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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649195/modulating-stdp-balance-impacts-the-dendritic-mosaic
#1
Nicolangelo Iannella, Thomas Launey
The ability for cortical neurons to adapt their input/output characteristics and information processing capabilities ultimately relies on the interplay between synaptic plasticity, synapse location, and the nonlinear properties of the dendrite. Collectively, they shape both the strengths and spatial arrangements of convergent afferent inputs to neuronal dendrites. Recent experimental and theoretical studies support a clustered plasticity model, a view that synaptic plasticity promotes the formation of clusters or hotspots of synapses sharing similar properties...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#2
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638323/sortilin-fragments-deposit-at-senile-plaques-in-human-cerebrum
#3
Xia Hu, Zhao-Lan Hu, Zheng Li, Chun-Sheng Ruan, Wen-Ying Qiu, Aihua Pan, Chang-Qi Li, Yan Cai, Lu Shen, Yaping Chu, Bei-Sha Tang, Huaibin Cai, Xin-Fu Zhou, Chao Ma, Xiao-Xin Yan
Genetic variations in the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we demonstrate deposition of fragments from the Vps10p member sortilin at senile plaques (SPs) in aged and AD human cerebrum. Sortilin changes were characterized in postmortem brains with antibodies against the extracellular and intracellular C-terminal domains. The two antibodies exhibited identical labeling in normal human cerebrum, occurring in the somata and dendrites of cortical and hippocampal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637841/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-mediates-the-sema3a-induced-cortical-basal-dendritic-arborization-through-the-activation-of-fyn-tyrosine-kinase
#4
Fumio Nakamura, Takako Okada, Maria Shishikura, Noriko Uetani, Masahiko Taniguchi, Takeshi Yagi, Yoichiro Iwakura, Toshio Ohshima, Yoshio Goshima, Stephen M Strittmatter
Leukocyte common antigen related (LAR) class protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are critical for axonal guidance; however, their relation to specific guidance cues is poorly defined. We here show that PTP-3, LAR homologue in C. elegans, is involved in axon guidance regulated by Sema2A-signaling. PTPδ, one of vertebrate LAR class PTPs, participates in Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse response of primary cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from M. musculus embryos. In vivo, however, the contribution of PTPδ in Sema3A-regualted axon guidance was minimal...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634086/towards-building-a-more-complex-view-of-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-recent-advances-in-understanding-its-role
#5
REVIEW
Masoud Ghodrati, Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi, Sidney R Lehky
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has often been treated in the past as a linear filter that adds little to retinal processing of visual inputs. Here we review anatomical, neurophysiological, brain imaging, and modeling studies that have in recent years built up a much more complex view of LGN. These include effects related to nonlinear dendritic processing, cortical feedback, synchrony and oscillations across LGN populations, as well as involvement of LGN in higher level cognitive processing Although recent studies have provided valuable insights into early visual processing including the role of LGN, a unified model of LGN responses to real-world objects has not yet been developed...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623134/dysfunction-in-diurnal-synaptic-responses-and-social-behavior-abnormalities-in-cathepsin-s-deficient-mice
#6
Fumiko Takayama, Xinwen Zhang, Yoshinori Hayashi, Zhou Wu, Hiroshi Nakanishi
The expression of cathepsin S (CatS), a microglia-specific lysosomal cysteine protease in the brain, is regulated by the intrinsic microglial circadian clock. We herein report that the diurnal variation of evoked synaptic responses of cortical neurons disappeared in cathepsin S-deficient (CatS(-/-)) mice. The dendritic spine density of the cortical neurons was significantly reduced by incubation with a recombinant CatS. Furthermore, CatS(-/-) mice exhibited impaired social interaction and social novelty recognition in the three-chamber test...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620074/regulatory-bc1-rna-in-cognitive-control
#7
Anna Iacoangeli, Aderemi Dosunmu, Taesun Eom, Dimitre G Stefanov, Henri Tiedge
Dendritic regulatory BC1 RNA is a non-protein-coding (npc) RNA that operates in the translational control of gene expression. The absence of BC1 RNA in BC1 knockout (KO) animals causes translational dysregulation that entails neuronal phenotypic alterations including prolonged epileptiform discharges, audiogenic seizure activity in vivo, and excessive cortical oscillations in the γ frequency band. Here we asked whether BC1 RNA control is also required for higher brain functions such as learning, memory, or cognition...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616095/acamprosate-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-modulation-of-spontaneous-cortical-activity-erk1-2-activation-locomotor-behavior-and-anxiety
#8
Tori L Schaefer, Matthew H Davenport, Lindsay M Grainger, Chandler K Robinson, Anthony T Earnheart, Melinda S Stegman, Anna L Lang, Amy A Ashworth, Gemma Molinaro, Kimberly M Huber, Craig A Erickson
BACKGROUND: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) occurs as a result of a silenced fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) and subsequent loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. Loss of FMRP alters excitatory/inhibitory signaling balance, leading to increased neuronal hyperexcitability and altered behavior. Acamprosate (the calcium salt of N-acetylhomotaurinate), a drug FDA-approved for relapse prevention in the treatment of alcohol dependence in adults, is a novel agent with multiple mechanisms that may be beneficial for people with FXS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601603/enhanced-classical-complement-pathway-activation-and-altered-phagocytosis-signaling-molecules-in-human-epilepsy
#9
Season K Wyatt, Thomas Witt, Nicholas M Barbaro, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, Amy L Brewster
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is widely associated with seizures and epilepsy. Although microglial cells are professional phagocytes, less is known about the status of this phenotype in epilepsy. Recent evidence supports that phagocytosis-associated molecules from the classical complement (C1q-C3) play novel roles in microglia-mediated synaptic pruning. Interestingly, in human and experimental epilepsy, altered mRNA levels of complement molecules were reported. Therefore, to identify a potential role for complement and microglia in the synaptodendritic pathology of epilepsy, we determined the protein levels of classical complement proteins (C1q-C3) along with other phagocytosis signaling molecules in human epilepsy...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600739/association-of-longitudinal-white-matter-degeneration-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-neurodegeneration-inflammation-and-alzheimer-s-disease-in-late-middle-aged-adults
