keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cortical dendrite

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428560/combination-of-high-density-microelectrode-array-and-patch-clamp-recordings-to-enable-studies-of-multisynaptic-integration
#1
David Jäckel, Douglas J Bakkum, Thomas L Russell, Jan Müller, Milos Radivojevic, Urs Frey, Felix Franke, Andreas Hierlemann
We present a novel, all-electric approach to record and to precisely control the activity of tens of individual presynaptic neurons. The method allows for parallel mapping of the efficacy of multiple synapses and of the resulting dynamics of postsynaptic neurons in a cortical culture. For the measurements, we combine an extracellular high-density microelectrode array, featuring 11'000 electrodes for extracellular recording and stimulation, with intracellular patch-clamp recording. We are able to identify the contributions of individual presynaptic neurons - including inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs - to postsynaptic potentials, which enables us to study dendritic integration...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425622/targeted-disruption-of-nf1-in-osteocyte-increases-fgf23-and-osteoid-with-osteomalacia-like-bone-phenotype
#2
Nobuhiro Kamiya, Ryosuke Yamaguchi, Olumide Aruwajoye, Audrey Kim, Gen Kuroyanagi, Matthew Phipps, Naga Suresh Adapala, Jian Q Feng, Harry K W Kim
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, OMIM 162200), caused by NF1 gene mutations, exhibits multi-system abnormalities including skeletal deformities in humans. Osteocytes play critical roles in controlling bone modeling and remodeling. However, the role of neurofibromin, the protein product of the NF1 gene, in osteocytes is largely unknown. This study investigated the role of neurofibromin in osteocytes by disrupting Nf1 under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (Nf1 cKO) mice displayed serum profile of a metabolic bone disorder with an osteomalacia-like bone phenotype...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408745/sumoylation-of-foxp1-regulates-transcriptional-repression-via-ctbp1-to-drive-dendritic-morphogenesis
#3
Daniel L Rocca, Kevin A Wilkinson, Jeremy M Henley
Forkhead Box P (FOXP) transcriptional repressors play a major role in brain development and their dysfunction leads to human cognitive disorders. However, little is known about how the activity of these proteins is regulated. Here, we show that FOXP1 SUMOylation at lysine 670 is required for recruiting the co-repressor CtBP1 and transcriptional repression. FOXP1 SUMOylation is tightly controlled by neuronal activity, in which synapse to nucleus signalling, mediated via NMDAR and L-type calcium channels, results in rapid FOXP1 deSUMOylation...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408410/decreased-cohesin-in-the-brain-leads-to-defective-synapse-development-and-anxiety-related-behavior
#4
Yuki Fujita, Koji Masuda, Masashige Bando, Ryuichiro Nakato, Yuki Katou, Takashi Tanaka, Masahiro Nakayama, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Tatsunori Tanaka, Yukio Ago, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Toshihide Yamashita
Abnormal epigenetic regulation can cause the nervous system to develop abnormally. Here, we sought to understand the mechanism by which this occurs by investigating the protein complex cohesin, which is considered to regulate gene expression and, when defective, is associated with higher-level brain dysfunction and the developmental disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). We generated conditional Smc3-knockout mice and observed greater dendritic complexity and larger numbers of immature synapses in the cerebral cortex of Smc3(+/-) mice...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404816/pick1-ca-2-sensor-modulates-nmda-receptor-dependent-microrna-mediated-translational-repression-in-neurons
#5
Dipen Rajgor, Maria Fiuza, Gabrielle T Parkinson, Jonathan G Hanley
miRNAs are important regulators of localized mRNA translation in neuronal dendrites. The presence of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) proteins in these compartments and the dynamic miRNA expression changes that occur in response to neuronal stimulation highlights their importance in synaptic plasticity. Previously we demonstrated a novel interaction between the major RISC component Argounaute-2 (Ago2) and the BAR-domain protein PICK1. PICK1 recruits Ago2 to recycling endosomes in dendrites, where it inhibits miRNA-mediated translational repression...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391401/morphological-and-physiological-properties-of-cck-cb1r-expressing-interneurons-in-the-basal-amygdala
#6
Laura Rovira-Esteban, Zoltán Péterfi, Attila Vikór, Zoltán Máté, Gábor Szabó, Norbert Hájos
Principal neurons in cortical regions including the basal nucleus of the amygdala (BA) are innervated by several types of inhibitory cells, one of which expresses the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) and the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R). CCK/CB1R-expressing interneurons may have a profound impact on amygdalar function by controlling its output. However, very little is known about their properties, and therefore their role in circuit operation cannot be predicted. To characterize the CCK/CB1R-expressing interneurons in the BA, we combined in vitro electrophysiological recordings and neuroanatomical techniques in a transgenic mouse that expresses DsRed fluorescent protein under the control of the CCK promoter...
