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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909098/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#1
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under such pathological conditions as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries ranging from severe to mild...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901063/regulation-of-%C3%AE-2b-adrenergic-receptor-cell-surface-transport-by-gga1-and-gga2
#2
Maoxiang Zhang, Wei Huang, Jie Gao, Alvin V Terry, Guangyu Wu
The molecular mechanisms that control the targeting of newly synthesized G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the functional destinations remain poorly elucidated. Here, we have determined the role of Golgi-localized, γ-adaptin ear domain homology, ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins 1 and 2 (GGA1 and GGA2) in the cell surface transport of α2B-adrenergic receptor (α2B-AR), a prototypic GPCR, and studied the underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that knockdown of GGA1 and GGA2 by shRNA and siRNA significantly reduced the cell surface expression of inducibly expressed α2B-AR and arrested the receptor in the perinuclear region...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897242/cortical-synaptic-and-dendritic-spine-abnormalities-in-a-presymptomatic-tdp-43-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
Matthew J Fogarty, Paul M Klenowski, John D Lee, Joy R Drieberg-Thompson, Selena E Bartlett, Shyuan T Ngo, Massimo A Hilliard, Mark C Bellingham, Peter G Noakes
Layer V pyramidal neurons (LVPNs) within the motor cortex integrate sensory cues and co-ordinate voluntary control of motor output. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) LVPNs and spinal motor neurons degenerate. The pathogenesis of neural degeneration is unknown in ALS; 10% of cases have a genetic cause, whereas 90% are sporadic, with most of the latter showing TDP-43 inclusions. Clinical and experimental evidence implicate excitotoxicity as a prime aetiological candidate. Using patch clamp and dye-filling techniques in brain slices, combined with high-resolution confocal microscopy, we report increased excitatory synaptic inputs and dendritic spine densities in early presymptomatic mice carrying a TDP-43(Q331K) mutation...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897179/parvalbumin-and-vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-expressing-neocortical-interneurons-impose-differential-inhibition-on-martinotti-cells
#4
F Walker, M Möck, M Feyerabend, J Guy, R J Wagener, D Schubert, J F Staiger, M Witte
Disinhibition of cortical excitatory cell gate information flow through and between cortical columns. The major contribution of Martinotti cells (MC) is providing dendritic inhibition to excitatory neurons and therefore they are a main component of disinhibitory connections. Here we show by means of optogenetics that MC in layers II/III of the mouse primary somatosensory cortex are inhibited by both parvalbumin (PV)- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing cells. Paired recordings revealed stronger synaptic input onto MC from PV cells than from VIP cells...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896314/graph-theoretic-and-motif-analyses-of-the-hippocampal-neuron-type-potential-connectome
#5
Christopher L Rees, Diek W Wheeler, David J Hamilton, Charise M White, Alexander O Komendantov, Giorgio A Ascoli
We computed the potential connectivity map of all known neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation by supplementing scantly available synaptic data with spatial distributions of axons and dendrites from the open-access knowledge base Hippocampome.org. The network that results from this endeavor, the broadest and most complete for a mammalian cortical region at the neuron-type level to date, contains more than 3200 connections among 122 neuron types across six subregions. Analyses of these data using graph theory metrics unveil the fundamental architectural principles of the hippocampal circuit...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893396/enhanced-control-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-with-micro-magnetic-stimulation
#6
Seung Woo Lee, Shelley Fried
Magnetic stimulation is less sensitive to the inflammatory reactions that plague conventional electrode-based cortical implants and therefore may be useful as a next-generation (implanted) cortical prosthetic. The fields arising from micro-coils are quite small however and thus, their ability to modulate cortical activity must first be established. Here, we show that layer V pyramidal neurons (PNs) can be strongly activated by micro-coil stimulation and further, the asymmetric fields arising from such coils do not simultaneously activate horizontally -oriented axon fibers, thus confining activation to a focal region around the coil...
