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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447953/dendrite-growth-and-the-effect-of-ectopic-rheb-expression-on-cortical-neurons
#1
Aidan M Sokolov, Caitlin M Seluzicki, Mary C Morton, David M Feliciano
Ras homology enriched in brain (Rheb) is a GTPase that activates the protein kinase mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). Rheb mutations cause intellectual delay and megalencephaly. mTOR hyperactivation causes a constellation of neurodevelopmental disorders called "mTOR-opathies" that are frequently accompanied by hyperexcitable cortical malformations. Cortical malformations within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and somatosensory cortex (SSC) frequently colocalize with hyperexcitability. Although Rheb and mTOR are implicated in the formation of cortical lesions, seizure activity, and defects in neuronal migration, the contribution of Rheb to changes in neuron size and dendrite morphology is not well established...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444449/dendritic-spine-density-and-ephrinb2-levels-of-hippocampal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-neurons-increase-sequentially-during-formation-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory-in-the-mouse
#2
Georgia Abate, Sandra Colazingari, Alessandra Accoto, David Conversi, Arturo Bevilacqua
Memory consolidation is a dynamic process that involves a sequential remodeling of hippocampal-cortical circuits. Although synaptic events underlying memory consolidation are well assessed, fine molecular events controlling this process deserve further characterization. To this aim, we challenged male C57BL/6N mice in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm and tested their memory 24 h, 7 days or 36 days later. Mice displayed a strong fear response at all time points with an increase in dendritic spine density and protein levels of the cell adhesion factor EphrinB2 in CA1 hippocampal neurons 24 h and 7 days post conditioning (p...
February 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427598/calcineurin-knockout-mice-show-a-selective-loss-of-small-spines
#3
Hitoshi Okazaki, Akiko Hayashi-Takagi, Akira Nagaoka, Makiko Negishi, Hasan Ucar, Sho Yagishita, Kazuhiko Ishii, Kevin Fox, Taro Toyoizumi, Haruo Kasai
Calcineurin is required for long-term depression and activity-dependent spine shrinkage, and calcineurin mutations have been identified in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, mice with conditional knockout of calcineurin B (CNB-KO) exhibit behavioral abnormalities suggestive of schizophrenia. Changes in the dendritic spines of these mice, however, have not been investigated. We therefore examined the dendritic spines of CNB-KO mice, and observed a significant reduction in small spines and an increase in large spines in the prefrontal and visual cortices...
February 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424434/immunolocalization-of-muscarinic-m1-receptor-in-the-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Satoko Oda, Yousuke Tsuneoka, Sachine Yoshida, Satomi Adachi-Akahana, Masanori Ito, Masaru Kuroda, Hiromasa Funato
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been considered to participate in many higher cognitive functions, such as memory formation and spatial navigation. These cognitive functions are modulated by cholinergic afferents via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Previous pharmacological studies have strongly suggested that the M1 receptor (M1R) is the most important subtype among muscarinic receptors to perform these cognitive functions. Actually, M1R is abundant in mPFC. However, the proportion of somata containing M1R among cortical cellular types, and the precise intracellular localization of M1R remain unclear...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422838/kcc2-dependent-steady-state-intracellular-chloride-concentration-and-ph-in-cortical-layer-2-3-neurons-of-anesthetized-and-awake-mice
#5
Juan C Boffi, Johannes Knabbe, Michaela Kaiser, Thomas Kuner
Neuronal intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) influences a wide range of processes such as neuronal inhibition, membrane potential dynamics, intracellular pH (pHi) or cell volume. Up to date, neuronal [Cl-]i has predominantly been studied in model systems of reduced complexity. Here, we implemented the genetically encoded ratiometric Cl- indicator Superclomeleon (SCLM) to estimate the steady-state [Cl-]i in cortical neurons from anesthetized and awake mice using 2-photon microscopy. Additionally, we implemented superecliptic pHluorin (SE-pHluorin) as a ratiometric sensor to estimate the intracellular steady-state pH (pHi) of mouse cortical neurons in vivo...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415226/temporal-regulation-of-dendritic-spines-through-nrcam-semaphorin3f-receptor-signaling-in-developing-cortical-pyramidal-neurons
