKA upon activation remain poorly understood. Here, we report that elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in neuronal dendrites causes a significant percentage of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKA-C) molecules to be released from the regulatory subunit (PKA-R). Liberated PKA-C becomes associated with the membrane via N-terminal myristoylation...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420793/regulating-plant-physiology-with-organic-electronics
#9
David J Poxson, Michal Karady, Roger Gabrielsson, Aziz Y Alkattan, Anna Gustavsson, Siamsa M Doyle, Stéphanie Robert, Karin Ljung, Markus Grebe, Daniel T Simon, Magnus Berggren
The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides flow-free and accurate delivery of small signaling compounds at high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the application of OEIPs has been limited to delivery of nonaromatic molecules to mammalian systems, particularly for neuroscience applications. However, many long-standing questions in plant biology remain unanswered due to a lack of technology that precisely delivers plant hormones, based on cyclic alkanes or aromatic structures, to regulate plant physiology...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406181/local-inhibition-of-microtubule-dynamics-by-dynein-is-required-for-neuronal-cargo-distribution
#10
Shaul Yogev, Celine I Maeder, Roshni Cooper, Mark Horowitz, Adam G Hendricks, Kang Shen
Abnormal axonal transport is associated with neuronal disease. We identified a role for DHC-1, the C. elegans dynein heavy chain, in maintaining neuronal cargo distribution. Surprisingly, this does not involve dynein's role as a retrograde motor in cargo transport, hinging instead on its ability to inhibit microtubule (MT) dynamics. Neuronal MTs are highly static, yet the mechanisms and functional significance of this property are not well understood. In disease-mimicking dhc-1 alleles, excessive MT growth and collapse occur at the dendrite tip, resulting in the formation of aberrant MT loops...
April 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404816/pick1-ca-2-sensor-modulates-nmda-receptor-dependent-microrna-mediated-translational-repression-in-neurons
#11
Dipen Rajgor, Maria Fiuza, Gabrielle T Parkinson, Jonathan G Hanley
miRNAs are important regulators of localized mRNA translation in neuronal dendrites. The presence of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) proteins in these compartments and the dynamic miRNA expression changes that occur in response to neuronal stimulation highlights their importance in synaptic plasticity. Previously we demonstrated a novel interaction between the major RISC component Argounaute-2 (Ago2) and the BAR-domain protein PICK1. PICK1 recruits Ago2 to recycling endosomes in dendrites, where it inhibits miRNA-mediated translational repression...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404748/components-of-rna-granules-affect-their-localization-and-dynamics-in-neuronal-dendrites
#12
Kazuhiko Mitsumori, Yosuke Takei, Nobutaka Hirokawa
In neurons, RNA transport is important for local protein synthesis. Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are transported along dendrites as large RNA granules. The localization and dynamics of Puralpha and Stau1, major components of RNA transport granules, were investigated in cultured hippocampal neurons. Puralpha-positive granules were localized in both the shafts and spines of dendrites. In contrast, Stau1-positive granules tended to be localized mainly in dendritic shafts. More than 90% of Puralpha-positive granules were positive for Stau1 in immature dendrites, while only half were positive in mature dendrites...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397346/magnetic-resonance-imaging-patterns-of-tumor-regression-in-breast-cancer-patients-after-neo-adjuvant-chemotherapy-and-an-analysis-of-the-influencing-factors
#13
ManMan Li, Bin Xu, Yingbo Shao, Hui Liu, BingJie Du, JunHui Yuan
The objective of this study was to analyze the patterns of breast tumor shrinkage in patients after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to evaluate the influential factors. Preoperative breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed on 88 patients before NAC, every 2 weeks during their chemotherapy treatment, and the week before their surgery. The MRI enhancement pattern of the primary tumors was classified into one of four categories based on BI-RADS-MRI: type I (postcontrast mass image), II (multiple small masses image), III (postcontrast mass image with peripheral non-mass enhancement image), and IV (nonmass enhancement image)...
April 10, 2017: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397056/dynamic-changes-of-phenotypes-and-secretory-functions-during-the-differentiation-of-pre-dcs-to-mature-dcs
#14
Jing Wang, Li-Bo Zhao, Sheng Chang, Chang-Sheng Ming, Jun Yang, Nian-Qiao Gong
The dynamic expression of cytokines and phenotypes during the differentiation process of dendritic cell precursors (pre-DCs) to mature dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated, and the effects of inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on DCs differentiation were understood. The differentiation of bone marrow cells isolated from Balb/c mice was induced to DCs in an 8-day cell culture system with RPMI-1640 complete culture medium containing 10% FBS, 20 ng/mL recombinant mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) and 10 ng/mL recombinant mouse interleukin-4 (rmIL-4)...
