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Cortical dendrite

George S Vidal, Maja Djurisic, Kiana Brown, Richard W Sapp, Carla J Shatz
Synapse density on cortical pyramidal neurons is modulated by experience. This process is highest during developmental critical periods, when mechanisms of synaptic plasticity are fully engaged. In mouse visual cortex, the critical period for ocular dominance (OD) plasticity coincides with the developmental pruning of synapses. At this time, mice lacking paired Ig-like receptor B (PirB) have excess numbers of dendritic spines on L5 neurons; these spines persist and are thought to underlie the juvenile-like OD plasticity observed in adulthood...
September 2016: ENeuro
Sunggu Yang, Mariton D Santos, Cha-Min Tang, Jae Geun Kim, Sungchil Yang
Synaptic plasticity is a fundamental component of information processing in the brain. Presynaptic facilitation in response to repetitive stimuli, often referred to as paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), is a dominant form of short-term synaptic plasticity. Recently, an additional cellular mechanism for short-term facilitation, short-term postsynaptic plasticity (STPP), has been proposed. While a dendritic mechanism was described in hippocampus, its expression has not yet been demonstrated at the levels of the spine...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Thomas Broggini, Lisa Schnell, Ali Ghoochani, José María Mateos, Michael Buchfelder, Kurt Wiendieck, Michael K Schäfer, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai E Savaskan
The Plasticity Related Gene family covers five, brain-specific, transmembrane proteins (PRG1-5, also termed LPPR1-5) that operate in neuronal plasticity during development, aging and brain trauma. Here we investigated the role of the PRG family on axonal and filopodia outgrowth. Comparative analysis revealed the strongest outgrowth induced by PRG3 (LPPR1). During development, PRG3 is ubiquitously located at the tip of neuronal processes and at the plasma membrane and declines with age. In utero electroporation of PRG3 induced dendritic protrusions and accelerated spine formations in cortical pyramidal neurons...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Minhan Ka, Yeon-Hee Kook, Ke Liao, Shilpa Buch, Woo-Yang Kim
Cocaine is a highly addictive narcotic associated with dendritic spine plasticity in the striatum. However, it remains elusive whether cocaine modifies spines in a cell type-specific or region-specific manner or whether it alters different types of synapses in the brain. In addition, there is a paucity of data on the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in cocaine-induced modification of spine density. In the current study, we report that cocaine exposure differentially alters spine density, spine morphology, and the types of synapses in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Lauren P Shapiro, Ryan G Parsons, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
The prevalence of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and drug and alcohol use disorders peaks during adolescence. Further, up to 50% of "adult" mental health disorders emerge in adolescence. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes dramatic structural reorganization, in which dendritic spines and synapses are refined, pruned, and stabilized. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes should help to identify factors that influence the development of psychiatric illness...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Vipan K Parihar, Barrett D Allen, Chongshan Caressi, Stephanie Kwok, Esther Chu, Katherine K Tran, Nicole N Chmielewski, Erich Giedzinski, Munjal M Acharya, Richard A Britten, Janet E Baulch, Charles L Limoli
The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Guy Eyal, Matthijs B Verhoog, Guilherme Testa-Silva, Yair Deitcher, Johannes C Lodder, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Juan Morales, Javier DeFelipe, Christiaan Pj de Kock, Huibert D Mansvelder, Idan Segev
The advanced cognitive capabilities of the human brain are often attributed to our recently evolved neocortex. However, it is not known whether the basic building blocks of human neocortex, the pyramidal neurons, possess unique biophysical properties that might impact on cortical computations. Here we show that layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons from human temporal cortex (HL2/3 PCs) have a specific membrane capacitance (Cm) of ~0.5 µF/cm(2), half of the commonly accepted 'universal' value (~1 µF/cm(2)) for biological membranes...
