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Cortical dendrite

Takuji Iwasato, Reha S Erzurumlu
Molecular identification of neuronal types and genetic and imaging approaches to characterize their properties reveal morphological, physiological and dynamic aspects of sensory circuit development. Here we focus on the mouse tactile sensory circuitry, with particular emphasis on the main trigeminal pathway that connects the whiskers, the major tactile organ in rodents, to the neocortex. At each level of this pathway, neurogenesis, axonal elongation, pathfinding, target recognition and circuit reorganization including dendritic refinement of cortical layer 4 neurons occur contemporaneously and a multitude of molecular signals are used in differing combinations...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Asghar Talebian, Rachel Britton, Mark Henkemeyer
To explore roles for ephrin-B/EphB signaling in cortical interneurons we previously generated ephrin-B (Efnb1/b2/b3) conditional triple mutant (TMlz ) mice using a Dlx1/2.Cre inhibitory neuron driver and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporters for the two main inhibitory interneuron groups distinguished by expression of either glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1; GAD67-GFP) or 2 (GAD2; GAD65-GFP). This work showed a general involvement of ephrin-B in migration and population of interneurons into the embryonic neocortex...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Valerie Matagne, Joyce Wondolowski, Matthew Frerking, Mohammad Shahidullah, Nicholas A Delamere, Ursula S Sandau, Sarojini Budden, Sergio R Ojeda
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene. In the absence of MeCP2/MECP2, expression of FXYD domain-containing transport regulator 1 (FXYD1) is deregulated in the frontal cortex (FC) of mice and humans. Because FXYD1 is a membrane protein that controls cell excitability by modulating Na+ , K+ -ATPase activity (NKA), an excess of FXYD1 may reduce NKA activity and contribute to the neuronal phenotype of Mecp2 deficient (KO) mice. To determine if FXYD1 can rescue these RTT deficits, we studied the male progeny of Fxyd1 null males bred to heterozygous Mecp2 female mice...
June 11, 2018: Brain Research
Sergio Luengo-Sanchez, Isabel Fernaud-Espinosa, Concha Bielza, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Pedro Larrañaga, Javier DeFelipe
The dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are the targets of most excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex. They have a wide variety of morphologies, and their morphology appears to be critical from the functional point of view. To further characterize dendritic spine geometry, we used in this paper over 7,000 individually 3D reconstructed dendritic spines from human cortical pyramidal neurons to group dendritic spines using model-based clustering. This approach uncovered six separate groups of human dendritic spines...
June 13, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Eduardo Caverzasi, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Fumiko Hoeft, Christa Watson, Marita Meyer, Isabel E Allen, Nico Papinutto, Cheng Wang, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Elysa J Marco, Pratik Mukherjee, Zachary A Miller, Bruce L Miller, Robert Hendren, Kevin A Shapiro, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
There is increasing recognition of a relationship between regional variability in cerebral gyrification and neurodevelopment. Recent work in morphometric MRI has shown that the local gyrification index (lGI), a measure of regional brain folding, may be altered in certain neurodevelopmental disorders. Other studies report that the lGI generally decreases with age in adolescence and young adulthood; however, little is known about how these age-dependent differences in brain maturation occur in atypical neurodevelopment and mechanisms underlying gyrification, such as synaptic pruning...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Thomas E Chan, Yael S Grossman, Erik B Bloss, William G Janssen, Wendy Lou, Bruce S McEwen, Dani Dumitriu, John H Morrison
Repeated exposure to stressors is known to produce large-scale remodeling of neurons within the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Recent work suggests stress-related forms of structural plasticity can interact with aging to drive distinct patterns of pyramidal cell morphological changes. However, little is known about how other cellular components within PFC might be affected by these challenges. Here, we examined the effects of stress exposure and aging on medial prefrontal cortical glial subpopulations. Interestingly, we found no changes in glial morphology with stress exposure but a profound morphological change with aging...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Volker Scheuss