April 8, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377701/breaking-the-excitation-inhibition-balance-makes-the-cortical-network-s-space-time-dynamics-distinguish-simple-visual-scenes
#7
Per E Roland, Lars H Bonde, Lars E Forsberg, Michael A Harvey
Brain dynamics are often taken to be temporal dynamics of spiking and membrane potentials in a balanced network. Almost all evidence for a balanced network comes from recordings of cell bodies of few single neurons, neglecting more than 99% of the cortical network. We examined the space-time dynamics of excitation and inhibition simultaneously in dendrites and axons over four visual areas of ferrets exposed to visual scenes with stationary and moving objects. The visual stimuli broke the tight balance between excitation and inhibition such that the network exhibited longer episodes of net excitation subsequently balanced by net inhibition, in contrast to a balanced network...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367964/action-potential-initiation-in-a-two-compartment-model-of-pyramidal-neuron-mediated-by-dendritic-ca-2-spike
#8
Guosheng Yi, Jiang Wang, Xile Wei, Bin Deng
Dendritic Ca(2+) spike endows cortical pyramidal cell with powerful ability of synaptic integration, which is critical for neuronal computation. Here we propose a two-compartment conductance-based model to investigate how the Ca(2+) activity of apical dendrite participates in the action potential (AP) initiation to affect the firing properties of pyramidal neurons. We have shown that the apical input with sufficient intensity triggers a dendritic Ca(2+) spike, which significantly boosts dendritic inputs as it propagates to soma...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364547/stable-functional-networks-exhibit-consistent-timing-in-the-human-brain
#9
Julio I Chapeton, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Despite many advances in the study of large-scale human functional networks, the question of timing, stability, and direction of communication between cortical regions has not been fully addressed. At the cellular level, neuronal communication occurs through axons and dendrites, and the time required for such communication is well defined and preserved. At larger spatial scales, however, the relationship between timing, direction, and communication between brain regions is less clear. Here, we use a measure of effective connectivity to identify connections between brain regions that exhibit communication with consistent timing...
March 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359537/macrophage-density-in-early-surveillance-biopsies-predicts-future-renal-transplant-function
#10
Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Abedalrazag Khalifa, Jessica Schmitz, Wei Dai, Gunilla Einecke, Anke Schwarz, Michael Hallensleben, Bernhard M W Schmidt, Hans H Kreipe, Hermann Haller, Sibylle von Vietinghoff
Inflammation impairs renal allograft survival but is difficult to quantify by eye at low densities. Here we measured leukocyte abundance in early surveillance biopsies by digital image analysis to test for a role of chemokine receptor genotypes and analyze the predictive value of leukocyte subsets to allograft function. In six-week surveillance biopsies, T-cell (CD3), B-cell (CD20), macrophage (CD68), and dendritic cell (CD209) densities were assessed in whole slide scans. Renal cortical CD3, CD20, and CD68 were significantly higher in histologic rejection...
March 27, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359322/mutation-of-kinesin-6-kif20b-causes-defects-in-cortical-neuron-polarization-and-morphogenesis
#11
Katrina C McNeely, Timothy D Cupp, Jessica Neville Little, Kerstin M Janisch, Ayushma Shrestha, Noelle D Dwyer
BACKGROUND: How neurons change their cytoskeleton to adopt their complex polarized morphology is still not understood. Growing evidence suggests that proteins that help build microtubule structures during cell division are also involved in building and remodeling the complex cytoskeletons of neurons. Kif20b (previously called MPP1 or Mphosph1) is the most divergent member of the Kinesin-6 family of "mitotic" kinesins that also includes Kif23/MKLP1 and Kif20a/MKLP2. We previously isolated a loss-of-function mouse mutant of Kif20b and showed that it had a thalamocortical axon guidance defect and microcephaly...
March 31, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355559/altered-synapse-stability-in-the-early-stages-of-tauopathy
#12
Johanna S Jackson, Jonathan Witton, James D Johnson, Zeshan Ahmed, Mark Ward, Andrew D Randall, Michael L Hutton, John T Isaac, Michael J O'Neill, Michael C Ashby
Synapse loss is a key feature of dementia, but it is unclear whether synaptic dysfunction precedes degenerative phases of the disease. Here, we show that even before any decrease in synapse density, there is abnormal turnover of cortical axonal boutons and dendritic spines in a mouse model of tauopathy-associated dementia. Strikingly, tauopathy drives a mismatch in synapse turnover; postsynaptic spines turn over more rapidly, whereas presynaptic boutons are stabilized. This imbalance between pre- and post-synaptic stability coincides with reduced synaptically driven neuronal activity in pre-degenerative stages of the disease...
March 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351932/seeding-and-transgenic-overexpression-of-alpha-synuclein-triggers-dendritic-spine-pathology-in-the-neocortex
#13
Sonja Blumenstock, Eva F Rodrigues, Finn Peters, Lidia Blazquez-Llorca, Felix Schmidt, Armin Giese, Jochen Herms
Although misfolded and aggregated α-synuclein (α-syn) is recognized in the disease progression of synucleinopathies, its role in the impairment of cortical circuitries and synaptic plasticity remains incompletely understood. We investigated how α-synuclein accumulation affects synaptic plasticity in the mouse somatosensory cortex using two distinct approaches. Long-term in vivo imaging of apical dendrites was performed in mice overexpressing wild-type human α-synuclein. Additionally, intracranial injection of preformed α-synuclein fibrils was performed to induce cortical α-syn pathology...
