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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303965/effect-of-1-8%C3%A2-ghz-radiofrequency-electromagnetic-radiation-on-novel-object-associative-recognition-memory-in-mice
#1
Kai Wang, Jun-Mei Lu, Zhen-He Xing, Qian-Ru Zhao, Lin-Qi Hu, Lei Xue, Jie Zhang, Yan-Ai Mei
Mounting evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) can influence learning and memory in rodents. In this study, we examined the effects of single exposure to 1.8 GHz RF-EMR for 30 min on subsequent recognition memory in mice, using the novel object recognition task (NORT). RF-EMR exposure at an intensity of >2.2 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) power density induced a significant density-dependent increase in NORT index with no corresponding changes in spontaneous locomotor activity...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302722/amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-transiently-inhibit-amp-activated-kinase-and-cause-metabolic-defects-in-hippocampal-neurons
#2
Gisele S Seixas da Silva, Helen M Melo, Mychael V Lourenco, Natalia de M Lyra E Silva, Marcelo B de Carvalho, Soniza Alves-Leon, Jorge M de Souza, William L Klein, Wagner S da-Silva, Sergio T Ferreira, Fernanda G De Felice
AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a key player in energy sensing and metabolic reprogramming under cellular energy restriction. Several studies have linked impaired AMPK function to peripheral metabolic diseases such as diabetes. However, the impact of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), on AMPK function and downstream effects of altered AMPK activity on neuronal metabolism have been investigated only recently. Here, we report the impact of A β oligomers (AβOs), synaptotoxins that accumulate in AD brains, on neuronal AMPK activity...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300646/developmental-changes-in-trak-mediated-mitochondrial-transport-in-neurons
#3
Omar Loss, F Anne Stephenson
Previous studies established that the kinesin adaptor proteins, TRAK1 and TRAK2, play an important role in mitochondrial transport in neurons. They link mitochondria to kinesin motor proteins via a TRAK acceptor protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane, the Rho GTPase, Miro. TRAKs also associate with enzyme, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), to form a quaternary, mitochondrial trafficking complex. A recent report suggested that TRAK1 preferentially controls mitochondrial transport in axons of hippocampal neurons whereas TRAK2 controls mitochondrial transport in dendrites...
March 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294131/structural-and-functional-plasticity-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-prefrontal-cortex-associated-with-time-dependent-increases-in-food-cue-seeking-behavior
#4
Paige M Dingess, Rebecca A Darling, Rifka C Derman, Shaun S Wulff, Melissa L Hunter, Carrie R Ferrario, Travis E Brown
Urges to consume food can be driven by stimuli in the environment that are associated with previous food experience. Identifying adaptations within brain reward circuits that facilitate cue-induced food seeking is critical for understanding and preventing the overconsumption of food and subsequent weight gain. Utilizing electrophysiological, biochemical, and DiI labeling we examined functional and structural changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) associated with time-dependent increases in food craving ('incubation of craving')...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292828/scrapper-selectively-contributes-to-spontaneous-release-and-presynaptic-long-term-potentiation-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#5
Kohei Koga, Ikuko Yao, Mitsutoshi Setou, Min Zhuo
SCRAPPER is an E3 ubiquitin ligase expressed in presynaptic terminals, neural cell body and dendrites of the hippocampus and cortex, which is coded by FBXL20 gene. SCRAPPER is known to regulate synaptic transmissions and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus, but no report is available for the cortex. Here we show genetic evidence for critical roles of SCRAPPER in excitatory transmission and presynaptic LTP (pre-LTP) of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a critical cortical region for pain, anxiety and fear...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288671/microglia-derived-il-1%C3%AE-contributes-to-axon-development-disorders-and-synaptic-deficit-through-p38-mapk-signal-pathway-in-septic-neonatal-rats
#6
Qianpeng Han, Qiongyu Lin, Peixian Huang, Mengmeng Chen, Xin Hu, Hui Fu, Shaoru He, Fengcai Shen, Hongke Zeng, Yiyu Deng
BACKGROUND: Axon development plays a pivotal role in the formation of synapse, nodes of Ranvier, and myelin sheath. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) produced by microglia may cause myelination disturbances through suppression of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation in the septic neonatal rats. Here, we explored if a microglia-derived IL-1β would disturb axon development in the corpus callosum (CC) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, and if so, whether it is associated with disorder of synapse formation in the cerebral cortex and node of Ranvier...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287556/in-utero-electroporation-approaches-to-study-the-excitability-of-neuronal-subpopulations-and-single-cell-connectivity
#7
Carlos G Briz, Marta Navarrete, José A Esteban, Marta Nieto
The nervous system is composed of an enormous range of distinct neuronal types. These neuronal subpopulations are characterized by, among other features, their distinct dendritic morphologies, their specific patterns of axonal connectivity, and their selective firing responses. The molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for these aspects of differentiation during development are still poorly understood. Here, we describe combined protocols for labeling and characterizing the structural connectivity and excitability of cortical neurons...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287145/hyaluronan-synthesis-by-developing-cortical-neurons-in-vitro
