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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176826/annexin-a5-organized-in-2d-network-at-the-plasmalemma-eases-human-trophoblast-fusion
#1
Severine A Degrelle, Pascale Gerbaud, Ludovic Leconte, Fatima Ferreira, Guillaume Pidoux
Only a limited number of human cells can fuse to form a multinucleated syncytium. Cell fusion occurs as part of the differentiation of some cell types, including myotubes in muscle and osteoclasts in remodeling bone. In the differentiation of the human placenta, mononuclear cytotrophoblasts aggregate and fuse to form endocrinologically active, non-proliferative, multinucleated syncytia. These syncytia allow the exchange of nutrients and gases between the maternal and fetal circulation. Alteration of syncytial formation during pregnancy affects fetal growth and the outcome of the pregnancy...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134670/noninvasive-prenatal-diagnosis-for-single-gene-disorders
#2
Stephanie Allen, Elizabeth Young, Benjamin Bowns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders is coming to fruition in its clinical utility. The presence of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been recognized for many years, and a number of applications have developed from this. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders has lagged behind due to complexities of technology development, lack of investment and the need for validation samples for rare disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Publications are emerging demonstrating a variety of technical approaches and feasibility of clinical application...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122716/relaxin-confers-cytotrophoblast-protection-from-hypoxiareoxygenation-injury-through-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-protein-kinase-b-cell-survival-pathway
#3
Oluseyi Ogunleye, Bertha Campo, Diana Herrera, Emiel D Post Uiterweer, Kirk P Conrad
Preeclampsia affects 3-5% of pregnancies, contributes to 10-15% of maternal mortality, and is a leading cause of prematurity and increased long-term morbidity in those affected. Contemporary understanding of preeclampsia's maternal-fetal interface suggests a major role for placental oxidative stress resulting from ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized the pregnancy hormone relaxin would reduce cytotrophoblast apoptosis, necrosis (aponecrosis) and export of placental debris into maternal circulation. If so, relaxin might be employed as a therapeutic intervention to diminish activation of the maternal systemic inflammatory response central to clinical disease development...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110750/role-of-exosomes-in-placental-homeostasis-and-pregnancy-disorders
#4
C Salomon, G E Rice
The human placenta is a unique organ that performs the function of the majority of fetal organs across gestation. How the placenta communicates with maternal tissues to prepare them for pregnancy is not fully understood. Recently, it has been established that placental cells can communicate with maternal tissues to regulate their biological function via extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are subclassified into exosomes or microvesicles (MVs) according to their size, cell or tissue of origin, functions, and physical features...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062543/multiple-slc-and-abc-transporters-contribute-to-the-placental-transfer-of-entecavir
#5
Zhiyuan Ma, Xi Yang, Ting Jiang, Mengru Bai, Caihong Zheng, Su Zeng, Dongli Sun, Huidi Jiang
Entecavir (ETV), a nucleoside analogue with high efficacy against hepatitis B virus, is recommended as a first-line antiviral drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. However, scant information is available on the use of ETV in pregnancy. To better understand the safety of ETV in pregnant women, we aimed to demonstrate whether ETV could permeate placental barrier and the underlying mechanism. Our study showed that small amount of ETV could permeate across placenta in mice. ETV accumulation in activated or non-activated BeWo cells (treated with or without forskolin) was sharply reduced in the presence of 100 μM of adenosine, cytidine and in Na+ free medium, indicating that nucleoside transporters possibly mediate the uptake of ETV...