#6
Vishwa Mohan, Chelsea S Sullivan, Jiami Guo, Sarah D Wade, Samarpan Majumder, Amit Agarwal, Eva S Anton, Brenda S Temple, Patricia F Maness
Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule NrCAM is a newly identified negative regulator of spine density that genetically interacts with Semaphorin3F (Sema3F), and is implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To investigate a role for NrCAM in spine pruning during the critical adolescent period when networks are established, we generated novel conditional, inducible NrCAM mutant mice (Nex1Cre-ERT2: NrCAMflox/flox). We demonstrate that NrCAM functions cell autonomously during adolescence in pyramidal neurons to restrict spine density in the visual (V1) and medial frontal cortex (MFC)...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415216/distinct-neocortical-progenitor-lineages-fine-tune-neuronal-diversity-in-a-layer-specific-manner
#7
Teresa Guillamon-Vivancos, William A Tyler, Maria Medalla, Wayne Wei-En Chang, Mayumi Okamoto, Tarik F Haydar, Jennifer I Luebke
How the variety of neurons that organize into neocortical layers and functional areas arises is a central question in the study of cortical development. While both intrinsic and extrinsic cues are known to influence this process, whether distinct neuronal progenitor groups contribute to neuron diversity and allocation is poorly understood. Using in vivo genetic fate-mapping combined with whole-cell patch clamp recording, we show that the firing pattern and apical dendritic morphology of excitatory neurons in layer 4 of the barrel cortex are specified in part by their neural precursor lineage...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413766/radiofrequency-electromagnetic-radiation-exposure-effects-on-amygdala-morphology-place-preference-behavior-and-brain-caspase-3-activity-in-rats
#8
Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan, Nirupam Mohapatra, Pamala John, Nalini K, Raju Suresh Kumar, Satheesha B Nayak, P Gopalakrishna Bhat
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in amygdala morphology and emotional behaviors, upon exposure to chronic RF-EMR in adolescent rats. Four weeks old male albino Wistar rats were exposed to 900 MHz (power density:146.60 μW/cm2) from a mobile phone in silent-mode for 28 days. Amygdala morphology was studied using cresyl violet, TUNEL and Golgi-Cox staining. Place preference behavior was studied using light/dark chamber test and following this brain caspase-3 activity was determined. Number of healthy neurons was decreased in the basolateral amygdala and cortical amygdala but not in the central amygdala after RF-EMR exposure...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413532/adolescent-pruning-and-stabilization-of-dendritic-spines-on-cortical-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-do-not-depend-on-gonadal-hormones
#9
Josiah R Boivin, David J Piekarski, A Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit 'rewiring'. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413527/the-role-of-serine-racemase-in-the-pathophysiology-of-brain-disorders
#10
Joseph T Coyle, Darrick T Balu
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is unique in requiring two agonists to bind simultaneously to open its cation channel: the neurotransmitter, glutamate, and the coagonists, glycine, or d-serine. The Snyder laboratory was the first to clone serine racemase (SR), the enzyme that synthesizes d-serine, and to localize it immunocytochemically. Our laboratory has focused on the role of d-serine in brain disorders. Silencing the expression of SR, a risk gene for schizophrenia (SCZ), in mice (SR-/-), results in a phenotype that closely resembles SCZ including: cortical atrophy, reduced dendritic spine density and complexity, downregulation of parvalbumin-positive cortical GABAergic neurons, and cognitive impairments...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406266/systemic-or-forebrain-neuron-specific-deficiency-of-geranylgeranyltransferase-1-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-and-reduces-dendritic-spine-density
#11
David Hottman, Shaowu Cheng, Andrea Gram, Kyle LeBlanc, Li-Lian Yuan, Ling Li
Isoprenoids and prenylated proteins regulate a variety of cellular functions, including neurite growth and synaptic plasticity. Importantly, they are implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, we have shown that two protein prenyltransferases, farnesyltransferase (FT) and geranylgeranyltransferase-1 (GGT), have differential effects in a mouse model of AD. Haplodeficiency of either FT or GGT attenuates amyloid-β deposition and neuroinflammation but only reduction in FT rescues cognitive function...
