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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785960/reduction-in-regulatory-t-cells-in-early-pregnancy-causes-uterine-artery-dysfunction-in-mice
#1
Alison S Care, Stephane L Bourque, Jude S Morton, Emma P Hjartarson, Sarah A Robertson, Sandra T Davidge
Preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and miscarriage remain important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These complications are associated with reduced numbers of a specialized T lymphocyte subset called regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the maternal circulation, decidua, and placenta. Treg cells suppress inflammation and prevent maternal immunity toward the fetus, which expresses foreign paternal alloantigens. Treg cells are demonstrated to contribute to vascular homeostasis, but whether Treg cells influence the vascular adaptations essential for a healthy pregnancy is unknown...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765697/analytical-model-of-the-feto-placental-vascular-system-consideration-of-placental-oxygen-transport
#2
Parisa Mirbod
The placenta is a transient vascular organ that enables nutrients and blood gases to be exchanged between fetal and maternal circulations. Herein, the structure and oxygen diffusion across the trophoblast membrane between the fetal and maternal red blood cells in the feto-placental vasculature system in both human and mouse placentas are presented together as a functional unit. Previous models have claimed that the most efficient fetal blood flow relies upon structures containing a number of 'conductive' symmetrical branches, offering a path of minimal resistance that maximizes blood flow to the terminal villi, where oxygen diffusion occurs...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745271/fetal-hemoglobin-in-the-maternal-circulation-contribution-of-fetal-red-blood-cells
#3
Mutaz Dana, Eitan Fibach
The major hemoglobin (Hb) during fetal life is fetal Hb (Hb F). It is mostly replaced by adult Hbs before birth and during the first year of life. In adults, where Hb F comprises <2.0% of the total Hb, it is not homogenously distributed among the red blood cells (RBCs) but is concentrated in a few RBCs, termed F-cells. Interestingly, for reasons that are unclear, Hb F increases in the maternal circulation during pregnancy. This increased Hb F could have two potential origins that are not mutually exclusive: A) maternal origin, due to inducing environment of Hb F in the maternal erythroid precursors; B) fetal origin, due to fetal cells crossing the placenta and entering the maternal circulation...
May 10, 2018: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706899/development-of-the-human-placenta-and-fetal-heart-synergic-or-independent
#4
REVIEW
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
The placenta is the largest fetal organ, and toward the end of pregnancy the umbilical circulation receives at least 40% of the biventricular cardiac output. It is not surprising, therefore, that there are likely to be close haemodynamic links between the development of the placenta and the fetal heart. Development of the placenta is precocious, and in advance of that of the fetus. The placenta undergoes considerable remodeling at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy, and its vasculature is capable of adapting to environmental conditions and to variations in the blood supply received from the mother...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679053/pregnancy-associated-diamine-oxidase-originates-from-extravillous-trophoblasts-and-is-decreased-in-early-onset-preeclampsia
#5
Philipp Velicky, Karin Windsperger, Karin Petroczi, Sophie Pils, Birgit Reiter, Tamara Weiss, Sigrid Vondra, Robin Ristl, Sabine Dekan, Christian Fiala, David E Cantonwine, Thomas F McElrath, Bernd Jilma, Martin Knöfler, Thomas Boehm, Jürgen Pollheimer
Human extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion of the pregnant uterus constitutes a pivotal event for the establishment of the maternal-fetal interface. Compromised EVT function manifesting in inadequate arterial remodeling is associated with the severe pregnancy disorder early-onset preeclampsia (eoPE). Recent studies suggest that EVTs invade the entire uterine vasculature including arteries, veins and lymphatics in the first trimester of pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that EVT-derived factors accumulate in the circulation of pregnant women early in gestation and may serve to predict eoPE...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659791/human-placental-growth-hormone-variant-in-pathological-pregnancies
#6
Shutan Liao, Mark H Vickers, Joanna L Stanley, Philip N Baker, Jo K Perry
Growth hormone (GH), an endocrine hormone primarily secreted from the anterior pituitary, stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration and is a major regulator of postnatal growth. Humans have two GH genes which encode two versions of GH proteins: a pituitary version (GH-N/GH1), and a placental GH variant (GH-V/GH2) which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast cells of the placenta. During pregnancy, placental GH replaces pituitary GH in the maternal circulation at mid-late gestation as the major circulating form of GH...