January 6, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049898/developmental-toxicity-of-nanoparticles-on-the-brain
#6
Masakazu Umezawa, Atsuto Onoda, Ken Takeda
 The toxicity of nanoparticles (nanotoxicology) is being investigated to understand both the health impacts of atmospheric ultrafine particles-the size of which is a fraction (<0.1 μm aerodynamic diameter) of that of PM2.5 (<2.5 μm diameter)-and the safer use of engineered nanomaterials. Developmental toxicity of nanoparticles has been studied since their transfer from pregnant body to fetal circulation and offspring body was first reported. Here we reviewed the developmental toxicity of nanoparticles on the brain, one of the most important organs in maintenance of mental health and high quality of life...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007981/frontline-science-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdscs-facilitate-maternal-fetal-tolerance-in-mice
#7
Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg, Pratima Sinha, Chas Figley, Ramses Long, DoHwan Park, Darryl Carter, Virginia K Clements
During successful pregnancy, a woman is immunologically tolerant of her genetically and antigenically disparate fetus, a state known as maternal-fetal tolerance. How this state is maintained has puzzled investigators for more than half a century. Diverse, immune and nonimmune mechanisms have been proposed; however, these mechanisms appear to be unrelated and to act independently. A population of immune suppressive cells called myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulates in pregnant mice and women. Given the profound immune suppressive function of MDSCs, it has been suggested that this cell population may facilitate successful pregnancy by contributing to maternal-fetal tolerance...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939894/review-fetal-maternal-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-implications-for-complications-of-pregnancies
#8
REVIEW
Stefanie Adam, Omar Elfeky, Vyjayanthi Kinhal, Suchismita Dutta, Andrew Lai, Nanthini Jayabalan, Zarin Nuzhat, Carlos Palma, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
The maternal physiology experiences numerous changes during pregnancy which are essential in controlling and maintaining maternal metabolic adaptations and fetal development. The human placenta is an organ that serves as the primary interface between the maternal and fetal circulation, thereby supplying the fetus with nutrients, blood and oxygen through the umbilical cord. During gestation, the placenta continuously releases several molecules into maternal circulation, including hormones, proteins, RNA and DNA...
December 5, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903743/uric-acid-crystals-induce-placental-inflammation-and-alter-trophoblast-function-via-an-il-1-dependent-pathway-implications-for-fetal-growth-restriction
#9
Marie-Eve Brien, Cyntia Duval, Julia Palacios, Ines Boufaied, Andrée-Anne Hudon-Thibeault, Mathieu Nadeau-Vallée, Cathy Vaillancourt, Colin P Sibley, Vikki M Abrahams, Rebecca L Jones, Sylvie Girard
Excessive placental inflammation is associated with several pathological conditions, including stillbirth and fetal growth restriction. Although infection is a known cause of inflammation, a significant proportion of pregnancies have evidence of inflammation without any detectable infection. Inflammation can also be triggered by endogenous mediators, called damage associated molecular patterns or alarmins. One of these damage-associated molecular patterns, uric acid, is increased in the maternal circulation in pathological pregnancies and is a known agonist of the Nlrp3 inflammasome and inducer of inflammation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896286/aneuploidy-screening-using-circulating-fetal-cells-in-maternal-blood-by-dual-probe-fish-protocol-a-prospective-feasibility-study-on-a-series-of-172-pregnant-women
#10
Giuseppe Calabrese, Donatella Fantasia, Melissa Alfonsi, Elisena Morizio, Claudio Celentano, Paolo Guanciali Franchi, Giulia Sabbatinelli, Chiara Palka, Peter Benn, Gianmaria Sitar
BACKGROUND: A long sought goal in medical genetics has been the replacement of invasive procedures for the detection of chromosomal aneuploidies by isolating and analyzing fetal cells or free fetal DNA from maternal blood, avoiding risk to the fetus. However, a rapid, simple, consistent, and low-cost procedure suitable for routine clinical practice has not yet been achieved. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of predicting fetal aneuploidy by applying our recently established dual-probe FISH protocol to fetal cells isolated and enriched from maternal blood...
