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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#1
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087269/mitochondrial-roles-of-the-psychiatric-disease-risk-factor-disc1
#2
REVIEW
R Norkett, S Modi, J T Kittler
Ion transport during neuronal signalling utilizes the majority of the brain's energy supply. Mitochondria are key sites for energy provision through ATP synthesis and play other important roles including calcium buffering. Thus, tightly regulated distribution and function of these organelles throughout the intricate architecture of the neuron is essential for normal synaptic communication. Therefore, delineating mechanisms coordinating mitochondrial transport and function is essential for understanding nervous system physiology and pathology...
January 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077003/influence-of-extrinsic-inputs-and-synaptic-gains-on-dynamics-of-wendling-s-neural-mass-model-a-bifurcation-analysis
#3
Shujuan Geng, Weidong Zhou
We analyze the neurodynamics attributed by a model proposed by Wendling and co-workers (2002) [Wendling, F., Bartolomei, F., Bellanger, J.J. & Chauvel, P. (2002) Epileptic fast activity can be explained by a model of impaired GABAergic dendritic inhibition. Eur. J. Neurosci., 15, 1499.] to explain several different types of electroencephalographic activities. We could find three principal types of steady states when the system parameters change slowly: (i) the model produce a constant output when it is under a state of stable equilibrium point with a constant input...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070120/the-protocadherin-17-gene-affects-cognition-personality-amygdala-structure-and-function-synapse-development-and-risk-of-major-mood-disorders
#4
H Chang, N Hoshina, C Zhang, Y Ma, H Cao, Y Wang, D-D Wu, S E Bergen, M Landén, C M Hultman, M Preisig, Z Kutalik, E Castelao, M Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, A J Forstner, J Strohmaier, J Hecker, T G Schulze, B Müller-Myhsok, A Reif, P B Mitchell, N G Martin, P R Schofield, S Cichon, M M Nöthen, H Walter, S Erk, A Heinz, N Amin, C M van Duijn, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Tost, X Xiao, T Yamamoto, M Rietschel, M Li
Major mood disorders, which primarily include bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, are the leading cause of disability worldwide and pose a major challenge in identifying robust risk genes. Here, we present data from independent large-scale clinical data sets (including 29 557 cases and 32 056 controls) revealing brain expressed protocadherin 17 (PCDH17) as a susceptibility gene for major mood disorders. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the PCDH17 region are significantly associated with major mood disorders; subjects carrying the risk allele showed impaired cognitive abilities, increased vulnerable personality features, decreased amygdala volume and altered amygdala function as compared with non-carriers...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069919/calpain-mediated-proteolysis-of-talin-and-fak-regulates-adhesion-dynamics-necessary-for-axon-guidance
#5
Patrick C Kerstein, Kevin M Patel, Timothy M Gomez
: Guidance of axons to their proper synaptic target sites requires spatially and temporally precise modulation of biochemical signals within growth cones. Ionic calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential signal for axon guidance that mediates opposing affects on growth cone motility. The diverse effects of Ca(2+) arise from the precise localization of Ca(2+) signals into microdomains containing specific Ca(2+) effectors. For example, differences in the mechanical and chemical composition of the underlying substrata elicit local Ca(2+) signals within growth cone filopodia that regulate axon guidance through activation of the protease calpain...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069500/solution-blow-spinning-fibres-new-immunologically-inert-substrates-for-the-analysis-of-cell-adhesion-and-motility
#6
Rafaella T Paschoalin, Bruna Traldi, Gülcan Aydin, Juliano E Oliveira, Stephan Rütten, Luiz H C Mattoso, Martin Zenke, Antonio Sechi
The control of cell behaviour through material geometry is appealing as it avoids the requirement for complex chemical surface modifications. Significant advances in new technologies have been made to the development of polymeric biomaterials with controlled geometry and physico-chemical properties. Solution blow spinning technique has the advantage of ease of use allowing the production of nano or microfibres and the direct fibre deposition on any surface in situ. Yet, in spite of these advantages, very little is known about the influence of such fibres on biological functions such as immune response and cell migration...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065277/dynamic-intravital-imaging-of-cell-cell-interactions-in-the-lymph-node
#7
REVIEW
Jens V Stein, Santiago F Gonzalez
In the last decade, the application of 2-photon intravital microscopy as a tool to study cell interactions in different areas of the immune system has offered an unprecedented opportunity to understand the complexity of cell behavior in relation to immune functions. In this review we describe the latest advances in the field of live imaging in the lymph nodes, grouping the different cell populations in 2 compartments according to their motility: the sessile compartment, which is formed by resident cells of stromal origin, macrophages, and resident dendritic cells, and the motile compartment, which is mainly formed by T and B lymphocytes...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063036/visualization-of-the-t-cell-response-in-contact-hypersensitivity
#8
Gyohei Egawa, Kenji Kabashima
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is the most basic murine model for type IV hypersensitivity. This dermatitis model is mediated by hapten-sensitized, skin-infiltrating T cells. Recent intravital imaging studies have demonstrated the dynamic migratory property of skin-infiltrating T cells and the orchestrated interaction of T cells with dermal dendritic cells. Multiphoton microscopy enables the direct, three-dimensional, and minimally invasive imaging of in vivo skin samples with high spatiotemporal resolution...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062924/memory-formation-orchestrates-the-wiring-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons-into-brain-circuits
#9
Petnoi Petsophonsakul, Kevin Richetin, Trinovita Andraini, Laurent Roybon, Claire Rampon
During memory formation, structural rearrangements of dendritic spines provide a mean to durably modulate synaptic connectivity within neuronal networks. New neurons generated throughout the adult life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus contribute to learning and memory. As these neurons become incorporated into the network, they generate huge numbers of new connections that modify hippocampal circuitry and functioning. However, it is yet unclear as to how the dynamic process of memory formation influences their synaptic integration into neuronal circuits...
