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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758828/second-trimester-extracellular-micrornas-in-maternal-blood-and-fetal-growth-an-exploratory-study
#1
Rodosthenis S Rodosthenous, Heather H Burris, Alison P Sanders, Allan C Just, Alexandra E Dereix, Katherine Svensson, Maritsa Solano, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, Robert O Wright, Andrea A Baccarelli
Healthy feto-maternal communication is critical during pregnancy and is orchestrated by the placenta. Dysfunction of the placenta leads to fetal growth complications; however, the underlying biological mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. Circulating extracellular microRNAs (exmiRNAs) in the blood have been implicated in cell-to-cell communication. Therefore, exmiRNAs may provide useful biological information about communication between the mother, the fetus, and the placenta during pregnancy. We used logistic regression to determine the association of exmiRNAs with abnormal fetal growth by comparing mothers of infants classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA) (n = 36) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) (n = 13) to appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA), matched by gestational age at delivery and infant sex...
July 31, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754617/infection-by-schistosoma-mansoni-during-pregnancy-effects-on-offspring-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Vanessa Ribeiro Figliuolo da Paz, Danielly Sequeira, Alexandre Pyrrho
About 25 million Brazilians live in areas at risk of contracting the disease caused by the trematoda Schistosoma mansoni, the schistosomiasis mansoni. Although the adult parasites inhabit the blood vessels, probably the main element responsible for the pathology of the disease are the eggs, whose deposition in the liver results in formation of granulomas and hypersensitivity mediated by CD4 T cells. In the course of infection, the profile of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines released by immune cells is correlated with the extent of inflammation in the granuloma and with the disease severity...
July 25, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727021/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-the-effects-of-poor-maternal-nutrition-during-gestation-on-offspring-postnatal-growth-and-metabolism
#3
M L Hoffman, S A Reed, S M Pillai, A K Jones, K K McFadden, S A Zinn, K E Govoni
Poor maternal nutrition during gestation has been linked to poor growth and development, metabolic dysfunction, impaired health, and reduced productivity of offspring in many species. Poor maternal nutrition can be defined as an excess or restriction of overall nutrients or specific macro- or micronutrients in the diet of the mother during gestation. Interestingly, there are several reports that both restricted- and over-feeding during gestation negatively affect offspring postnatal growth with reduced muscle and bone deposition, increased adipose accumulation, and metabolic dysregulation through reduced leptin and insulin sensitivity...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721719/imprinted-nanovelcro-microchips-for-isolation-and-characterization-of-circulating-fetal-trophoblasts-toward-noninvasive-prenatal-diagnostics
#4
Shuang Hou, Jie-Fu Chen, Min Song, Yazhen Zhu, Yu Jen Jan, Szu Hao Chen, Tzu-Hua Weng, Dean-An Ling, Shang-Fu Chen, Tracy Ro, An-Jou Liang, Tom Lee, Helen Jin, Man Li, Lian Liu, Yu-Sheng Hsiao, Peilin Chen, Hsiao-Hua Yu, Ming-Song Tsai, Margareta D Pisarska, Angela Chen, Li-Ching Chen, Hsian-Rong Tseng
Circulating fetal nucleated cells (CFNCs) in maternal blood offer an ideal source of fetal genomic DNA for noninvasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD). We developed a class of nanoVelcro microchips to effectively enrich a subcategory of CFNCs, i.e., circulating trophoblasts (cTBs) from maternal blood, which can then be isolated with single-cell resolution by a laser capture microdissection (LCM) technique for downstream genetic testing. We first established a nanoimprinting fabrication process to prepare the LCM-compatible nanoVelcro substrates...