November 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890828/alterations-of-motor-cortical-microcircuit-in-a-depressive-like-mouse-model-produced-by-light-deprivation
#7
Yun-Feng Zhang, Qi-Qin Li, Jia Qu, Cui-Min Sun, Yun Wang
Depression is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illness. The heavy social burden imposed by this disorder calls for a better understanding of its pathogenesis. Light deficiency is an important factor potentially leading to depression. However, how the light deficiency affects neural microcircuit underlying depression remains largely unknown. This study investigated the properties of morphology, electrophysiology, and synaptology of layer V pyramidal cells (L5PCs) in the motor cortex of a mouse model with depressive behavioral phenotype that was produced by light deprivation (LD)...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884769/upregulation-of-cd74-and-its-potential-association-with-disease-severity-in-subjects-with-ischemic-stroke
#8
Liu Yang, Ying Kong, Honglei Ren, Minshu Li, Chang-Juan Wei, Elaine Shi, Wei-Na Jin, Junwei Hao, Arthur A Vandenbark, Halina Offner
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key cytokine/chemokine in the activation and recruitment of inflammatory T lymphocytes known to exacerbate experimental stroke severity. MIF effects are mediated through its primary cellular receptor, CD74, the MHC class II invariant chain present on all class II expressing cells, including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). We demonstrated previously that partial MHC class II/peptide constructs (pMHC) can effectively treat mice with experimental stroke, in part through their ability to competitively inhibit MIF/CD74 interactions and downstream signaling...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847649/neuregulin-1-regulates-cortical-inhibitory-neuron-dendrite-and-synapse-growth-through-disc1
#9
Brianna K Unda, Vickie Kwan, Karun K Singh
Cortical inhibitory neurons play crucial roles in regulating excitatory synaptic networks and cognitive function and aberrant development of these cells have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. The secreted neurotrophic factor Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are established regulators of inhibitory neuron connectivity, but the developmental signalling mechanisms regulating this process remain poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that NRG1-ErbB4 signalling functions through the multifunctional scaffold protein, Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), to regulate the development of cortical inhibitory interneuron dendrite and synaptic growth...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833158/the-role-of-posttraumatic-hypothermia-in-preventing-dendrite-degeneration-and-spine-loss-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Chuan-Fang Wang, Cheng-Cheng Zhao, Gan Jiang, Xiao Gu, Jun-Feng Feng, Ji-Yao Jiang
Posttraumatic hypothermia prevents cell death and promotes functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known regarding the effect of hypothermia on dendrite degeneration and spine loss after severe TBI. In the present study, we used thy1-GFP transgenic mice to investigate the effect of hypothermia on the dendrites and spines in layer V/VI of the ipsilateral cortex after severe TBI. We found that hypothermia (33 °C) dramatically prevented dendrite degeneration and spine loss 1 and 7 days after CCI...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832100/wiring-economy-of-pyramidal-cells-in-the-juvenile-rat-somatosensory-cortex
#11
Laura Anton-Sanchez, Concha Bielza, Pedro Larrañaga, Javier DeFelipe
Ever since Cajal hypothesized that the structure of neurons is designed in such a way as to save space, time and matter, numerous researchers have analyzed wiring properties at different scales of brain organization. Here we test the hypothesis that individual pyramidal cells, the most abundant type of neuron in the cerebral cortex, optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. In this study, we analyze the neuronal wiring of complete basal arborizations of pyramidal neurons in layer II, III, IV, Va, Vb and VI of the hindlimb somatosensory cortical region of postnatal day 14 rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829159/dixdc1-phosphorylation-and-control-of-dendritic-morphology-are-impaired-by-rare-genetic-variants
#12
Vickie Kwan, Durga Praveen Meka, Sean H White, Claudia L Hung, Nicholas T Holzapfel, Susan Walker, Nadeem Murtaza, Brianna K Unda, Birgit Schwanke, Ryan K C Yuen, Kendra Habing, Chloe Milsom, Kristin J Hope, Ray Truant, Stephen W Scherer, Froylan Calderon de Anda, Karun K Singh
The development of neural connectivity is essential for brain function, and disruption of this process is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). DIX domain containing 1 (DIXDC1) has previously been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its role in postnatal brain function remains unknown. Using a knockout mouse model, we determined that DIXDC1 is a regulator of excitatory neuron dendrite development and synapse function in the cortex. We discovered that MARK1, previously linked to ASDs, phosphorylates DIXDC1 to regulate dendrite and spine development through modulation of the cytoskeletal network in an isoform-specific manner...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822498/the-x-linked-autism-protein-kiaa2022-kidlia-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-via-n-cadherin-and-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#13
James Gilbert, Heng-Ye Man
