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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688272/cellular-plasticity-in-the-adult-murine-piriform-cortex-continuous-maturation-of-dormant-precursors-into-excitatory-neurons
#1
Peter Rotheneichner, Maria Belles, Bruno Benedetti, Richard König, Dominik Dannehl, Christina Kreutzer, Pia Zaunmair, Maren Engelhardt, Ludwig Aigner, Juan Nacher, Sebastien Couillard-Despres
Neurogenesis in the healthy adult murine brain is based on proliferation and integration of stem/progenitor cells and is thought to be restricted to 2 neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus. Intriguingly, cells expressing the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) and the polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule reside in layer II of the piriform cortex. Apparently, these cells progressively disappear along the course of ageing, while their fate and function remain unclear...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677125/detrimental-effects-of-helium-ion-irradiation-on-cognitive-performance-and-cortical-levels-of-map-2-in-b6d2f1-mice
#2
Jacob Raber, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Tunde Akinyeke, Joanne Lee, Sydney J Weber Boutros, Mitchell S Turker, Amy Kronenberg
The space radiation environment includes helium (⁴He) ions that may impact brain function. As little is known about the effects of exposures to ⁴He ions on the brain, we assessed the behavioral and cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation with ⁴He ions (250 MeV/n; linear energy transfer (LET) = 1.6 keV/μm; 0, 21, 42 or 168 cGy). Sham-irradiated mice and mice irradiated with 21 or 168 cGy showed novel object recognition, but mice irradiated with 42 cGy did not...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674117/electroconvulsive-seizures-influence-dendritic-spine-morphology-and-bdnf-expression-in-a-neuroendocrine-model-of-depression
#3
Kristen R Maynard, John W Hobbs, Sumita K Rajpurohit, Keri Martinowich
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a rapid and effective treatment for major depressive disorder. Chronic stress-induced depression causes dendrite atrophy and deficiencies in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which are reversed by anti-depressant drugs. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, robustly increase BDNF expression and stimulate dendritic outgrowth. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to understand cellular and molecular plasticity mechanisms contributing to the efficacy of ECS following chronic stress-induced depression...
April 6, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649479/a-spherical-aberration-free-microscopy-system-for-live-brain-imaging
#4
Yoshihiro Ue, Hiromu Monai, Kaori Higuchi, Daisuke Nishiwaki, Tetsuya Tajima, Kenya Okazaki, Hiroshi Hama, Hajime Hirase, Atsushi Miyawaki
The high-resolution in vivo imaging of mouse brain for quantitative analysis of fine structures, such as dendritic spines, requires objectives with high numerical apertures (NAs) and long working distances (WDs). However, this imaging approach is often hampered by spherical aberration (SA) that results from the mismatch of refractive indices in the optical path and becomes more severe with increasing depth of target from the brain surface. Whereas a revolving objective correction collar has been designed to compensate SA, its adjustment requires manual operation and is inevitably accompanied by considerable focal shift, making it difficult to acquire the best image of a given fluorescent object...
April 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615867/stable-density-and-dynamics-of-dendritic-spines-of-cortical-neurons-across-the-estrous-cycle-while-expressing-differential-levels-of-sensory-evoked-plasticity
#5
Bailin H Alexander, Heather M Barnes, Emma Trimmer, Andrew M Davidson, Benard O Ogola, Sarah H Lindsey, Ricardo Mostany
Periodic oscillations of gonadal hormone levels during the estrous cycle exert effects on the female brain, impacting cognition and behavior. While previous research suggests that changes in hormone levels across the cycle affect dendritic spine dynamics in the hippocampus, little is known about the effects on cortical dendritic spines and previous studies showed contradictory results. In this in vivo imaging study, we investigated the impact of the estrous cycle on the density and dynamics of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex of mice...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610457/cntnap2-stabilizes-interneuron-dendritic-arbors-through-cask
#6
Ruoqi Gao, Nicolas H Piguel, Alexandria E Melendez-Zaidi, Maria Dolores Martin-de-Saavedra, Sehyoun Yoon, Marc P Forrest, Kristoffer Myczek, Gefei Zhang, Theron A Russell, John G Csernansky, D James Surmeier, Peter Penzes
Contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) has emerged as a prominent susceptibility gene implicated in multiple complex neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), and schizophrenia (SCZ). The presence of seizure comorbidity in many of these cases, as well as inhibitory neuron dysfunction in Cntnap2 knockout (KO) mice, suggests CNTNAP2 may be crucial for proper inhibitory network function. However, underlying cellular mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that cultured Cntnap2 KO mouse neurons exhibit an inhibitory neuron-specific simplification of the dendritic tree...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602186/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-striatal-synaptic-plasticity-relevance-to-chronic-alcohol-consumption-and-seeking
#7
Kim T Blackwell, Armando G Salinas, Parul Tewatia, Brad English, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski, David M Lovinger