July 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715646/l-form-bacteria-cohabitants-in-human-blood-significance-for-health-and-diseases
#5
Nadya D Markova
From a historical perspective, intriguing assumptions about unknown "live units" in human blood have attracted the attention of researchers, reflecting their desire to define a new class of microorganisms. Thus, the concept of "blood microbiota" brings about many questions about the nature, origin, and biological significance of the "unusual microbial cohabitants" in human blood. In contrast to current views that bloodstream in healthy humans is sterile, the hypothesis about the existence of microbes as L-forms (cell wall deficient bacteria) in human blood has evolved on the basis of known facts about their unique biology, as observed in our studies and those of other authors...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714092/serial-block-face-scanning-electron-microscopy-of-erythrocytes-protruding-through-the-human-placental-syncytiotrophoblast
#6
Eleni Palaiologou, Patricia Goggin, David S Chatelet, Emma M Lofthouse, Christopher Torrens, Bram G Sengers, Jane K Cleal, Anton Page, Rohan M Lewis
The syncytiotrophoblast forms a continuous barrier between the maternal and fetal circulations. Here we present a serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) study, based on a single image stack, showing pooling of fetal blood underneath a region of stretched syncytiotrophoblast that has become detached from the basement membrane. Erythrocytes are protruding from discrete holes in the syncytiotrophoblast suggesting that, under specific circumstances, the syncytiotrophoblast may be permeable to fetal cells...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693893/emerging-role-for-dysregulated-decidualization-in-the-genesis-of-preeclampsia
#7
Kirk P Conrad, Maria Belen Rabaglino, Emiel D Post Uiterweer
In normal human placentation, uterine invasion by trophoblast cells and subsequent spiral artery remodeling depend on cooperation among fetal trophoblasts and maternal decidual, myometrial, immune and vascular cells in the uterine wall. Therefore, aberrant function of anyone or several of these cell-types could theoretically impair placentation leading to the development of preeclampsia. Because trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling occur during the first half of pregnancy, the molecular pathology of fetal placental and maternal decidual tissues following delivery may not be informative about the genesis of impaired placentation, which transpired months earlier...
June 9, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663440/elabela-deficiency-promotes-preeclampsia-and-cardiovascular-malformations-in-mice
#8
Lena Ho, Marie Van Dijk, Sam Tan Jian Chye, Daniel M Messerschmidt, Serene C Chng, Sheena Ong, Ling Ka Yi, Souad Boussata, Grace Hui-Yi Goh, Gijs B Afink, Chin Yan Lim, N Ray Dunn, Davor Solter, Barbara B Knowles, Bruno Reversade
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a gestational hypertensive syndrome affecting between 5 and 8% of all pregnancies. While PE is the leading cause of fetal and maternal morbidity/mortality, its molecular etiology is still unclear. Here, we show that ELABELA (ELA), an endogenous ligand of the apelin receptor (APLNR, or APJ), is a circulating hormone secreted by the placenta. Elabela but not Apelin knockout pregnant mice exhibit PE-like symptoms, including proteinuria and elevated blood pressure due to defective placental angiogenesis...
June 29, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658297/abnormal-dendritic-maturation-of-developing-cortical-neurons-exposed-to-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-insights-into-effects-of-prenatal-adversity
#9
Megan M Curran, Curt A Sandman, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn, Tallie Z Baram
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced by the hypothalamus initiates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the body's stress response. CRH levels typically are undetectable in human plasma, but during pregnancy the primate placenta synthesizes and releases large amounts of CRH into both maternal and fetal circulations. Notably, placental CRH synthesis increases in response to maternal stress signals. There is evidence that human fetal exposure to high concentrations of placental CRH is associated with behavioral consequences during infancy and into childhood, however the direct effects on of the peptide on the human brain are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651899/the-cytotrophoblastic-shell-and-complications-of-pregnancy
#10
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
Many complications of pregnancy have their pathophysiological roots in the early stages of placentation. Impaired trophoblast invasion and deficient remodelling of the maternal spiral arteries are a common feature. While malperfusion of the placenta may underpin cases of fetal growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia, the mechanistic links to spontaneous miscarriage, pre-term labour and premature rupture of the membranes are less obvious. Here, we speculate that formation of a well-developed cytotrophoblastic shell at the maternal-fetal interface is crucial for pregnancy success...