March 28, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351758/the-mouse-cortical-meninges-are-the-site-of-immune-responses-to-many-different-pathogens-and-are-accessible-to-in-vivo-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan A Coles, Phillip J Stewart-Hutchinson, Elmarie Myburgh, James M Brewer
A wide range of viral and microbial infections are known to cause meningitis, and there is evidence that the meninges are the gateway to pathogenic invasion of the brain parenchyma. Hence observation of these regions has wide application to understanding host-pathogen interactions. Interactions between pathogens and cells of the immune response can be modified by changes in their environment, such as suppression of the flow of blood and lymph, and, particularly in the case of the meninges with their unsupported membranes, invasive dissection can alter the tissue architecture...
March 25, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348514/postnatal-dendritic-growth-and-spinogenesis-of-layer-v-pyramidal-cells-differ-between-visual-inferotemporal-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-the-macaque-monkey
#15
Tomofumi Oga, Guy N Elston, Ichiro Fujita
Pyramidal cells in the primate cerebral cortex, particularly those in layer III, exhibit regional variation in both the time course and magnitude of postnatal growth and pruning of dendrites and spines. Less is known about the development of pyramidal cell dendrites and spines in other cortical layers. Here we studied dendritic morphology of layer-V pyramidal cells in primary visual cortex (V1, sensory), cytoarchitectonic area TE in the inferotemporal cortex (sensory association), and granular prefrontal cortex (Walker's area 12, executive) of macaque monkeys at the ages of 2 days, 3 weeks, 3...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338985/regulatory-mechanisms-and-cellular-functions-of-non-centrosomal-microtubules
#16
Michiru Nishita, Tomoko Satake, Yasuhiro Minami, Atsushi Suzuki
Proper organization of microtubule (MT) arrays is essential for numerous cellular functions, including intracellular transport and cell migration. Although the centrosome generally serves as the primary MT organizing center in proliferating animal cells, MTs are also organized at the Golgi apparatus in a wide range of cell types to regulate Golgi ribbon formation that is required for polarized cell migration. Furthermore, differentiated epithelial cells and neurons possess organized non-centrosomal MTs predominantly at the apical cortical regions and the axonal and dendritic neurites, respectively, to establish and maintain their highly polarized morphology...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337771/5-ht7-receptor-shapes-spinogenesis-in-cortical-and-striatal-neurons-an-editorial-highlight-for-serotonin-5-ht7-receptor-increases-the-density-of-dendritic-spines-and-facilitates-synaptogenesis-in-forebrain-neurons
#17
EDITORIAL
Philippe Marin, Alexander Dityatev
Read the highlighted article 'Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor increases the density of dendritic spines and facilitates synaptogenesis in forebrain neurons' on doi: 10.1111/jnc.13962.
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#18
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327181/soluble-oligomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-induces-calcium-dyshomeostasis-that-precedes-synapse-loss-in-the-living-mouse-brain
#19
Michal Arbel-Ornath, Eloise Hudry, Josiah R Boivin, Tadafumi Hashimoto, Shuko Takeda, Kishore V Kuchibhotla, Steven Hou, Carli R Lattarulo, Arianna M Belcher, Naomi Shakerdge, Pariss B Trujillo, Alona Muzikansky, Rebecca A Betensky, Bradley T Hyman, Brian J Bacskai
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β oligomers (oAβ) are thought to mediate neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and previous studies in AD transgenic mice suggest that calcium dysregulation may contribute to these pathological effects. Even though AD mouse models remain a valuable resource to investigate amyloid neurotoxicity, the concomitant presence of soluble Aβ species, fibrillar Aβ, and fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP) complicate the interpretation of the phenotypes. METHOD: To explore the specific contribution of soluble oligomeric Aβ (oAβ) to calcium dyshomeostasis and synaptic morphological changes, we acutely exposed the healthy mouse brain, at 3 to 6 months of age, to naturally occurring soluble oligomers and investigated their effect on calcium levels using in vivo multiphoton imaging...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326020/pyramidal-neurons-are-not-generalizable-building-blocks-of-cortical-networks
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer I Luebke
A key challenge in cortical neuroscience is to gain a comprehensive understanding of how pyramidal neuron heterogeneity across different areas and species underlies the functional specialization of individual neurons, networks, and areas. Comparative studies have been important in this endeavor, providing data relevant to the question of which of the many inherent properties of individual pyramidal neurons are necessary and sufficient for species-specific network and areal function. In this mini review, the importance of pyramidal neuron structural properties for signaling are outlined, followed by a summary of our recent work comparing the structural features of mouse (C57/BL6 strain) and rhesus monkey layer 3 (L3) pyramidal neurons in primary visual and frontal association cortices and their implications for neuronal and areal function...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
keyword
keyword
27521
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"