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Dendritic dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350486/predictive-clinicopathologic-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-findings-for-tumor-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#1
Hye-Joung Eom, Joo Hee Cha, Woo Jung Choi, Eun Young Chae, Hee Jung Shin, Hak Hee Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether clinicopathologic factors and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) features are associated with pathologic tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients with TNBC who underwent pre-NAC MRI, completed NAC, and underwent surgery between January 2009 and December 2010 were included in the study. MRI features and clinicopathologic factors for predicting pathologic responses were analyzed, and residual tumor sizes, as measured using MRI and surgical specimens, were evaluated...
March 28, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344338/monitoring-of-dynamic-changes-in-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin-klh-specific-b-cells-in-klh-vaccinated-cancer-patients
#2
Florian Wimmers, Nienke de Haas, Anja Scholzen, Gerty Schreibelt, Elles Simonetti, Marc J Eleveld, Huberdina M L M Brouwers, Marjo Beldhuis-Valkis, Irma Joosten, Marien I de Jonge, Winald R Gerritsen, I Jolanda M de Vries, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Joannes F M Jacobs
Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is used as an immunogenic neo-antigen for various clinical applications and during vaccine development. For advanced monitoring of KLH-based interventions, we developed a flow cytometry-based assay for the ex vivo detection, phenotyping and isolation of KLH-specific B cells. As proof-of-principle, we analyzed 10 melanoma patients exposed to KLH during anti-cancer dendritic cell vaccination. Our assay demonstrated sensitive and specific detection of KLH-specific B cells in peripheral blood and KLH-specific B cell frequencies strongly correlated with anti-KLH serum antibody titers...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337675/an-ontology-based-search-engine-for-digital-reconstructions-of-neuronal-morphology
#3
Sridevi Polavaram, Giorgio A Ascoli
Neuronal morphology is extremely diverse across and within animal species, developmental stages, brain regions, and cell types. This diversity is functionally important because neuronal structure strongly affects synaptic integration, spiking dynamics, and network connectivity. Digital reconstructions of axonal and dendritic arbors are thus essential to quantify and model information processing in the nervous system. NeuroMorpho.Org is an established repository containing tens of thousands of digitally reconstructed neurons shared by several hundred laboratories worldwide...
March 23, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330473/dynamic-and-specific-immune-responses-against-multiple-tumor-antigens-were-elicited-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-cell-based-immunotherapy
#4
Yanyan Han, Yeting Wu, Chou Yang, Jing Huang, Yabing Guo, Li Liu, Ping Chen, Dongyun Wu, Junyun Liu, Jin Li, Xiangjun Zhou, Jinlin Hou
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in China and frequently occurs with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. To investigate whether cell-based cancer immunotherapy induces tumor specific immune responses in patients with HCC and provides clinical benefits, as well as to elucidate the most immunogenic tumor associated antigens (TAAs), multiple antigen stimulating cellular therapy (MASCT) was applied in addition to standard of care. METHODS: Mature dendritic cells (DCs) and activated T cells prepared for MASCT were generated from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329707/dendritic-cells-display-subset-and-tissue-specific-maturation-dynamics-over-human-life
#5
Tomer Granot, Takashi Senda, Dustin J Carpenter, Nobuhide Matsuoka, Joshua Weiner, Claire L Gordon, Michelle Miron, Brahma V Kumar, Adam Griesemer, Siu-Hong Ho, Harvey Lerner, Joseph J C Thome, Thomas Connors, Boris Reizis, Donna L Farber
Maturation and migration to lymph nodes (LNs) constitutes a central paradigm in conventional dendritic cell (cDC) biology but remains poorly defined in humans. Using our organ donor tissue resource, we analyzed cDC subset distribution, maturation, and migration in mucosal tissues (lungs, intestines), associated lymph nodes (LNs), and other lymphoid sites from 78 individuals ranging from less than 1 year to 93 years of age. The distribution of cDC1 (CD141(hi)CD13(hi)) and cDC2 (Sirp-α(+)CD1c(+)) subsets was a function of tissue site and was conserved between donors...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325755/loss-of-pink1-leads-to-metabolic-deficits-in-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-impedes-differentiation-of-newborn-neurons-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#6
Sandeep Kumar Agnihotri, Ruifang Shen, Jihong Li, Xu Gao, Hansruedi Büeler
Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondrial dynamics regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Although abnormal AHN has been linked to depression, anxiety, and cognitive dysfunction, which are features of neurodegenerative conditions, including Parkinson's disease (PD), the impact of mitochondrial deficits on AHN have not been explored previously in a model of neurodegeneration. Here, we used PTEN-induced kinase 1-deficient (PINK1(-/-) ) mice that lacked a mitochondrial kinase mutated in recessive familial PD...