June 13, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623970/localization-of-the-placental-bcrp-abcg2-transporter-to-lipid-rafts-role-for-cholesterol-in-mediating-efflux-activity
#11
John T Szilagyi, Anna M Vetrano, Jeffrey D Laskin, Lauren M Aleksunes
INTRODUCTION: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is an efflux transporter in the placental barrier. By transporting chemicals from the fetal to the maternal circulation, BCRP limits fetal exposure to a range of drugs, toxicants, and endobiotics such as bile acids and hormones. The purpose of the present studies was to 1) determine whether BCRP localizes to highly-ordered, cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in placenta microvillous membranes, and 2) determine the impact of cholesterol on BCRP-mediated placental transport in vitro...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618983/regulatory-t-cells-show-dynamic-behavior-during-late-pregnancy-delivery-and-the-postpartum-period
#12
Jorge Lima, Catarina Martins, Glória Nunes, Maria-José Sousa, Jorge C Branco, Luís-Miguel Borrego
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical immunomodulators during early pregnancy by preventing maternal T-cell activation against fetal cells. However, how populations of maternal Tregs vary during and after pregnancy in humans is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated Treg subsets in the peripheral blood of pregnant women from late pregnancy through the postpartum period. To accomplish this, the following circulating Treg subsets were analyzed in 43 healthy pregnant women and 35 nonpregnant women by flow cytometry during the third trimester, on the day of delivery, and postpartum: CD4(Dim)CD25(Hi), CD4(+)CD25(Hi)Foxp3(+), and CD4(+)CD25(Hi)CD127(-/dim)...
July 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597291/multiple-drug-transporters-mediate-the-placental-transport-of-sulpiride
#13
Mengru Bai, Zhiyuan Ma, Dongli Sun, Caihong Zheng, Yayun Weng, Xi Yang, Ting Jiang, Huidi Jiang
Sulpiride is a typical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression and other psychological disorders. It has been proven that a small amount of sulpiride could cross the human placenta using an ex vivo placental perfusion model. However, the placental transfer mechanism has not been elucidated. Considering the structure of sulpiride, we speculated that the transporters expressed in placenta might be involved in sulpiride uptake across the blood-placenta barrier. The aim of our study was to determine which transporters contributed to the placental transfer of sulpiride...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577615/maternal-allo-recognition-of-the-fetus
#14
REVIEW
Ashley Moffett, Olympe Chazara, Francesco Colucci
Immunological adjustments are needed to accommodate the close contact between two genetically different individuals, the mother and her baby, during mammalian pregnancy. Contact occurs between fetal somatic or placental cells that enter the maternal systemic circulation or between uterine immune cells and the invading extravillous trophoblast. Here we discuss two main types of maternal allo-recognition of the fetus. One depends on avoidance of maternal T cells recognizing and responding to paternally-derived non-self human leukocyte antigens class I and class I allotypes...
June 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567130/villous-tree-model-with-active-contractions-for-estimating-blood-flow-conditions-in-the-human-placenta
#15
Yoko Kato, Michelle L Oyen, Graham J Burton
BACKGROUND: In the human placenta, maternal and fetal bloods exchange substances through the surface of the villous trees: the fetal blood circulates in the villous trees, around which the maternal blood circulates. The blood flows directly influence fetal growth. Stem villi, the main supports of the villous tree, have contractile cells along the axes, whose contractions are expected to influence the blood circulations in the placenta. The displacement is neither measurable nor predictable while non-invasive measurements such as umbilical Doppler waveforms are helpful to predict the histological changes of the villous trees and vascularization in the placenta...