October 6, 2016: ELife
Tomofumi Oga, Tsuguhisa Okamoto, Ichiro Fujita
Neurons in the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1) are systematically arranged across the cortical surface according to the location of their receptive fields (RFs), forming a visuotopic (or retinotopic) map. Within this map, the foveal visual field is represented by a large cortical surface area, with increasingly peripheral visual fields gradually occupying smaller cortical areas. Although cellular organization in the retina, such as the spatial distribution of ganglion cells, can partially account for the eccentricity-dependent differences in the size of cortical representation, whether morphological differences exist across V1 neurons representing different eccentricities is unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Ying Li, Yeou-Cherng Bor, Mark P Fitzgerald, Kevin S Lee, David Rekosh, Marie-Louise Hammarskjold
The Nxf1 protein is a major nuclear export receptor for the transport of mRNA and it also is essential for export of retroviral mRNAs with retained introns. In the latter case, it binds to RNA elements known as Constitutive Transport Elements (CTEs) and functions in conjunction with a cofactor known as Nxt1. The NXF1 gene also regulates expression of its own intron-containing RNA through the use of a functional CTE within intron 10. mRNA containing this intron is exported to the cytoplasm where it can be translated into the 356 amino acid short Nxf1(sNxf1) protein, despite the fact that it is a prime candidate for nonsense mediated decay (NMD)...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Monika Albert, Alonso Barrantes-Freer, Melanie Lohrberg, Jack P Antel, John W Prineas, Miklós Palkovits, Joachim R Wolff, Wolfgang Brück, Christine Stadelmann
In multiple sclerosis, cerebellar symptoms are associated with clinical impairment and an increased likelihood of progressive course. Cortical atrophy and synaptic dysfunction play a prominent role in cerebellar pathology and although the dentate nucleus is a predilection site for lesion development, structural synaptic changes in this region remain largely unexplored. Moreover, the mechanisms leading to synaptic dysfunction have not yet been investigated at an ultrastructural level in multiple sclerosis. Here we report on synaptic changes of dentate nuclei in post-mortem cerebella of 16 multiple sclerosis patients and eight controls at the histological level as well as an electron microscopy evaluation of afferent synapses of the cerebellar dentate and pontine nuclei of one multiple sclerosis patient and one control...
October 5, 2016: Brain Pathology
L Brimberg, S Mader, V Jeganathan, R Berlin, T R Coleman, P K Gregersen, P T Huerta, B T Volpe, B Diamond
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) occurs in 1 in 68 births, preferentially affecting males. It encompasses a group of neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, stereotypic behaviors and motor dysfunction. Although recent advances implicate maternal brain-reactive antibodies in a causative role in ASD, a definitive assessment of their pathogenic potential requires cloning of such antibodies. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of monoclonal brain-reactive antibodies from blood of women with brain-reactive serology and a child with ASD...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Pablo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Ignacio Leguey, Concha Bielza, Pedro Larrañaga, Javier DeFelipe
In this article, we analyze branching angles of the basal dendrites of pyramidal neurons of layers III and V of the human temporal cortex. For this, we use a novel probability directional statistical distribution called truncated von Mises distribution that is able to describe more accurately the dendritic-branching angles than the previous proposals. Then, we perform comparative studies using this statistical method to determine similarities and/or differences between branches and branching angles that belong to different cortical layers and regions...
September 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Mark P Jackson, Asif Rahman, Belen Lafon, Gregory Kronberg, Doris Ling, Lucas C Parra, Marom Bikson
The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of animal research using direct current stimulation (DCS) to our understanding of the physiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We comprehensively address experimental methodology in animal studies, broadly classified as: (1) transcranial stimulation; (2) direct cortical stimulation in vivo and (3) in vitro models. In each case advantages and disadvantages for translational research are discussed including dose translation and the overarching "quasi-uniform" assumption, which underpins translational relevance in all animal models of tDCS...