April 6, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655601/placental-disposition-of-the-immunosuppressive-drug-tacrolimus-in-renal-transplant-recipients-and-in-ex-vivo-perfused-placental-tissue
#7
J J M Freriksen, D Feyaerts, P H H van den Broek, O W H van der Heijden, J van Drongelen, H W van Hamersvelt, F G M Russel, R G van der Molen, R Greupink
Currently, tacrolimus is the most potent immunosuppressive agent for renal transplant recipients and is commonly prescribed during pregnancy. As data on placental exposure and transfer are limited, we studied tacrolimus placental handling in samples obtained from renal transplant recipients. We found transfer to venous umbilical cord blood, but particularly noted a strong placental accumulation. In patient samples, tissue concentrations in a range of 55-82 ng/g were found. More detailed ex vivo dual-side perfusions of term placentas from healthy women revealed a tissue-to-maternal perfusate concentration ratio of 113 ± 49 (mean ± SEM), underlining the placental accumulation found in vivo...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626983/hematopoietic-changes-in-the-offspring-induced-by-maternal-overweight-effect-on-placenta-and-fetal-liver-populations
#8
Luana Leirós, Juliana Barbosa Torreão Dáu, Daphne Pinheiro, Ana Carolina Stumbo Machado, Alessandra Alves Thole, Erika Afonso Costa Cortez, Laís de Carvalho, Simone Nunes de Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow cells (BMC) from obese adult mice display an increased apoptosis rate over proliferation. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) form all blood cells and are important BMC used in cell therapy. Because it is known that prenatal development can be affected by adverse metabolic epigenetic programming from the maternal organism, this work aimed to investigate the effects of maternal overweight on placenta and fetal liver hematopoietic niches. METHODS: Overweight was induced in female mice by overfeeding during lactation...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626711/non-invasive-prenatal-diagnosis-of-fetal-aneuploidy-using-cell-free-fetal-dna
#9
REVIEW
Barbara Renga
The discovery of cell free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has stimulated a rapid development of non-invasive prenatal testing. The recent advent of massively parallel sequencing has allowed the analysis of circulating cell-free fetal DNA to be performed with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. It is thus expected that plasma DNA-based non invasive prenatal testing will play an increasingly important role in the future of obstetric care. The present review summarizes recent advances in non invasive prenatal testing using cell free fetal DNA...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611751/-the-pathogenetic-role-and-expression-profile-of-micrornas-in-preeclampsia
#10
Orsolya Biró, János Rigó
Preeclampsia is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality that affects 3-8% of pregnancies worldwide. Its main symptoms include new onset of high blood pressure and proteinuria after 20 weeks of pregnancy. The cause of the disease is still debated. microRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules that play a pivotal part in the posttranscriptional regulation of eukaryotic genes. They are involved in fine-tuning of vital physiological processes such as cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation and cell death...
April 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610266/causative-effects-of-genetically-determined-high-maternal-fetal-endothelin-1-on-preeclampsia-like-conditions-in-mice
#11
Feng Li, Masao Kakoki, Marcela Smid, Kim Boggess, Jennifer Wilder, Sylvia Hiller, Carol Bounajim, Scott E Parnell, Kathleen K Sulik, Oliver Smithies, Nobuyo Maeda-Smithies
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. An association between an EDN1 gene polymorphism with high ET-1 and preeclampsia was reported in humans, but their cause and effect relationships have not been defined. We examined the pregnancy effects in mice with a modified Edn1 allele that increases mRNA stability and thus ET-1 production. Heterozygous Edn1 H/ + females showed no obvious abnormalities before pregnancy, but when mated with wild-type (WT) males developed a full spectrum of preeclampsia-like phenotypes, including increased systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, glomerular endotheliosis, and intrauterine fetal growth restriction...
May 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595011/-incidental-findings-of-maternal-genetic-abnormalities-during-non-invasive-prenatal-screening
#12
F Léonard, Renaud Gueben, Robin Gueben, B Grisart, C Van Linthout
The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) has recently been added in our clinical practice. Sensitivity and specificity of this method in the common fetal aneuploidies screening is about 99 %. This technique remains a screening test, not a diagnosis test, because false positive or negative results exist. The discordant results are explained by the method itself witch analyses the whole free circulating DNA in the maternal blood: the fetal DNA from trophoblastic cells lysing but also the maternal DNA. Placenta confined mosaic is the main false positive cause reported in the literature...