February 2, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395074/otud7a-regulates-neurodevelopmental-phenotypes-in-the-15q13-3-microdeletion-syndrome
#12
Mohammed Uddin, Brianna K Unda, Vickie Kwan, Nicholas T Holzapfel, Sean H White, Leon Chalil, Marc Woodbury-Smith, Karen S Ho, Erin Harward, Nadeem Murtaza, Biren Dave, Giovanna Pellecchia, Lia D'Abate, Thomas Nalpathamkalam, Sylvia Lamoureux, John Wei, Marsha Speevak, James Stavropoulos, Kristin J Hope, Brad W Doble, Jacob Nielsen, E Robert Wassman, Stephen W Scherer, Karun K Singh
Copy-number variations (CNVs) are strong risk factors for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. The 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome region contains up to ten genes and is associated with numerous conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, schizophrenia, and intellectual disability; however, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome remain unknown. We combined whole-genome sequencing, human brain gene expression (proteome and transcriptome), and a mouse model with a syntenic heterozygous deletion (Df(h15q13)/+ mice) and determined that the microdeletion results in abnormal development of cortical dendritic spines and dendrite outgrowth...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394508/activation-of-pial-and-dural-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells-by-csd-67-chrs
#13
Aaron J Schain, Agustin Melo-Carrillo, David Borsook, Jaime Grutzendler, Andrew M Strassman, Rami Burstein
OBJECTIVE: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has long been implicated in migraine attacks with aura. The process by which CSD, a cortical event that occurs within the blood brain barrier (BBB), results in nociceptor activation outside the BBB is likely mediated by multiple molecules and cells. The objective of this study was to determine whether CSD activates immune cells inside the BBB (pia), outside the BBB (dura), or in both, and if so, when. METHODS: Investigating cellular events in the meninges shortly after CSD, we used in-vivo 2-photon imaging to identify changes in macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) that reside in the pia, arachnoid, and dura, and their anatomical relationship to TRPV1 axons...
February 2, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391029/mfn2-ablation-causes-an-oxidative-stress-response-and-eventual-neuronal-death-in-the-hippocampus-and-cortex
#14
Sirui Jiang, Priya Nandy, Wenzhang Wang, Xiaopin Ma, Jeffrey Hsia, Chunyu Wang, Zhenlian Wang, Mengyue Niu, Sandra L Siedlak, Sandy Torres, Hisashi Fujioka, Ying Xu, Hyoung-Gon Lee, George Perry, Jun Liu, Xiongwei Zhu
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are the organelles responsible for energy metabolism and have a direct impact on neuronal function and survival. Mitochondrial abnormalities have been well characterized in Alzheimer Disease (AD). It is believed that mitochondrial fragmentation, due to impaired fission and fusion balance, likely causes mitochondrial dysfunction that underlies many aspects of neurodegenerative changes in AD. Mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins play a major role in maintaining the health and function of these important organelles...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379878/caveolin1-identifies-a-specific-subpopulation-of-cerebral-cortex-callosal-projection-neurons-cpn-including-dual-projecting-cortical-callosal-frontal-projection-neurons-cpn-fpn
#15
Jessica L MacDonald, Ryann M Fame, Eva M Gillis-Buck, Jeffrey D Macklis
The neocortex is composed of many distinct subtypes of neurons that must form precise subtype-specific connections to enable the cortex to perform complex functions. Callosal projection neurons (CPN) are the broad population of commissural neurons that connect the cerebral hemispheres via the corpus callosum (CC). Currently, how the remarkable diversity of CPN subtypes and connectivity is specified, and how they differentiate to form highly precise and specific circuits, are largely unknown. We identify in mouse that the lipid-bound scaffolding domain protein Caveolin 1 (CAV1) is specifically expressed by a unique subpopulation of Layer V CPN that maintain dual ipsilateral frontal projections to premotor cortex...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379017/hotspots-of-dendritic-spine-turnover-facilitate-clustered-spine-addition-and-learning-and-memory
#16
Adam C Frank, Shan Huang, Miou Zhou, Amos Gdalyahu, George Kastellakis, Tawnie K Silva, Elaine Lu, Ximiao Wen, Panayiota Poirazi, Joshua T Trachtenberg, Alcino J Silva
Modeling studies suggest that clustered structural plasticity of dendritic spines is an efficient mechanism of information storage in cortical circuits. However, why new clustered spines occur in specific locations and how their formation relates to learning and memory (L&M) remain unclear. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy, we track spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex before, during, and after two forms of episodic-like learning and find that spine turnover before learning predicts future L&M performance, as well as the localization and rates of spine clustering...