#10
Annie M Racine, Andrew P Merluzzi, Nagesh Adluru, Derek Norton, Rebecca L Koscik, Lindsay R Clark, Sara E Berman, Christopher R Nicholas, Sanjay Asthana, Andrew L Alexander, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Won Hwa Kim, Vikas Singh, Cynthia M Carlsson, Barbara B Bendlin, Sterling C Johnson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by substantial neurodegeneration, including both cortical atrophy and loss of underlying white matter fiber tracts. Understanding longitudinal alterations to white matter may provide new insights into trajectories of brain change in both healthy aging and AD, and fluid biomarkers may be particularly useful in this effort. To examine this, 151 late-middle-aged participants enriched with risk for AD with at least one lumbar puncture and two diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were selected for analysis from two large observational and longitudinally followed cohorts...
June 9, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599119/dendrites-enable-a-robust-mechanism-for-neuronal-stimulus-selectivity
#11
Romain D Cazé, Sarah Jarvis, Amanda J Foust, Simon R Schultz
Hearing, vision, touch: underlying all of these senses is stimulus selectivity, a robust information processing operation in which cortical neurons respond more to some stimuli than to others. Previous models assume that these neurons receive the highest weighted input from an ensemble encoding the preferred stimulus, but dendrites enable other possibilities. Nonlinear dendritic processing can produce stimulus selectivity based on the spatial distribution of synapses, even if the total preferred stimulus weight does not exceed that of nonpreferred stimuli...
June 9, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593193/differential-expression-and-cell-type-specificity-of-perineuronal-nets-in-hippocampus-medial-entorhinal-cortex-and-visual-cortex-examined-in-the-rat-and-mouse
#12
Kristian Kinden Lensjø, Ane Charlotte Christensen, Simen Tennøe, Marianne Fyhn, Torkel Hafting
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that condense around the soma and proximal dendrites of subpopulations of neurons. Emerging evidence suggests that they are involved in regulating brain plasticity. However, the expression of PNNs varies between and within brain areas. A lack of quantitative studies describing the distribution and cell-specificity of PNNs makes it difficult to reveal the functional roles of PNNs. In the current study, we examine the distribution of PNNs and the identity of PNN-enwrapped neurons in three brain areas with different cognitive functions: the dorsal hippocampus, medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) and primary visual cortex (V1)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588454/reelin-signaling-inactivates-cofilin-to-stabilize-the-cytoskeleton-of-migrating-cortical-neurons
#13
REVIEW
Michael Frotscher, Shanting Zhao, Shaobo Wang, Xuejun Chai
Neurons are highly polarized cells. They give rise to several dendrites but only one axon. In addition, many neurons show a preferred orientation. For example, pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex extend their apical dendrites toward the cortical surface while their axons run in opposite direction toward the white matter. This characteristic orientation reflects the migratory trajectory of a pyramidal cell during cortical development: the leading process (the future apical dendrite) extends toward the marginal zone (MZ) and the trailing process (the future axon) toward the intermediate zone (IZ) while the cells migrate radially to reach their destination in the cortical plate (CP)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588297/targeted-patching-and-dendritic-ca-2-imaging-in-nonhuman-primate-brain-in-vivo
#14
Ran Ding, Xiang Liao, Jingcheng Li, Jianxiong Zhang, Meng Wang, Yu Guang, Han Qin, Xingyi Li, Kuan Zhang, Shanshan Liang, Jiangheng Guan, Jia Lou, Hongbo Jia, Bingbo Chen, Hui Shen, Xiaowei Chen
Nonhuman primates provide an important model not only for understanding human brain but also for translational research in neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, many high-resolution techniques for recording neural activity in vivo that were initially established for rodents have not been yet applied to the nonhuman primate brain. Here, we introduce a combination of two-photon targeted patching and dendritic Ca(2+) imaging to the neocortex of adult common marmoset, an invaluable primate model for neuroscience research...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588230/characterization-of-developmental-defects-in-the-forebrain-resulting-from-hyperactivated-mtor-signaling-by-integrative-analysis-of-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-data
#15
Jiheon Shin, Minhyung Kim, Hee-Jung Jung, Hye Lim Cha, Haeyoung Suh-Kim, Sanghyun Ahn, Jaehoon Jung, YounAh Kim, Yukyung Jun, Sanghyuk Lee, Daehee Hwang, Jaesang Kim
Hyperactivated mTOR signaling in the developing brain has been implicated in multiple forms of pathology including tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). To date, various phenotypic defects such as cortical lamination irregularity, subependymal nodule formation, dysmorphic astrocyte differentiation and dendritic malformation have been described for patients and animal models. However, downstream networks affected in the developing brain by hyperactivated mTOR signaling have yet to be characterized. Here, we present an integrated analysis of transcriptomes and proteomes generated from wild-type and Tsc1/Emx1-Cre forebrains...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584888/autism-spectrum-disorder-neuropathology-and-animal-models
#16
REVIEW
Merina Varghese, Neha Keshav, Sarah Jacot-Descombes, Tahia Warda, Bridget Wicinski, Dara L Dickstein, Hala Harony-Nicolas, Silvia De Rubeis, Elodie Drapeau, Joseph D Buxbaum, Patrick R Hof
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a major impact on the development and social integration of affected individuals and is the most heritable of psychiatric disorders. An increase in the incidence of ASD cases has prompted a surge in research efforts on the underlying neuropathologic processes. We present an overview of current findings in neuropathology studies of ASD using two investigational approaches, postmortem human brains and ASD animal models, and discuss the overlap, limitations, and significance of each...