#8
Tania M Fowke, Rashika N Karunasinghe, Ji-Zhong Bai, Shawn Jordan, Alistair J Gunn, Justin M Dean
Hyaluronan is a linear glycosaminoglycan that forms the backbone of perineuronal nets around neurons in the cerebral cortex. However, it remains controversial whether neurons are capable of independent hyaluronan synthesis. Herein, we examined the expression of hyaluronan and hyaluronan synthases (HASs) throughout cortical neuron development in vitro. Enriched cultures of cortical neurons were established from E16 rats. Neurons were collected at days in vitro (DIV) 0 (4 h), 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 for qPCR or immunocytochemistry...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275159/enduring-memory-impairments-provoked-by-developmental-febrile-seizures-are-mediated-by-functional-and-structural-effects-of-neuronal-restrictive-silencing-factor
#9
Katelin P Patterson, Jeremy M Barry, Megan M Curran, Akanksha Singh-Taylor, Gary Brennan, Neggy Rismanchi, Matias Page, Yoav Noam, Gregory L Holmes, Tallie Z Baram
In a subset of children experiencing prolonged febrile seizures (FS), the most common type of childhood seizures, cognitive outcomes are compromised. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we identified significant, enduring spatial memory problems in male rats following experimental prolonged FS (febrile status epilepticus; eFSE). Remarkably, these deficits were abolished by transient, post hoc interference with the chromatin binding of the transcriptional repressor neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF or REST)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274785/expression-of-rac1-alternative-3-utrs-is-a-cell-specific-mechanism-with-a-function-in-dendrite-outgrowth-in-cortical-neurons
#10
Sandra Oliveira Braz, Andrea Cruz, Andrea Lobo, Joana Bravo, Joana Moreira-Ribeiro, Isabel Pereira-Castro, Jaime Freitas, Joao B Relvas, Teresa Summavielle, Alexandra Moreira
The differential expression of mRNAs containing tandem alternative 3' UTRs, achieved by mechanisms of alternative polyadenylation and post-transcriptional regulation, has been correlated with a variety of cellular states. In differentiated cells and brain tissues there is a general use of distal polyadenylation signals, originating mRNAs with longer 3' UTRs, in contrast with proliferating cells and other tissues such as testis, where most mRNAs contain shorter 3' UTRs. Although cell type and state are relevant in many biological processes, how these mechanisms occur in specific brain cell types is still poorly understood...
March 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269304/effects-of-electrode-displacement-in-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-computational-study
#11
Hyeon Seo, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun
In order to understand better the ways in which cortical excitability is linked to target brain areas, this study describes the effects of focalized high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), and investigates the way in which these effects persisted after the stimulus electrodes were displaced from the target area. We constructed a 3D volume conduction model of an anatomically realistic head that is ideal for HD-tDCS, as well as compartmental models of layer 3 and layer 5 pyramidal neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262759/role-of-a-circadian-relevant-gene-nr1d1-in-brain-development-possible-involvement-in-the-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Masahide Goto, Makoto Mizuno, Ayumi Matsumoto, Zhiliang Yang, Eriko F Jimbo, Hidenori Tabata, Takanori Yamagata, Koh-Ichi Nagata
In our previous study, we screened autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients with and without sleep disorders for mutations in the coding regions of circadian-relevant genes, and detected mutations in several clock genes including NR1D1. Here, we further screened ASD patients for NR1D1 mutations and identified three novel mutations including a de novo heterozygous one c.1499 G > A (p.R500H). We then analyzed the role of Nr1d1 in the development of the cerebral cortex in mice. Acute knockdown of mouse Nr1d1 with in utero electroporation caused abnormal positioning of cortical neurons during corticogenesis...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256936/proteomic-analysis-of-the-neurotrophic-effect-of-gelidium-amansii-in-primary-cultured-neurons
#13
Md Abdul Hannan, Md Mohibbullah, Yong-Ki Hong, Il Soo Moon
Gelidium amansii is an edible and economically important red alga consumed in South Eastern Asia. In previous studies, we reported that the ethanol extracts of G. amansii (GAE) has promising modulatory activity with respect to the morphological and functional maturation of hippocampal neurons in culture. In this study, we show that the chloroform (CHCl3) subfraction of GAE and the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction dose-dependently promoted neurite outgrowth, and their effects were comparable with that of GAE. We further assessed in cultured cortical neurons, proteins differentially expressed in the presence/absence of the GAE, CHCl3 subfraction, and the EtOAc fraction by 2D-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
March 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254942/layer-specific-modulation-of-neocortical-dendritic-inhibition-during-active-wakefulness
#14
William Muñoz, Robin Tremblay, Daniel Levenstein, Bernardo Rudy
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inputs are strategically positioned to gate synaptic integration along the dendritic arbor of pyramidal cells. However, their spatiotemporal dynamics during behavior are poorly understood. Using an optical-tagging electrophysiological approach to record and label somatostatin-expressing (Sst) interneurons (GABAergic neurons specialized for dendritic inhibition), we discovered a layer-specific modulation of their activity in behaving mice. Sst interneuron subtypes, residing in different cortical layers and innervating complementary laminar domains, exhibited opposite activity changes during transitions to active wakefulness...