January 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042008/does-time-heal-all-wounds-experimental-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-results-in-persisting-histopathology-in-the-thalamus
#10
Theresa Currier Thomas, Sarah B Ogle, Benjamin M Rumney, Hazel G May, P David Adelson, Jonathan Lifshitz
BACKGROUND: Thalamic dysfunction has been implicated in overall chronic neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI), however little is known about the underlying histopathology. In experimental diffuse TBI (dTBI), we hypothesize that persisting histopathological changes in the ventral posteromedial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus is indicative of progressive circuit reorganization. Since circuit reorganization in the VPM impacts the whisker sensory system, the histopathology could explain the development of hypersensitivity to whisker stimulation by 28days post-injury; similar to light and sound hypersensitivity in human TBI survivors...
December 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036092/human-rho-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-11-arhgef11-regulates-dendritic-morphogenesis
#11
Yutaka Mizuki, Manabu Takaki, Shinji Sakamoto, Sojiro Okamoto, Makiko Kishimoto, Yuko Okahisa, Masahiko Itoh, Norihito Yamada
Disturbances of synaptic connectivity during perinatal and adolescent periods have been hypothesized to be related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (ARHGEF11) is a specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) for RhoA, which is a critical regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and organization of dendritic spines and inhibitor of spine maintenance. ARHGEF11 variants are reported to be associated with a higher risk for the onset of schizophrenia in a Japanese population; however, how ARHGEF11 contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in dendritic spines is unknown...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035040/of-microtubules-and-memory-implications-for-microtubule-dynamics-in-dendrites-and-spines
#12
Erik W Dent
Microtubules (MTs) are cytoskeletal polymers composed of repeating subunits of tubulin that are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells. They undergo a stochastic process of polymerization and depolymerization from their plus ends termed dynamic instability. MT dynamics is an ongoing process in all cell types and has been the target for the development of several useful anticancer drugs, which compromise rapidly dividing cells. Recent studies also suggest that MT dynamics may be particularly important in neurons, which develop a highly polarized morphology, consisting of a single axon and multiple dendrites that persist throughout adulthood...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027494/ultrastructural-evidence-for-impaired-mitochondrial-fission-in-the-aged-rhesus-monkey-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Yury M Morozov, Dibyadeep Datta, Constantinos D Paspalas, Amy F T Arnsten
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex mediates high-order cognitive functions that are impaired early in the aging process in monkeys and humans. Here, we report pronounced changes in mitochondrial morphology in dendrites of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex neurons from aged rhesus macaques. Electron microscopy paired with 3D reconstruction from serial sections revealed an age-related increase in mitochondria with thin segments that intermingled with enlarged ones, the 'mitochondria-on-a-string' phenotype, similar to those recently reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease...