The striatum, the input structure of the basal ganglia, is a major site of learning and memory for goal-directed actions and habit formation. Spiny projection neurons of the striatum integrate cortical, thalamic, and nigral inputs to learn associations, with cortico-striatal synaptic plasticity as a learning mechanism. Signaling molecules implicated in synaptic plasticity are altered in alcohol withdrawal, which may contribute to overly strong learning and increased alcohol seeking and consumption. To understand how interactions among signaling molecules produce synaptic plasticity, we implemented a mechanistic model of signaling pathways activated by dopamine D1 receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and glutamate...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601869/d-serine-administration-affects-nitric-oxide-synthase-1-adaptor-protein-and-disc1-expression-in-sex-specific-manner
#8
Kirsten C Svane, Ericka-Kate Asis, Anton Omelchenko, Ansley J Kunnath, Linda M Brzustowicz, Steven M Silverstein, Bonnie L Firestein
Antipsychotic medications are inefficient at treating symptoms of schizophrenia (SCZ), and N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) agonists are potential therapeutic alternatives. As such, these agonists may act on different pathways and proteins altered in the brains of patients with SCZ than do antipsychotic medications. Here, we investigate the effects of administration of the antipsychotic haloperidol and NMDAR agonist d-serine on function and expression of three proteins that play significant roles in SCZ: nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP), dopamine D2 (D2) receptor, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1)...
March 27, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577283/morphological-characterization-of-hvc-projection-neurons-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#9
Sam E Benezra, Rajeevan T Narayanan, Robert Egger, Marcel Oberlaender, Michael A Long
Singing behavior in the adult male zebra finch is dependent upon the activity of a cortical region known as HVC (proper name). The vast majority of HVC projection neurons send primary axons to either the downstream premotor nucleus RA (primary motor cortex) or Area X (basal ganglia), which play important roles in song production or song learning, respectively. In addition to these long-range outputs, HVC neurons also send local axon collaterals throughout that nucleus. Despite their implications for a range of circuit models, these local processes have never been completely reconstructed...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571966/effects-of-the-antipsychotics-haloperidol-clozapine-and-aripiprazole-on-the-dendritic-spine
#10
Manabu Takaki, Masafumi Kodama, Yutaka Mizuki, Hiroki Kawai, Bunta Yoshimura, Makiko Kishimoto, Shinji Sakamoto, Yuko Okahisa, Norihito Yamada
Three types of antipsychotics, typical (e.g. haloperidol), atypical (e.g. clozapine), and dopamine partial agonist (e.g. aripiprazole), are administered for treatment of schizophrenia. These antipsychotics have different efficacy and side-effect profiles. We investigated whether aripiprazole, clozapine, and haloperidol differentially regulate the dendritic spine through the AKT-GSK-3 beta cascade. Dissociated cortical neurons from Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared and cultured for 28 days. Aripiprazole, clozapine, or haloperidol was administered to the rat cortical neurons...
March 20, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571023/pretreatment-with-taurine-prevented-brain-injury-and-exploratory-behaviour-associated-with-administration-of-anticancer-drug-cisplatin-in-rats
#11
Olatunde Owoeye, Isaac A Adedara, Ebenezer O Farombi
The neurotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment is one of the major side effects compromising the efficacy of the anti-cancer treatment. The present study investigated the possible protective effects of taurine, an intracellular amino acid, on cisplatin-induced brain injury and exploratory behaviour using five groups of ten female rats each. Group I received drinking water only. Group II orally received taurine alone at 200 mg/kg whereas Group III received cisplatin alone intraperitoneally at 10 mg/kg...
March 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559891/layer-5-callosal-parvalbumin-expressing-neurons-a-distinct-functional-group-of-gabaergic-neurons
#12
Hector Zurita, Paul L C Feyen, Alfonso Junior Apicella
Previous studies have shown that parvalbumin-expressing neurons (CC-Parv neurons) connect the two hemispheres of motor and sensory areas via the corpus callosum, and are a functional part of the cortical circuit. Here we test the hypothesis that layer 5 CC-Parv neurons possess anatomical and molecular mechanisms which dampen excitability and modulate the gating of interhemispheric inhibition. In order to investigate this hypothesis we use viral tracing to determine the anatomical and electrophysiological properties of layer 5 CC-Parv and parvalbumin-expressing (Parv) neurons of the mouse auditory cortex (AC)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553565/rapid-detection-of-neurodevelopmental-phenotypes-in-human-neural-precursor-cells-npcs
#13
Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544396/pitavastatin-treatment-induces-neuroprotection-through-the-bdnf-trkb-signalling-pathway-in-cultured-cerebral-neurons-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#14
Xiaoyan Cui, Zhenqiang Fu, Menghan Wang, Xiaofei Nan, Boai Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Along with their lipid-lowering effect, statins have been reported to have neuroprotective function in both in vivo and in vitro models of neurodegenerative diseases. We conducted this study in order to uncover the he neuroprotective effect of the lipophilic statin pitavastatin (PTV) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms using primary cultured cerebral neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). METHODS: The primary cultured cerebral neurons were randomly assigned into four groups: the control group, the pitavastatin treatment group, the OGD group and the OGD + pitavastatin treatment group...