March 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250154/a-systems-based-analysis-of-dendritic-nonlinearities-reveals-temporal-feature-extraction-in-mouse-l5-cortical-neurons
#15
Brian E Kalmbach, Richard Gray, Daniel Johnston, Erik P Cook
What do dendritic nonlinearities tell a neuron about signals injected into the dendrite? Linear and nonlinear dendritic components affect how time-varying inputs are transformed into action potentials (APs), but the relative contribution of each component is unclear. We developed a novel systems-identification approach to isolate the nonlinear response of layer 5 pyramidal neuron dendrites in mouse prefrontal cortex in response to dendritic current injections. We then quantified the nonlinear component and its effect on the soma using functional models composed of linear filters and static nonlinearities...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245754/treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-with-n-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline
#16
Yanlu Zhang, Zheng Gang Zhang, Michael Chopp, Yuling Meng, Li Zhang, Asim Mahmood, Ye Xiong
OBJECTIVE The authors' previous studies have suggested that thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a major actin-sequestering protein, improves functional recovery after neural injury. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) is an active peptide fragment of Tβ4. Its effect as a treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been investigated. Thus, this study was designed to determine whether AcSDKP treatment improves functional recovery in rats after TBI. METHODS Young adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: 1) sham group (no injury); 2) TBI + vehicle group (0...
March 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245665/current-concepts-in-plasticity-and-nerve-transfers-relationship-between-surgical-techniques-and-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Mariano Socolovsky, Martijn Malessy, Dan Lopez, Fernando Guedes, Leandro Flores
OBJECTIVE Neuroplasticity is analyzed in this article as the capacity of the CNS to adapt to external and internal stimuli. It is being increasingly recognized as an important factor for the successful outcome of nerve transfers. Better-known factors are the number of axons that cross the coaptation site, the time interval between trauma and repair, and age. Neuroplasticity is mediated initially by synaptic and neurotransmitter changes. Over time, the activation of previously existing but lowly active connections in the brain cortex contributes further...
March 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227541/effects-of-electrode-displacement-in-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-computational-study
#18
Hyeon Seo, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Hyeon Seo, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Donghyeon Kim, Sung Chan Jun, Hyeon Seo
In order to understand better the ways in which cortical excitability is linked to target brain areas, this study describes the effects of focalized high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), and investigates the way in which these effects persisted after the stimulus electrodes were displaced from the target area. We constructed a 3D volume conduction model of an anatomically realistic head that is ideal for HD-tDCS, as well as compartmental models of layer 3 and layer 5 pyramidal neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225479/long-lasting-training-in-the-barnes-maze-prompts-hippocampal-spinogenesis-and-habituation-in-rats
#19
Maia Uriarte, Olalekan M Ogundele, Joaquin Pardo
There is a constant need to assess spatial memory in small rodents to elucidate the basics of cognition in neuroscience experiments. Thus, the significance of the Barnes maze in the biology of hippocampal and cortical neural function cannot be overemphasized. Despite the wide use of the Barnes maze, the effect of maze task training on the structure of hippocampal neurons is yet to be elucidated. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to intense training on the Barnes maze (3 months). Subsequently, the hippocampus (cornus ammonis and dentate gyrus) of separate sets of rats was processed for Golgi Colonnier techniques (silver impregnation) and adenoviral-green fluorescent protein labeling (immunohistochemistry)...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223923/embryonic-and-postnatal-expression-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-mrna-in-mouse-brain
#20
Eiki Kimura, Chiharu Tohyama
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor family, plays a critical role in the developing nervous system of invertebrates and vertebrates. Dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, avidly binds to this receptor, and maternal exposure to dioxin has been shown to impair higher brain functions and dendritic morphogenesis, possibly via an AhR-dependent mechanism. However, there is little information on AhR expression in the developing mammalian brain...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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