The spatial organization of synaptic inputs on the dendritic tree of cortical neurons is considered to play an important role in the dendritic integration of synaptic activity. Active electrical properties of dendrites and mechanisms of dendritic integration have been studied for a long time. New technological developments are now enabling the characterization of the spatial organization of synaptic inputs on dendrites. However, quantitative methods for the analysis of such data are lacking. In order to place cluster parameters into the framework of dendritic integration and synaptic summation, these parameters need to be assessed rigorously in a quantitative manner...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Torbjørn V Ness, Michiel W H Remme, Gaute T Einevoll
In cortex the local field potential (LFP) is thought to mainly stem from correlated synaptic input to populations of geometrically aligned neurons. Computer models of single cortical pyramidal neurons showed that subthreshold voltage-dependent membrane conductances can also shape the LFP signal, in particular the h-type current, Ih This ion-channel is prominent in various types of pyramidal neurons, typically showing an increasing density gradient along the apical dendrites. Here, we investigate how Ih affects the LFP generated by a model of a population of cortical pyramidal neurons...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zi Li, Kui Zhao, Xiaoling Lv, Yungang Lan, Shiyu Hu, Junchao Shi, Jiyu Guan, Yawen Yang, Huijun Lu, Hongbin He, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurovirulent coronavirus and causes neurological dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS), but the neuropathological mechanism of PHEV remains poorly understood. We report that Unc51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1/Unc51.1) is a pivotal regulator of PHEV-induced neurological disorders and functions to selectively control the initiation of NGF/TrkA endosome trafficking. We first identified the function of Ulk1 by histopathologic evaluation in PHEV-infected mouse model where neuronal loss was accompanied by the suppression of Ulk1 expression...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Li Yuan, Dipika Singh, James L Beuscher, Jyothi Arikkath
Neural wiring and activity are essential for proper brain function and behavioral outputs and rely on mechanisms that guide the formation, elimination, and remodeling of synapses. During development, it is therefore vital that synaptic densities and architecture are tightly regulated to allow for appropriate neural circuit formation and function. δ-catenin, a component of the cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex has been demonstrated to be a critical regulator of synaptic density and function in the developing central neurons...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sudhakar R Subramaniam, Iddo Magen, Nicholas Bove, Chunni Zhu, Vincent Lemesre, Garima Dutta, Chris Jean Elias, Henry A Lester, Marie-Francoise Chesselet
In addition to dopaminergic and motor deficits, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from non-motor symptoms, including early cognitive and social impairment, that do not respond well to dopaminergic therapy. Cholinergic deficits may contribute to these problems, but cholinesterase inhibitors have limited efficacy. Mice over-expressing α-synuclein, a protein critically associated with PD, show deficits in cognitive and social interaction tests, as well as a decrease in cortical acetylcholine. We have evaluated the effects of chronic administration of nicotine in mice over-expressing wild type human α-synuclein under the Thy1-promoter (Thy1-aSyn mice)...
May 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Max Anstötz, Sun Kyong Lee, Gianmaria Maccaferri
KEY POINTS: By taking advantage of calcium imaging and electrophysiology, we provide direct pharmacological evidence for the functional expression of TRPV1 channels in hippocampal Cajal-Retzius cells. Application of the TRPV1 activator capsaicin powerfully enhances spontaneous synaptic transmission in the hippocampal layers that are innervated by the axons of Cajal-Retzius cells. Capsaicin-triggered calcium responses and membrane currents in Cajal-Retzius cells, as well as layer-specific modulation of spontaneous synaptic transmission, are absent when the drug is applied to slices prepared from TRPV1- /- animals...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Dafnis Batalle, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Antonios Makropoulos, Christopher J Kelly, Ralica Dimitrova, Emer J Hughes, Joseph V Hajnal, Hui Zhang, Daniel C Alexander, A David Edwards, Serena J Counsell
Human cortical development during the third trimester is characterised by macro- and microstructural changes which are reflected in alterations in diffusion MRI (dMRI) measures, with significant decreases in cortical mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA). This has been interpreted as reflecting increased cellular density and dendritic arborisation. However, the fall in FA stops abruptly at 38 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA), and then tends to plateau, while MD continues to fall, suggesting a more complex picture and raising the hypothesis that after this age development is dominated by continuing increase in neural and organelle density rather than alterations in the geometry of dendritic trees...