March 16, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538620/camkii-dependent-endoplasmic-reticulum-fission-by-whisker-stimulation-and-during-cortical-spreading-depolarization
#15
Krzysztof Kucharz, Martin Lauritzen
Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity...
April 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535613/trpc1-channels-are-expressed-in-pyramidal-neurons-and-in-a-subset-of-somatostatin-interneurons-in-the-rat-neocortex
#16
Juan R Martinez-Galan, Ana Verdejo, Elena Caminos
Disturbances in calcium homeostasis due to canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) and/or store-operated calcium (SOC) channels can play a key role in a large number of brain disorders. TRPC channels are plasma membrane cation channels included in the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. The most widely distributed member of the TRPC subfamily in the brain is TRPC1, which is frequently linked to group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and to the components of SOC channels. Proposing TRPC/SOC channels as a therapeutic target in neurological diseases previously requires a detailed knowledge of the distribution of such molecules in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534631/synaptic-properties-of-layer-vi-inverted-pyramidal-cells-in-the-rodent-somatosensory-cortex
#17
Robert Steger, Lauren Blachorsky, Qizong Yang, Joshua C Brumberg
The properties of specific cortical cell types enable greater understanding of how cortical microcircuits process and transmit sensory, motor, and cognitive information. Previous reports have characterized the intrinsic properties of the inverted pyramidal cell (IPC) where the most prominent dendrite is orientated towards the cortical white matter. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings from rat and mouse somatosensory cortex in conjunction with electric microstimulation of the white matter we characterized the synaptic inputs onto IPCs and the more common upright pyramidal cell (UPC) in the infragranular layers...
March 13, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526554/differential-control-of-axonal-and-somatic-resting-potential-by-voltage-dependent-conductances-in-cortical-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons
#18
Wenqin Hu, Bruce P Bean
Voltage-dependent conductances not only drive action potentials but also help regulate neuronal resting potential. We found differential regulation of resting potential in the proximal axon of layer 5 pyramidal neurons compared to the soma. Axonal resting potential was more negative than the soma, reflecting differential control by multiple voltage-dependent channels, including sodium channels, Cav3 channels, Kv7 channels, and HCN channels. Kv7 current is highly localized to the axon and HCN current to the soma and dendrite...
March 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522129/neural-cell-adhesion-molecule-2-ncam2-induced-c-src-dependent-propagation-of-submembrane-ca2-spikes-along-dendrites-inhibits-synapse-maturation
#19
Lifu Sheng, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk
The neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2) is encoded by a gene on chromosome 21 in humans. NCAM2 accumulates in synapses, but its role in regulation of synapse formation remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that an increase in NCAM2 levels results in increased instability of dendritic protrusions and reduced conversion of protrusions to dendritic spines in mouse cortical neurons. NCAM2 overexpression induces an increase in the frequency of submembrane Ca2+ spikes localized in individual dendritic protrusions and promotes propagation of submembrane Ca2+ spikes over segments of dendrites or the whole dendritic tree...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518322/in-vitro-effects-of-chronic-spirolide-treatment-on-human-neuronal-stem-cell-differentiatiation-and-cholinergic-system-development
#20
Andrea Boente Juncal, Aida G Mendez, Carmen Vale, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Spirolides are marine toxins, produced by dinoflagellates that act as potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These compounds are not toxic for humans and since there are no reports of human intoxications caused by this group of toxins they are not yet currently regulated in Europe. Currently 13-desmethyl spirolide C, 13,19-didesmethyl spirolide C and 20-methyl spirolide G are commercially available as reference materials. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that after 4 days of treatment of primary mice cortical neurons with 13-desmethyl spirolide C, the compound ameliorated the glutamate induced toxicity and increased acetylcholine levels and the expression of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme being useful both in vitro and in vivo to decrease the brain pathology associated with Alzheimer´s disease...
March 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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