March 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323283/treadmill-exercise-suppressed-stress-induced-dendritic-spine-elimination-in-mouse-barrel-cortex-and-improved-working-memory-via-bdnf-trkb-pathway
#7
K Chen, L Zhang, M Tan, C S W Lai, A Li, C Ren, K-F So
Stress-related memory deficit is correlated with dendritic spine loss. Physical exercise improves memory function and promotes spinogenesis. However, no studies have been performed to directly observe exercise-related effects on spine dynamics, in association with memory function. This study utilized transcranial two-photon in vivo microscopy to investigate dendritic spine formation and elimination in barrel cortex of mice under physical constrain or naive conditions, followed by memory performance in a whisker-dependent novel texture discrimination task...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320970/borc-kinesin-1-ensemble-drives-polarized-transport-of-lysosomes-into-the-axon
#8
Ginny G Farías, Carlos M Guardia, Raffaella De Pace, Dylan J Britt, Juan S Bonifacino
The ability of lysosomes to move within the cytoplasm is important for many cellular functions. This ability is particularly critical in neurons, which comprise vast, highly differentiated domains such as the axon and dendrites. The mechanisms that control lysosome movement in these domains, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that an ensemble of BORC, Arl8, SKIP, and kinesin-1, previously shown to mediate centrifugal transport of lysosomes in nonneuronal cells, specifically drives lysosome transport into the axon, and not the dendrites, in cultured rat hippocampal neurons...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319816/dna-polyplexes-with-dendritic-glycopolymer-entrapped-gold-nanoparticles
#9
Jens Rumschöttel, Sabine Kosmella, Claudia Prietzel, Dietmar Appelhans, Joachim Koetz
Polyplexes, composed of Salmon DNA and very small gold nanoparticles embedded into a dendritic glycopolymer architecture of sugar-modified poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI-Mal) with a molar mass of about 25,000g/mol, were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements, micro differential scanning calorimetry (μ-DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The PEI-Mal-entrapped gold nanoparticles of about 2nm in diameter influence the polyplex formation of the hyperbranched PEI containing bulky maltose, and in consequence the DNA is more compactized in the inner part of spherical polyplex particles of about 150nm in diameter...
March 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303712/lithium-metal-anodes-with-an-adaptive-solid-liquid-interfacial-protective-layer
#10
Kai Liu, Allen Pei, Hye Ryoung Lee, Biao Kong, Nian Liu, Dingchang Lin, Yayuan Liu, Chong Liu, Po-Chun Hsu, Zhenan Bao, Yi Cui
Lithium metal is an attractive anode for the next generation of high energy density lithium-ion batteries due to its high specific capacity (3,860 mAh/g) and the lowest anode potential of all. However, the key issue is that the static solid electrolyte interphase cannot match the dynamic volume changes of the Li anode, resulting in side reactions, dendrite growth, and poor electrodeposition behavior which prevent its practical applications. Here, we show that the "solid-liquid" hybrid behavior of a dynamically-crosslinked polymer enables its use as an excellent adaptive interfacial layer for Li metal anodes...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295020/lactobacillus-johnsonii-supplementation-attenuates-respiratory-viral-infection-via-metabolic-reprogramming-and-immune-cell-modulation
#11
W Fonseca, K Lucey, S Jang, K E Fujimura, A Rasky, H-A Ting, J Petersen, C C Johnson, H A Boushey, E Zoratti, D R Ownby, A M Levine, K R Bobbit, S V Lynch, N W Lukacs
Regulation of respiratory mucosal immunity by microbial-derived metabolites has been a proposed mechanism that may provide airway protection. Here we examine the effect of oral Lactobacillus johnsonii supplementation on metabolic and immune response dynamics during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. L. johnsonii supplementation reduced airway T helper type 2 cytokines and dendritic cell (DC) function, increased regulatory T cells, and was associated with a reprogrammed circulating metabolic environment, including docosahexanoic acid (DHA) enrichment...
March 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289977/location-function-and-ontogeny-of-pulmonary-macrophages-during-the-steady-state
#12
REVIEW
Natalio Garbi, Bart N Lambrecht
The lung is continuously exposed to potentially hazardous environmental challenges in the form of inert material and microbes. Pulmonary macrophages are critical in maintaining a low inflammatory context in the lung to facilitate optimal gas exchange. During infection, however, they mediate the immediate response to invading microorganisms in coordination with epithelial cells and other tissue-resident immune cells including dendritic cells, innate lymphocytes and memory T cells, and pulmonary interstitial macrophages...