June 5, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576936/%C3%AE-iii-spectrin-is-necessary-for-formation-of-the-constricted-neck-of-dendritic-spines-and-regulation-of-synaptic-activity-in-neurons
#17
Nadia Efimova, Farida Korobova, Michael C Stankewich, Andrew H Moberly, Donna B Stolz, Junling Wang, Anna Kashina, Minghong Ma, Tatyana Svitkina
Dendritic spines are postsynaptic structures in neurons often having a mushroom-like shape. Physiological significance and cytoskeletal mechanisms that maintain this shape are poorly understood. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton maintains the biconcave shape of erythrocytes, but whether spectrins also determine the shape of non-erythroid cells is less clear. We show that βIII spectrin in hippocampal and cortical neurons from rodent embryos of both sexes is distributed throughout the somatodendritic compartment, but is particularly enriched in the neck and base of dendritic spines and largely absent from spine heads...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576568/early-life-exposure-to-caffeine-affects-the-construction-and-activity-of-cortical-networks-in-mice
#18
Walid Fazeli, Stefania Zappettini, Stephan Lawrence Marguet, Jasper Grendel, Monique Esclapez, Christophe Bernard, Dirk Isbrandt
The consumption of psychoactive drugs during pregnancy can have deleterious effects on newborns. It remains unclear whether early-life exposure to caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance, alters brain development. We hypothesized that maternal caffeine ingestion during pregnancy and the early postnatal period in mice affects the construction and activity of cortical networks in offspring. To test this hypothesis, we focused on primary visual cortex (V1) as a model neocortical region. In a study design mimicking the daily consumption of approximately three cups of coffee during pregnancy in humans, caffeine was added to the drinking water of female mice and their offspring were compared to control offspring...
May 30, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569780/microrna-195-prevents-dendritic-degeneration-and-neuron-death-in-rats-following-chronic-brain-hypoperfusion
#19
Xin Chen, Xue-Mei Jiang, Lin-Jing Zhao, Lin-Lin Sun, Mei-Ling Yan, You Tian, Shuai Zhang, Ming-Jing Duan, Hong-Mei Zhao, Wen-Rui Li, Yang-Yang Hao, Li-Bo Wang, Qiao-Jie Xiong, Jing Ai
Impaired synaptic plasticity and neuron loss are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Here, we found that chronic brain hypoperfusion (CBH) by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) decreased the total length, numbers and crossings of dendrites and caused neuron death in rat hippocampi and cortices. It also led to increase in N-terminal β-amyloid precursor protein (N-APP) and death receptor-6 (DR6) protein levels and in the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-6. Further study showed that DR6 protein was downregulated by miR-195 overexpression, upregulated by miR-195 inhibition, and unchanged by binding-site mutation and miR-masks...
June 1, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566465/the-stochastic-nature-of-action-potential-backpropagation-in-apical-tuft-dendrites
#20
Shaina M Short, Katerina D Oikonomou, Wen-Liang L Zhou, Corey D Acker, Marko A Popovic, Dejan Zecevic, Srdjan D Antic
In cortical pyramidal neurons, backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) supply Ca(2+) to synaptic contacts on dendrites. To determine whether the efficacy of AP backpropagation into apical tuft dendrites is stable over time, we performed dendritic Ca(2+) and voltage imaging in rat brain slices. We found that the amplitude of bAP-Ca(2+) in apical tuft branches was unstable, as it varied from trial to trial (termed "bAP-Ca(2+) flickering"). Small perturbations in dendritic physiology, such as spontaneous synaptic inputs, channel inactivation, or temperature-induced changes in channel kinetics, can cause bAP flickering...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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