December 10, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027303/olfactory-sensory-neurons-control-dendritic-complexity-of-mitral-cells-via-notch-signaling
#14
Yuko Muroyama, Atsushi Baba, Motoo Kitagawa, Tetsuichiro Saito
Mitral cells (MCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb have a single primary dendrite extending into a single glomerulus, where they receive odor information from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Molecular mechanisms for controlling dendritic arbors of MCs, which dynamically change during development, are largely unknown. Here we found that MCs displayed more complex dendritic morphologies in mouse mutants of Maml1, a crucial gene in Notch signaling. Similar phenotypes were observed by conditionally misexpressing a dominant negative form of MAML1 (dnMAML1) in MCs after their migration...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011143/dynamic-changes-in-resident-and-infiltrating-epidermal-dendritic-cells-in-active-and-resolved-psoriasis
#15
Elisa Martini, Maria Wiken, Stanley Cheuk, Irène Gallais Sérézal, Faezzah Baharom, Mona Ståhle, Anna Smed-Sörensen, Liv Eidsmo
Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are spatially separated from dermal dendritic cells (DCs) in healthy human skin. In active psoriasis, maintained by local production of IL-23 and IL-17, DCs infiltrate both skin compartments. Here we show that CCR2(+) epidermal DCs (eDCs), phenotypically distinct from dermal DCs, were strictly confined to lesional psoriasis. The eDCs exceeded the number of LCs and displayed high expression of genes involved in neutrophil recruitment and the activation of keratinocytes and T cells...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009273/life-at-low-copy-number-how-dendrites-manage-with-so-few-mrnas
#16
REVIEW
Kenneth S Kosik
Most mammalian dendrites have surprisingly few copy numbers of mRNAs relative to the large number of synapses and consequently, at any given moment, the majority of synapses do not have a repertoire of mRNAs within their immediate locale capable of initiating translation-dependent plasticity. The dimensions of the translationally serviceable locale around synapses have boundary parameters that can be estimated. When a synapse receives an input beyond that boundary, the requisite mRNAs for local translation and plasticity may not be there...
December 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001081/computer-simulation-studies-on-the-ph-responsive-self-assembly-of-amphiphilic-carboxy-terminated-polyester-dendrimers-in-aqueous-solution
#17
Chunyang Yu, Li Ma, Ke Li, Shanlong Li, Yannan Liu, Lifen Liu, Yongfeng Zhou, Deyue Yan
This paper investigates the pH-responsive self-assembly of an amphiphilic carboxyl-terminated polyester dendrimer, H20-COOH, in aqueous solution using the dissipative particle dynamics method. The electrostatic interactions were described by introducing the explicit interaction between the smeared charges on ionized polymer beads and the counterions. The results show that the self-assemblies could change from unimolecular micelles, microphase-separated small micelles, wormlike micelles, sheetlike micelles, and small vesicles to large vesicles with the decrease in the degree of ionization (α) of carboxylic acid groups...
December 29, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998072/effect-of-several-hiv-antigens-simultaneously-loaded-with-g2-nn16-carbosilane-dendrimer-in-the-cell-uptake-and-functionality-of-human-dendritic-cells
#18
Daniel Sepúlveda-Crespo, Enrique Vacas-Córdoba, Valeria Márquez-Miranda, Ingrid Araya-Durán, Rafael Gómez, Francisco Javier de la Mata, Fernando Danilo González-Nilo, Ma Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández
Dendrimers are highly branched, star-shaped, and nanosized polymers that have been proposed as new carriers for specific HIV-1 peptides. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most-potent antigen-presenting cells that play a major role in the development of cell-mediated immunotherapy due to the generation and regulation of adaptive immune responses against HIV-1. This article reports on the associated behavior of two or three HIV-derived peptides simultaneously (p24/gp160 or p24/gp160/NEF) with cationic carbosilane dendrimer G2-NN16...
December 21, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987351/the-role-of-relative-membrane-capacitance-and-time-delay-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#19
Jing Wang, Shenquan Liu, Bo Lu, Yanjun Zeng
The membrane capacitance of a neuron can influence the synaptic efficacy and the speed of electrical signal propagation. Exploring the role of membrane capacitance will help facilitate a deeper understanding of the electrical properties of neurons. Thus, in this paper, we investigated the neuronal firing behaviors of a two-compartment model in Purkinje cells. We evaluated the influence of membrane capacitance under two different circumstances: in the absence of time delay and in the presence of time delay. Firstly, we separately studied the influence of somatic membrane capacitance Cs and dendritic membrane capacitance Cd on neuronal firing patterns...
December 17, 2016: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986708/blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm-is-dependent-on-bcl-2-and-sensitive-to-venetoclax
#20
Joan Montero, Jason Stephansky, Tianyu Cai, Gabriel K Griffin, Lucia Cabal-Hierro, Katsuhiro Togami, Leah J Hogdal, Ilene Galinsky, Elizabeth A Morgan, Jon C Aster, Matthew S Davids, Nicole R LeBoeuf, Richard M Stone, Marina Konopleva, Naveen Pemmaraju, Anthony Letai, Andrew A Lane
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with dismal outcomes for which no standard therapy exists. We found that primary BPDCN cells were dependent on the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 and were uniformly sensitive to the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax, as measured by direct cytotoxicity, apoptosis assays, and dynamic BH3 profiling. Animals bearing BPDCN patient-derived xenografts had disease responses and improved survival after venetoclax treatment in vivo. Finally, we report on two patients with relapsed/refractory BPDCN who received venetoclax off-label and experienced significant disease responses...
December 16, 2016: Cancer Discovery
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