March 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283886/protein-characterization-of-extracellular-microvesicles-exosomes-released-from-cytotoxin-challenged-rat-cerebrocortical-mixed-culture-and-mouse-n2a-cells
#13
Dhwani Kumar, Rachna Manek, Vijaya Raghavan, Kevin K Wang
A number of neuronal and glial proteins were previously found to be released in free-standing soluble form from cultured brain cells into cell-conditioned media. Here, we sought to examine if similar proteins are also contained in neural and astroglial cell-released extracellular microvesicles/exosomes (MV/E). In this study, MV/E were isolated from cell-conditioned media from control and cytotoxin-challenged rat cerebrocortical mixed culture (CTX) and mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells. Cytotoxin challenges included pro-necrosis calcium ionophore A23187, pro-apoptosis staurosporine (STS), and excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283756/dopamine-t-cells-and-multiple-sclerosis-ms
#14
REVIEW
Mia Levite, Franca Marino, Marco Cosentino
Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that induces critical effects in the nervous system and in many peripheral organs, via 5 dopamine receptors (DRs): D1R-D5R. Dopamine also induces many direct and very potent effects on many DR-expressing immune cells, primarily T cells and dendritic cells. In this review, we focus only on dopamine receptors, effects and production in T cells. Dopamine by itself (at an optimal concentration of~0.1 nM) induces multiple function of resting normal human T cells, among them: T cell adhesion, chemotactic migration, homing, cytokine secretion and others...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280248/dynamics-of-cortical-dendritic-membrane-potential-and-spikes-in-freely-behaving-rats
#15
Jason J Moore, Pascal M Ravassard, David Ho, Lavanya Acharya, Ashley L Kees, Cliff Vuong, Mayank R Mehta
Neural activity in vivo is primarily measured using extracellular somatic spikes, which provide limited information about neural computation. Hence, it is necessary to record from neuronal dendrites, which can generate dendritic action potentials (DAPs) in vitro, which can profoundly influence neural computation and plasticity. We measured neocortical sub- and suprathreshold dendritic membrane potential (DMP) from putative distal-most dendrites using tetrodes in freely behaving rats over multiple days with a high degree of stability and submillisecond temporal resolution...
March 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270509/in-situ-and-in-silico-kinetic-analyses-of-the-programmed-cell-death-1-programmed-cell-death-ligands-and-b7-1-interaction-network
#16
Kaitao Li, Xiaoxiao Cheng, Andreas Tilevik, Simon J Davis, Cheng Zhu
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor with an essential role in maintaining peripheral tolerance, and among the most promising immunotherapeutic targets for treating cancer, autoimmunity, and infectious diseases. A complete understanding of the consequences of PD-1 engagement by its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, and of PD-L1 binding to B7-1, requires quantitative analysis of their interactions at the cell surface. We present here the first complete in situ kinetic analysis of the PD-1/PD-1 ligands/B7-1 system...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256620/time-lapse-imaging-reveals-highly-dynamic-structural-maturation-of-postnatally-born-dentate-granule-cells-in-organotypic-entorhino-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#17
Tijana Radic, Tassilo Jungenitz, Mathias Singer, Marcel Beining, Hermann Cuntz, Andreas Vlachos, Thomas Deller, Stephan W Schwarzacher
Neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells (GCs) persists throughout mammalian life and is important for learning and memory. How newborn GCs differentiate and mature into an existing circuit during this time period is not yet fully understood. We established a method to visualize postnatally generated GCs in organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures (OTCs) using retroviral (RV) GFP-labeling and performed time-lapse imaging to study their morphological development in vitro. Using anterograde tracing we could, furthermore, demonstrate that the postnatally generated GCs in OTCs, similar to adult born GCs, grow into an existing entorhino-dentate circuitry...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255727/studying-dendritic-cell-t-cell-interactions-under-in-vivo-conditions
#18
Nicholas van Panhuys
The interactions between dendritic cells and T cells during the initiation of an adaptive immune response underpins one of the most important checkpoints in ensuring that the correct immune response is induced, in order to direct the development of immune tolerance or to mount an immune response against pathogenic organisms. The advent of two-photon intravital imaging allows us to directly study the interactions between dendritic cells and T cells as they occur under physiological conditions, greatly improving our understanding of the dynamic relationship that occurs during T cell activation and expanding our knowledge of how the adaptive immune system is regulated during both priming and memory responses...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254942/layer-specific-modulation-of-neocortical-dendritic-inhibition-during-active-wakefulness
#19
William Muñoz, Robin Tremblay, Daniel Levenstein, Bernardo Rudy
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inputs are strategically positioned to gate synaptic integration along the dendritic arbor of pyramidal cells. However, their spatiotemporal dynamics during behavior are poorly understood. Using an optical-tagging electrophysiological approach to record and label somatostatin-expressing (Sst) interneurons (GABAergic neurons specialized for dendritic inhibition), we discovered a layer-specific modulation of their activity in behaving mice. Sst interneuron subtypes, residing in different cortical layers and innervating complementary laminar domains, exhibited opposite activity changes during transitions to active wakefulness...
March 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250408/video-rate-volumetric-functional-imaging-of-the-brain-at-synaptic-resolution
#20
Rongwen Lu, Wenzhi Sun, Yajie Liang, Aaron Kerlin, Jens Bierfeld, Johannes D Seelig, Daniel E Wilson, Benjamin Scholl, Boaz Mohar, Masashi Tanimoto, Minoru Koyama, David Fitzpatrick, Michael B Orger, Na Ji
Neurons and neural networks often extend hundreds of micrometers in three dimensions. Capturing the calcium transients associated with their activity requires volume imaging methods with subsecond temporal resolution. Such speed is a challenge for conventional two-photon laser-scanning microscopy, because it depends on serial focal scanning in 3D and indicators with limited brightness. Here we present an optical module that is easily integrated into standard two-photon laser-scanning microscopes to generate an axially elongated Bessel focus, which when scanned in 2D turns frame rate into volume rate...
February 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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