September 10, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Domenico F Galati, Brian G Hiester, Kevin R Jones
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates both action potential (AP) generation and neuron morphology. However, whether BDNF-induced changes in neuron morphology directly impact AP generation is unclear. We quantified BDNF's effect on cultured cortical neuron morphological parameters and found that BDNF stimulates dendrite growth and addition of dendrites while increasing both excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic inputs in a spatially restricted manner. To gain insight into how these combined changes in neuron structure and synaptic input impact AP generation, we used the morphological parameters we gathered to generate computational models...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Attila Szabo, Attila Kovacs, Jordi Riba, Srdjan Djurovic, Eva Rajnavolgyi, Ede Frecska
N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a potent endogenous hallucinogen present in the brain of humans and other mammals. Despite extensive research, its physiological role remains largely unknown. Recently, DMT has been found to activate the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), an intracellular chaperone fulfilling an interface role between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. It ensures the correct transmission of ER stress into the nucleus resulting in the enhanced production of antistress and antioxidant proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
T Guadagnoli, L Caltana, M Vacotto, M M Gironacci, A Brusco
The deleterious effects of ethanol (EtOH) on the brain have been widely described, but its effects on the neuronal cytoskeleton during differentiation have not yet been firmly established. In this context, our aim was to investigate the direct effect of EtOH on cortical neurons during the period of differentiation. Primary cultures of cortical neurons obtained from 1-day-old rats were exposed to EtOH after 7days of culture, and viability and morphology were analyzed at structural and ultrastructural levels after 24-h EtOH exposure...
September 24, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Pirathiv Kugathasan, Jessica Waller, Ligia Westrich, Aicha Abdourahman, Joseph A Tamm, Alan L Pehrson, Elena Dale, Maria Gulinello, Connie Sanchez, Yan Li
Neuroplasticity is fundamental for brain functions, abnormal changes of which are associated with mood disorders and cognitive impairment. Neuroplasticity can be affected by neuroactive medications and by aging. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant, has shown positive effects on cognitive functions in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. In rodent studies, vortioxetine increases glutamate neurotransmission, promotes dendritic branching and spine maturation, and elevates hippocampal expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tiffany V Lin, Lawrence Hsieh, Tomoki Kimura, Taylor J Malone, Angélique Bordey
Hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a shared molecular hallmark in several neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal brain cytoarchitecture. The mechanisms downstream of mTORC1 that are responsible for these defects remain unclear. We show that focally increasing mTORC1 activity during late corticogenesis leads to ectopic placement of upper-layer cortical neurons that does not require altered signaling in radial glia and is accompanied by changes in layer-specific molecular identity...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jill R Crittenden, Paul W Tillberg, Michael H Riad, Yasuyuki Shima, Charles R Gerfen, Jeffrey Curry, David E Housman, Sacha B Nelson, Edward S Boyden, Ann M Graybiel
The dopamine systems of the brain powerfully influence movement and motivation. We demonstrate that striatonigral fibers originating in striosomes form highly unusual bouquet-like arborizations that target bundles of ventrally extending dopamine-containing dendrites and clusters of their parent nigral cell bodies. Retrograde tracing showed that these clustered cell bodies in turn project to the striatum as part of the classic nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, these striosome-dendron formations, here termed "striosome-dendron bouquets," likely represent subsystems with the nigro-striato-nigral loop that are affected in human disorders including Parkinson's disease...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Laura Smit-Rigter, Rajeev Rajendran, Catia A P Silva, Liselot Spierenburg, Femke Groeneweg, Emma M Ruimschotel, Danielle van Versendaal, Chris van der Togt, Ulf T Eysel, J Alexander Heimel, Christian Lohmann, Christiaan N Levelt
Mitochondria buffer intracellular Ca(2+) and provide energy [1]. Because synaptic structures with high Ca(2+) buffering [2-4] or energy demand [5] are often localized far away from the soma, mitochondria are actively transported to these sites [6-11]. Also, the removal and degradation of mitochondria are tightly regulated [9, 12, 13], because dysfunctional mitochondria are a source of reactive oxygen species, which can damage the cell [14]. Deficits in mitochondrial trafficking have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, optic atrophy, and Alzheimer's disease [13, 15-19]...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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