March 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550862/have-we-done-our-last-amniocentesis-updates-on-cell-free-dna-for-down-syndrome-screening
#13
REVIEW
Kathryn J Gray, Louise E Wilkins-Haug
Prenatal aneuploidy screening changed significantly in 2012 when cell-free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was introduced as a noninvasive prenatal test. A noninvasive prenatal test detects cell free fragments of fetal DNA from the placenta circulating in maternal blood that coexist with cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of maternal origin. Using next-generation sequencing, the noninvasive prenatal test compares maternal and fetal cfDNA ratios for chromosomes of interest (i.e., 21, 18, 13, X, and Y) to assess chromosomal aneuploidy...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550860/gestational-bisphenol-s-impairs-placental-endocrine-function-and-the-fusogenic-trophoblast-signaling-pathway
#14
Jeremy Gingrich, Yong Pu, Jennifer Roberts, Rajendiran Karthikraj, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Richard Ehrhardt, Almudena Veiga-Lopez
Exposure to bisphenolic chemicals during pregnancy occurs in > 90% of pregnancies. Bisphenolic compounds can cross the placental barrier reaching fetal circulation. However, the effects of emerging bisphenolic compounds, such as bisphenol S (BPS), on placental function remain untested. The aim was to determine if bisphenol A (BPA) or BPS, at an environmentally relevant dose, impairs placental function. Pregnant sheep were randomly distributed into three treatment groups (n = 7-8/group): control, BPA, and BPS...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542187/multiplex-pcr-in-noninvasive-prenatal-diagnosis-for-fgfr3-related-disorders
#15
Sumire Terasawa, Asuka Kato, Haruki Nishizawa, Takema Kato, Hikari Yoshizawa, Yoshiteru Noda, Jun Miyazaki, Mayuko Ito, Takao Sekiya, Takuma Fujii, Hiroki Kurahashi
Thanatophoric dysplasia and achondroplasia are allelic disorders caused by a constitutively active mutation in the FGFR3 gene. Because thanatophoric dysplasia is a lethal disorder and achondroplasia is non-lethal, they need to be distinguished after ultrasound identification of fetal growth retardation with short limbs. Accordingly, we have developed a noninvasive prenatal test using cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation to distinguish thanatophoric dysplasia and achondroplasia. A multiplex PCR system encompassing five mutation hotspots in the FGFR3 gene allowed us to efficiently identify the responsible mutation in cell-free DNA in all examined pregnancies with a suspected thanatophoric dysplasia or achondroplasia fetus...
March 14, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521599/celecoxib-restores-angiogenic-factor-expression-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface-in-the-bph-5-mouse-model-of-preeclampsia
#16
Dorien Reijnders, Chin-Chi Liu, Xinjing Xu, Anna M Zhao, Kelsey N Olson, Scott D Butler, Nataki C Douglas, Jenny L Sones
Preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disease of pregnancy, is a leading cause of fetal and maternal morbidity/mortality. Early angiogenic and inflammatory disturbances within the placenta are thought to underlie the development of the maternal PE syndrome and poor pregnancy outcomes. However, the exact etiology remains largely unknown. Here, we use the BPH/5 mouse model of PE to elucidate the way in which inflammation early in pregnancy contributes to abnormal expression of angiogenic factors at the maternal-fetal interface...
May 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500366/deletion-of-the-syncytin-a-receptor-ly6e-impairs-syncytiotrophoblast-fusion-and-placental-morphogenesis-causing-embryonic-lethality-in-mice
#17
Michael B Langford, Jennifer E Outhwaite, Martha Hughes, David R C Natale, David G Simmons
Fetal growth and survival is dependent on the elaboration and propinquity of the fetal and maternal circulations within the placenta. Central to this is the formation of the interhaemal membrane, a multi-cellular lamina facilitating exchange of oxygen, nutrients and metabolic waste products between the mother and fetus. In rodents, this cellular barrier contains two transporting layers of syncytiotrophoblast, which are multinucleated cells that form by cell-cell fusion. Previously, we reported the expression of the GPI-linked cell surface protein LY6E by the syncytial layer closest to the maternal sinusoids of the mouse placenta (syncytiotrophoblast layer I)...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479732/immune-activation-by-nucleic-acids-a-role-in-pregnancy-complications
#18
REVIEW
B Konečná, L Lauková, B Vlková
Cell-free self-DNA or RNA may induce an immune response by activating specific sensing receptors. During pregnancy, placental nucleic acids present in the maternal circulation further activate these receptors due to the presence of unmethylated CpG islands. A higher concentration of cell-free foetal DNA is associated with pregnancy complications and a higher risk for foetal rejection. Cell-free foetal DNA originates from placental trophoblasts. It appears in different forms: free, bound to histones in nucleosomes, in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and in extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
April 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462319/cell-free-fetal-dna-testing-in-singleton-ivf-conceptions
#19
Timothy J Lee, Daniel L Rolnik, Melody A Menezes, Andrew C McLennan, Fabricio da Silva Costa
STUDY QUESTION: Are fetal fraction, test failure rate and positive predictive value (PPV) of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) testing different in singleton IVF conceptions compared to spontaneous conceptions? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fetal fraction is significantly lower; test failure rate is higher and PPV of cffDNA testing is lower in singleton pregnancies conceived by IVF than those conceived spontaneously. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: cffDNA testing, which analyses circulating cffDNA in maternal blood, has very high accuracy for detection of trisomy 21 in the general obstetric population...
April 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422210/pathophysiology-of-placental-derived-fetal-growth-restriction
#20
REVIEW
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
Placental-related fetal growth restriction arises primarily due to deficient remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries supplying the placenta during early pregnancy. The resultant malperfusion induces cell stress within the placental tissues, leading to selective suppression of protein synthesis and reduced cell proliferation. These effects are compounded in more severe cases by increased infarction and fibrin deposition. Consequently, there is a reduction in villous volume and surface area for maternal-fetal exchange...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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