January 29, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368975/effects-of-1800%C3%A2-mhz-rf-emf-exposure-on-dna-damage-and-cellular-functions-in-primary-cultured-neurogenic-cells
#17
Liling Su, Aziguli Yimaer, Zhengping Xu, Guangdi Chen
PURPOSE: To systematically evaluate the effects of 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure on DNA damage and cellular functions in primary cultured neurogenic cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary cultured astrocytes, microglia and cortical neurons were exposed to RF-EMF at a SAR of 4.0 W/kg. The DNA damage was evaluated by γH2AX foci formation assay. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) in astrocytes and microglia, microglial phagocytic activity and neuronal development were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, phagocytosis assay and immunofluorescent staining on microtubule-associated protein tau, microtubule-associated protein 2, postsynaptic density 95 and gephyrin, respectively...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358403/intracellular-ca2-stores-control-in-vivo-neuronal-hyperactivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Chommanad Lerdkrai, Nithi Asavapanumas, Bianca Brawek, Yury Kovalchuk, Nima Mojtahedi, Maria Olmedillas Del Moral, Olga Garaschuk
Neuronal hyperactivity is the emerging functional hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in both humans and different mouse models, mediating an impairment of memory and cognition. The mechanisms underlying neuronal hyperactivity remain, however, elusive. In vivo Ca2+ imaging of somatic, dendritic, and axonal activity patterns of cortical neurons revealed that both healthy aging and AD-related mutations augment neuronal hyperactivity. The AD-related enhancement occurred even without amyloid deposition and neuroinflammation, mainly due to presenilin-mediated dysfunction of intracellular Ca2+ stores in presynaptic boutons, likely causing more frequent activation of synaptic NMDA receptors...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350438/astrocytic-glutamine-synthetase-is-expressed-in-the-neuronal-somatic-layers-and-down-regulated-proportionally-to-neuronal-loss-in-the-human-epileptic-hippocampus
#19
Ismini E Papageorgiou, Nektarios A Valous, Bernd Lahrmann, Hana Janova, Zin-Juan Klaft, Arend Koch, Ulf C Schneider, Peter Vajkoczy, Frank L Heppner, Niels Grabe, Niels Halama, Uwe Heinemann, Oliver Kann
Human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) features subregion-specific hippocampal neurodegeneration and reactive astrogliosis, including up-regulation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and down-regulation of glutamine synthetase (GS). However, the regional astrocytic expression pattern of GFAP and GS upon MTLE-associated neurodegeneration still remains elusive. We assessed GFAP and GS expression in strict correlation with the local neuronal number in cortical and hippocampal surgical specimens from 16 MTLE patients using immunohistochemistry, stereology and high-resolution image analysis for digital pathology and whole-slide imaging...
January 19, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346754/input-specific-nmdar-dependent-potentiation-of-dendritic-gabaergic-inhibition
#20
Chiayu Q Chiu, James S Martenson, Maya Yamazaki, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Susumu Tomita, Steven J Tavalin, Michael J Higley
Preservation of a balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition is critical for normal brain function. A number of homeostatic cellular mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in maintaining this balance, including long-term plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. Many previous studies have demonstrated a coupling of postsynaptic spiking with modification of perisomatic inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to input-specific long-term potentiation of dendritic inhibition mediated by somatostatin-expressing interneurons...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
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