April 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396666/dynamic-changes-in-the-intracellular-association-of-selected-rab-small-gtpases-with-mhc-class-ii-and-dm-during-dendritic-cell-maturation
#15
Gibrán Pérez-Montesinos, Orestes López-Ortega, Jessica Piedra-Reyes, Laura C Bonifaz, José Moreno
Antigen processing for presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules requires the latter to travel through the endocytic pathway together with its chaperons: the invariant chain (Ii) and DM. Nevertheless, the nature of the compartments where MHCII molecules travel to acquire peptides lacks definition regarding molecules involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking, such as Rab small GTPases. We aimed to define which Rab proteins are present during the intracellular transport of MHCII, DM, and Ii through the endocytic pathway on their route to the cell surface during dendritic cell (DC) maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394490/synthesis-and-validation-of-functional-nanogels-as-ph-sensors-in-the-hair-follicle
#16
Mathias Dimde, Fitsum Feleke Sahle, Virginia Wycisk, Dirk Steinhilber, Luis Cuellar Camacho, Kai Licha, Jürgen Lademann, Rainer Haag
In the present study, a pH responsive dendritic polyglycerol nanogel (dPG-NG) is developed to measure the pH values inside the hair follicle (HF) using an ex vivo porcine ear model. The macromolecular precursors are labeled with a pH sensitive indodicarbocyanine dye (pH-IDCC) and a control dye (indocarbocyanine dye: ICC) and crosslinked via a mild and surfactant-free Thiol-Michael reaction using an inverse nanoprecipitation method. With this method, it is possible to prepare tailor-made particles in the range of 100 nm to 1 µm with a narrow polydispersity...
April 10, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391831/pamam-dendrimers-a-multifunctional-nanomaterial-for-ecl-biosensors
#17
Sudeshna Chandra, Michael Mayer, Antje J Baeumner
Polyamido amine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been shown to function as electrochemiluminescence (ECL) co-reactant and have the inherent capability of improving immobilization of molecules on surfaces due to their dendritic structure. Here, we investigated the combination of both of these properties as the basis for biosensor development. Dendrimers with 5, 8, 10 and 16 terminal amine groups, respectively, were used. These were covalently coupled to biotin as model recognition site, and tagged with Ru(bpy)3(2+) via adsorption...
June 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377701/breaking-the-excitation-inhibition-balance-makes-the-cortical-network-s-space-time-dynamics-distinguish-simple-visual-scenes
#18
Per E Roland, Lars H Bonde, Lars E Forsberg, Michael A Harvey
Brain dynamics are often taken to be temporal dynamics of spiking and membrane potentials in a balanced network. Almost all evidence for a balanced network comes from recordings of cell bodies of few single neurons, neglecting more than 99% of the cortical network. We examined the space-time dynamics of excitation and inhibition simultaneously in dendrites and axons over four visual areas of ferrets exposed to visual scenes with stationary and moving objects. The visual stimuli broke the tight balance between excitation and inhibition such that the network exhibited longer episodes of net excitation subsequently balanced by net inhibition, in contrast to a balanced network...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377502/glua1-ubiquitination-mediates-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-loss-of-surface-ampa-receptors
#19
Sumasri Guntupalli, Se Eun Jang, Tianyi Zhu, Richard L Huganir, Jocelyn Widagdo, Victor Anggono
The accumulation of soluble amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides produces profound neuronal changes in the brain during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Excessive levels of Aβ disrupt excitatory synaptic transmission by promoting the removal of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs), dendritic spine loss and synaptic depression. Recently, activity-dependent ubiquitination of the GluA1 subunit has been shown to regulate the intracellular sorting of AMPARs toward late endosomes for degradation. However, whether this ubiquitin signalling pathway mediates Aβ-induced loss of surface AMPARs is unknown...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369888/early-growth-response-1-mediated-downregulation-of-drebrin-correlates-with-loss-of-dendritic-spines
#20
Chulmin Cho, Ryen MacDonald, Jijun Shang, Moon Jeong Cho, Lorraine E Chalifour, Hemant K Paudel
Postsynaptic dendritic spines are structurally composed of actin cytoskeleton, which undergoes dynamic morphological changes to accommodate incoming synaptic activity. Drebrin is an actin binding protein highly expressed in dendritic spines that serves an important role in regulating spine morphology. Functionally, loss of drebrin directly correlates with deficits in learning and memory, as is the case observed in Alzheimer's disease. Despite these findings, the regulatory factor responsible for drebrin loss remains unclear...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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