November 2016: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871478/transendothelial-migration-of-human-umbilical-mesenchymal-stem-cells-across-uterine-endothelial-monolayers-junctional-dynamics-and-putative-mechanisms
#11
Neven A Ebrahim, Lopa Leach
INTRODUCTION: During pregnancy, fetal stem cells can transfer to the maternal circulation and participate in tissue repair. How they transmigrate across maternal endothelial barriers and whether they can subsequently influence maternal endothelial integrity is not known. METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) were isolated from Wharton's jelly and their interactions with human uterine microvascular endothelial cell (HUtMEC) monolayers, junctional occupancy and expression/phosphorylation of vascular endothelial (VE)- cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) secretion was studied over 48h by real time, confocal microscopy, immunoblotting and ELISA...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862068/development-and-validation-of-a-fetal-genotyping-assay-with-potential-for-noninvasive-prenatal-diagnosis-of-hereditary-hearing-loss
#12
Ying Chen, Yiqian Liu, Benjing Wang, Jun Mao, Ting Wang, Kan Ye, Yanlin Ye, David S Cram, Hong Li
OBJECTIVE: Inherited non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) is a common sensory disorder that afflicts otherwise healthy individuals. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of circulating single molecule amplification and re-sequencing technology (cSMART) for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of NSHL. METHOD: Neonatal inheritance of NSHL mutations was determined from bloodspots using SNaPshot genotyping. NIPT of cell-free DNA for fetal NSHL mutations in the GJB2, GJB3 and SLC26A4 genes was performed by a multiplex cSMART assay...
December 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861499/maternal-filarial-infection-influences-the-development-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-children-from-infancy-to-early-childhood
#13
Madhusmita Bal, Manoranjan Ranjit, K Gopinath Achary, Ashok K Satapathy
BACKGROUND: Children born from filarial infected mothers are comparatively more susceptible to filarial infection than the children born to uninfected mothers. But the mechanism of such increased susceptibility to infection in early childhood is not exactly known. Several studies have shown the association of active filarial infection with T cell hypo-responsiveness which is mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Since the Tregs develop in the thymus from CD4+ CD25hi thymocytes at an early stage of the human fetus, it can be hypothesized that the maternal infection during pregnancy affects the development of Tregs in children at birth as well as early childhood...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824757/circulating-cell-free-dna-to-determine-the-fetal-rhd-status-in-all-three-trimesters-of-pregnancy
#14
Kenneth J Moise, Manisha Gandhi, Noemi H Boring, Richard OʼShaughnessy, Lynn L Simpson, Honor M Wolfe, Jason K Baxter, William Polzin, Keith A Eddleman, Sonia S Hassan, Daniel W Skupski, Greg Ryan, Martin Walker, Garrett Lam, Richard Brown, M Amanda Skoll, Christopher Robinson, Asad Sheikh, Richard Bronsteen, Lauren A Plante, Graham McLennan, Anna Chikova, Toni Paladino
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the accuracy of a new assay to determine the fetal RHD status using circulating cell-free DNA. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study. Maternal blood samples were collected in each trimester of pregnancy in 520 nonalloimmunized RhD-negative patients. Plasma samples were analyzed for circulating cell-free DNA using the SensiGENE RHD test, which used primers for exons 4 and 7 as previously described and incorporated a new primer design for exon 5 of the RHD gene...
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813475/-role-and-regulation-of-camp-signaling-in-human-trophoblast-fusion
#15
REVIEW
Pascale Gerbaud, Fatima Ferreira, Guillaume Pidoux
In the human placenta, mononuclear cytotrophoblasts fuse to form multinucleated syncytia ensuring hormonal production and nutrient exchanges between the maternal and fetal circulation. The syncytial formation is necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy and for fetal growth. The cAMP signaling pathway is the major route to trigger trophoblast fusion and its activation results in phosphorylation of specific intracellular target proteins and assembly of macromolecular protein complexes constituting the fusogenic machinery at the plasma membrane...