Our previous work showed that loss of the KIAA2022 gene protein results in intellectual disability with language impairment and autistic behavior (KIDLIA, also referred to as XPN). However, the cellular and molecular alterations resulting from a loss of function of KIDLIA and its role in autism with severe intellectual disability remain unknown. Here, we show that KIDLIA plays a key role in neuron migration and morphogenesis. We found that KIDLIA is distributed exclusively in the nucleus. In the developing rat brain, it is expressed only in the cortical plate and subplate region but not in the intermediate or ventricular zone...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819256/long-term-stability-of-intracortical-recordings-using-perforated-and-arrayed-parylene-sheath-electrodes
#14
Seth A Hara, Brian J Kim, Jonathan T W Kuo, Curtis D Lee, Ellis Meng, Victor Pikov
OBJECTIVE: Acquisition of reliable and robust neural recordings with intracortical neural probes is a persistent challenge in the field of neuroprosthetics. We developed a multielectrode array technology to address chronic intracortical recording reliability and present in vivo recording results. APPROACH: The 2 × 2 Parylene sheath electrode array (PSEA) was microfabricated and constructed from only Parylene C and platinum. The probe includes a novel three-dimensional sheath structure, perforations, and bioactive coatings that improve tissue integration and manage immune response...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814574/the-dendritic-tree-a-mathematical-integrator
#15
Lyes Bachatene, Vishal Bharmauria
Neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) are sensitive to simple features of the visual scene such as contrast, spatial frequency or orientations. In higher mammals, they are organized into columns of orientation-preference, whereas such organization is absent in rodents. However, in both types of organization, neurons can be highly selective or poorly selective for a particular stimulus. In mouse V1, it has been shown that all stimuli are represented on the dendritic tree of single neurons. To what extent this concept is applicable in higher mammals? In this review, we discuss possible models of integrating visual information from visual cortical neurons...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798269/transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-induces-rapid-and-sustained-reorganization-of-synaptic-structures
#16
Lirui Zhu, Lei Wang, Furong Ju, Yanli Ran, Cong Wang, Shengxiang Zhang
Ischemia can cause rapid neuronal damage. Previous studies have suggested that synaptic structures and cortical functions can be rescued if therapeutic interventions are applied in time, but the structural basis for this resilience remains incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the restoration of synaptic structures and postischemic plasticity of dendritic spines in the somatosensory cortices of mice by taking advantage of a reversible global cerebral ischemia model. Intravital two-photon imaging revealed that although dendritic structures were rapidly distorted after global ischemia, only a small percentage of spines were actually lost after transient ischemia...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798127/balancing-dendrite-morphogenesis-and-neuronal-migration-during-cortical-development
#17
Shan Meltzer, Chao Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787853/regulation-of-cortical-dendrite-morphology-and-spine-organization-by-secreted-semaphorins-a-primary-culture-approach
#18
Sheng-Shiang Peng, Tracy S Tran
Primary tissue culture is an invaluable technique in cell biology and has a long history in demonstrating its versatility in characterizing cellular morphology, function, and behavior. Here, we describe a modified, low density, long-term, primary neuron culture system to characterize dendritic morphology and synaptic spine organization in developing mouse cortical neurons. While this method can be applied to investigate the signaling pathways of a range of extracellular cues' effect on neuronal development, we focus on how distinct secreted semaphorins regulate dendritic elaboration and spine morphogenesis in deep layer cortical neurons...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784858/reproductive-experience-modified-dendritic-spines-on-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-to-enhance-sensory-perception-and-spatial-learning-in-rats
#19
Jeng-Rung Chen, Seh Hong Lim, Sin-Cun Chung, Yee-Fun Lee, Yueh-Jan Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng, Tsyr-Jiuan Wan
Behavioral adaptations during motherhood are aimed at increasing reproductive success. Alterations of hormones during motherhood could trigger brain morphological changes to underlie behavioral alterations. Here we investigated whether motherhood changes a rat's sensory perception and spatial memory in conjunction with cortical neuronal structural changes. Female rats of different statuses, including virgin, pregnant, lactating, and primiparous rats were studied. Behavioral test showed that the lactating rats were most sensitive to heat, while rats with motherhood and reproduction experience outperformed virgin rats in a water maze task...
October 25, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783592/transplanted-embryonic-neurons-integrate-into-adult-neocortical-circuits
#20
Susanne Falkner, Sofia Grade, Leda Dimou, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Magdalena Götz, Mark Hübener
The ability of the adult mammalian brain to compensate for neuronal loss caused by injury or disease is very limited. Transplantation aims to replace lost neurons, but the extent to which new neurons can integrate into existing circuits is unknown. Here, using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging, we show that embryonic neurons transplanted into the visual cortex of adult mice mature into bona fide pyramidal cells with selective pruning of basal dendrites, achieving adult-like densities of dendritic spines and axonal boutons within 4-8 weeks...
October 26, 2016: Nature
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