May 23, 2018: NeuroImage
Arielle Baker, Brian Kalmbach, Mieko Morishima, Juhyun Kim, Ashley Juavinett, Nuo Li, Nikolai Dembrow
Neocortical pyramidal neurons with somata in layers 5 and 6 are among the most visually striking and enigmatic neurons in the brain. These deep-layer pyramidal neurons (DLPNs) integrate a plethora of cortical and extracortical synaptic inputs along their impressive dendritic arbors. The pattern of cortical output to both local and long-distance targets is sculpted by the unique physiological properties of specific DLPN subpopulations. Here we revisit two broad DLPN subpopulations: those that send their axons within the telencephalon (intratelencephalic, or IT neurons) and those that project to additional target areas outside the telencephalon (extratelencephalic, or ET neurons)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hiroyuki Hioki, Jaerin Sohn, Hisashi Nakamura, Shinichiro Okamoto, Jungwon Hwang, Yoko Ishida, Megumu Takahashi, Hiroshi Kameda
Parvalbumin-positive (PV+) neurons in the cerebral cortex, mostly corresponding to fast-spiking basket cells, have been implicated in higher-order brain functions and psychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that the somatic compartment of PV+ neurons received inhibitory inputs mainly from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)+ neurons, whereas inhibitory inputs to the dendritic compartment were derived mostly from PV+ and somatostatin (SOM)+ neurons. However, a substantial number of the axosomatic inputs have remained unidentified...
May 21, 2018: Brain Research
Frances Y Cheng, Jonathan T Fleming, Chin Chiang
Neuronal-glial relationships play a critical role in the maintenance of central nervous system architecture and neuronal specification. A deeper understanding of these relationships can elucidate cellular cross-talk capable of sustaining proper development of neural tissues. In the cerebellum, cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs) proliferate in response to Purkinje neuron-derived Sonic hedgehog (Shh) before ultimately exiting the cell cycle and migrating radially along Bergmann glial fibers. However, the function of Bergmann glia in CGNP proliferation remains not well defined...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
Fanny Sandrine Martineau, Surajit Sahu, Vanessa Plantier, Emmanuelle Buhler, Fabienne Schaller, Lauriane Fournier, Geneviève Chazal, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Alfonso Represa, Françoise Watrin, Jean-Bernard Manent
The neocortex is a 6-layered laminated structure with a precise anatomical and functional organization ensuring proper function. Laminar positioning of cortical neurons, as determined by termination of neuronal migration, is a key determinant of their ability to assemble into functional circuits. However, the exact contribution of laminar placement to dendrite morphogenesis and synapse formation remains unclear. Here we manipulated the laminar position of cortical neurons by knocking down doublecortin (Dcx), a crucial effector of migration, and show that misplaced neurons fail to properly form dendrites, spines, and functional glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses...
May 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Satoshi Kamijo, Yuichiro Ishii, Shin-Ichiro Horigane, Kanzo Suzuki, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Hajime Fujii, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura, Haruhiko Bito
In spite of many association studies linking gene polymorphisms and mutations of L-type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels (VGCC) in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, specific L-type VGCC roles during brain development remain unclear. Yet, calcium signaling has been shown to be essential for neurodevelopmental processes such as sculpting of neurites, functional wiring and fine tuning of growing networks. To bridge this gap, we performed submembraneous calcium imaging using a membrane-tethered genetically-encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Lck-G-CaMP7...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Erhan Genç, Christoph Fraenz, Caroline Schlüter, Patrick Friedrich, Rüdiger Hossiep, Manuel C Voelkle, Josef M Ling, Onur Güntürkün, Rex E Jung
Previous research has demonstrated that individuals with higher intelligence are more likely to have larger gray matter volume in brain areas predominantly located in parieto-frontal regions. These findings were usually interpreted to mean that individuals with more cortical brain volume possess more neurons and thus exhibit more computational capacity during reasoning. In addition, neuroimaging studies have shown that intelligent individuals, despite their larger brains, tend to exhibit lower rates of brain activity during reasoning...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Masahito Yamagata, Xin Duan, Joshua R Sanes
Classical cadherins, a set of ~20 related recognition and signaling molecules, have been implicated in many aspects of neural development, including the formation and remodeling of synapses. Mechanisms underlying some of these steps have been studied by expressing N-cadherin ( cdh2 ), a Type 1 cadherin, in heterologous cells, but analysis is complicated because widely used lines express cdh2 endogenously. We used CRISPR-mediated gene editing to generate a Human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 variant lacking Cdh2, then compared the behavior of rodent cortical and hippocampal neurons co-cultured with parental, cdh2 mutant and cdh2 -rescued 293 lines...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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