2016: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812255/fetal-rhd-genotyping-from-circulating-cell-free-fetal-dna-in-plasma-of-rh-negative-pregnant-women-in-iran
#16
Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi, Sedigheh Hantuoshzadeh, Mohammad Ali Okhovat, Nahid Nasiri, Azita Azarkeivan, Naser Amirizadeh
The prenatal determination of the fetal Rh genotype could lead to a substantial reduction in the use of anti-D immunoglobulin and prevention of unnecessary exposure of pregnant women carrying RhD negative fetus. The aim of this study was fetal RHD genotyping through the analysis of cffDNA in plasma samples of RhD negative pregnant women by real-time PCR technique. In this experiment, 30 plasma samples were collected from RhD negative pregnant women. DNA were extracted and real-time PCR reactions were done by specific primers for RHD, SRY and beta-globin (GLO) genes...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807286/fetal-genome-profiling-at-5-weeks-of-gestation-after-noninvasive-isolation-of-trophoblast-cells-from-the-endocervical-canal
#17
Chandni V Jain, Leena Kadam, Marie van Dijk, Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Brian A Kilburn, Craig Hartman, Vicki Mazzorana, Allerdien Visser, Michael Hertz, Alan D Bolnick, Rani Fritz, D Randall Armant, Sascha Drewlo
Single-gene mutations account for more than 6000 diseases, 10% of all pediatric hospital admissions, and 20% of infant deaths. Down syndrome and other aneuploidies occur in more than 0.2% of births worldwide and are on the rise because of advanced reproductive age. Birth defects of genetic origin can be diagnosed in utero after invasive extraction of fetal tissues. Noninvasive testing with circulating cell-free fetal DNA is limited by a low fetal DNA fraction. Both modalities are unavailable until the end of the first trimester...
November 2, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761919/genome-wide-copy-number-analysis-on-dna-from-fetal-cells-isolated-from-the-blood-of-pregnant-women
#18
Steen Kølvraa, Ripudaman Singh, Elizabeth A Normand, Sadeem Qdaisat, Ignatia B van den Veyver, Laird Jackson, Lotte Hatt, Palle Schelde, Niels Uldbjerg, Else Marie Vestergaard, Li Zhao, Rui Chen, Chad A Shaw, Amy M Breman, Arthur L Beaudet
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) based on fetal cells in maternal blood has the advantage over NIPT based on circulating cell-free fetal DNA in that there is no contamination with maternal DNA. This will most likely result in better detection of chromosomal aberrations including subchromosomal defects. The objective of this study was to test whether fetal cells enriched from maternal blood can be used for cell-based NIPT. METHODS: We present a method for enriching fetal cells from maternal blood, subsequent amplification of the fetal genome and detection of chromosomal and subchromosomal variations in the genome...
December 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759009/zika-virus-reveals-broad-tissue-and-cell-tropism-during-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy
#19
Hicham El Costa, Jordi Gouilly, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Qian Chen, Claude Levy, Géraldine Cartron, Francisco Veas, Reem Al-Daccak, Jacques Izopet, Nabila Jabrane-Ferrat
The outbreak of the Zika Virus (ZIKV) and its association with fetal abnormalities have raised worldwide concern. However, the cellular tropism and the mechanisms of ZIKV transmission to the fetus during early pregnancy are still largely unknown. Therefore, we ex vivo modeled the ZIKV transmission at the maternal-fetal interface using organ culture from first trimester pregnancy samples. Here, we provide evidence that ZIKV strain circulating in Brazil infects and damages tissue architecture of the maternal decidua basalis, the fetal placenta and umbilical cord...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753956/os-08-06-metabolomic-analysis-of-a-mouse-model-of-preeclampsia-induced-by-overproducing-sflt-1
#20
Emiko Sato, Yukako Tsunokuni, Tomofumi Fushima, Manami Kaneko, Ritsumi Saito, Akiyo Sekimoto, Daisuke Saigusa, Sadayoshi Ito, Hiroshi Sato, Nobuyuki Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is pregnancy-induced hypertension with proteinuria, and is often associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR). PE is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Although alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are pathogenic, the details of pathological mechanisms of PE remain to be elucidated. We investigated changes in metabolites in a mouse model of PE induced by overproducing soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) to elucidate the pathological conditions of PE by metabolomics analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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