2017: Open Biomedical Engineering Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549829/impact-of-chlorpyrifos-on-human-villous-trophoblasts-and-chorionic-villi
#16
M E Ridano, A C Racca, J B Flores-Martin, R Fretes, C L Bandeira, L Reyna, E Bevilacqua, S Genti-Raimondi, G M Panzetta-Dutari
Placental barrier regulates maternal-fetal interchange protecting the baby from damage caused by substances found in the uterine environment or circulating in the vascular system. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are a paramount group of environmental pollutants used in intensive agriculture for protection against diseases and pests. While many studies have reported an increased risk of pregnancy alterations in pregnant women exposed to OPs, few have analyzed the effects caused by these pesticides in the placenta...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541280/a-quantitative-csmart-assay-for-noninvasive-prenatal-screening-of-autosomal-recessive-nonsyndromic-hearing-loss-caused-by-gjb2-and-slc26a4-mutations
#17
Mingyu Han, Zhifeng Li, Wenlu Wang, Shasha Huang, Yanping Lu, Zhiying Gao, Longxia Wang, Dongyang Kang, Linwei Li, Yiqian Liu, Mengnan Xu, David S Cram, Pu Dai
PurposeThe aim of this study was to assess the performance of a noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) assay for accurate fetal genotyping of pregnancies at genetic risk for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL).MethodsA total of 80 pregnant couples carrying known mutations in either the GJB2 or SLC26A4 genes associated with a risk for ARNSHL were recruited to the study. Fetal amniocyte samples were genotyped by invasive prenatal screening (IPS), whereas the cell-free fetal DNA present in maternal plasma samples was genotyped using a novel NIPS method based on circulating single-molecule amplification and resequencing technology (cSMART)...
May 25, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516946/ccl2-ccr2-signalling-recruits-a-distinct-fetal-microchimeric-population-that-rescues-delayed-maternal-wound-healing
#18
Mathieu Castela, Dany Nassar, Maria Sbeih, Marie Jachiet, Zhe Wang, Selim Aractingi
Foetal microchimeric cells (FMCs) traffic into maternal circulation during pregnancy and persist for decades after delivery. Upon maternal injury, FMCs migrate to affected sites where they participate in tissue healing. However, the specific signals regulating the trafficking of FMCs to injury sites had to be identified. Here we report that, in mice, a subset of FMCs implicated in tissue repair displays CD11b(+) CD34(+) CD31(+) phenotype and highly express C-C chemokine receptor 2 (Ccr2). The Ccr2 ligand chemokine ligand 2 (Ccl2) enhances the recruitment of FMCs to maternal wounds where these cells transdifferentiate into endothelial cells and stimulate angiogenesis through Cxcl1 secretion...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487135/estrogen-enhanced-apical-and-basolateral-secretion-of-apolipoprotein-b-100-by-polarized-trophoblast-derived-bewo-cells
#19
Miriam Kamper, Florian Mittermayer, Rosalinda Cabuk, Katharina Gelles, Isabella Ellinger, Marcela Hermann
Cholesterol is an important nutrient for fetal development and transplacental transport occurs at all stages of human pregnancy. Furthermore, cholesterol is required for membrane building as well as steroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, all placental cell types require cholesterol for proper function. In human term placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) faces the maternal circulation. Uptake of maternal-derived cholesterol at the apical membrane of the STB is well understood, but the route by which cholesterol exits at the basal side for subsequent transfer across the fetal endothelial cells (FEC) or to other placental cell types remains not well characterized...
July 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487016/the-expression-level-of-c19mc-mirnas-in-early-pregnancy-and-in-response-to-viral-infection
#20
Tina M F Dumont, Jean-Francois Mouillet, Avaraham Bayer, Christina L Gardner, William B Klimstra, Dana G Wolf, Simcha Yagel, Fabiola Balmir, Anna Binstock, Joseph S Sanfilippo, Carolyn B Coyne, Jacob C Larkin, Yoel Sadovsky
INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that miRNAs produced from the Chromosome 19 MiRNA Cluster (C19MC), which are expressed almost exclusively in primate trophoblasts and are released into the maternal circulation, reduce viral replication in non-placental cells and can modulate migratory behavior of extravillous trophoblast. We sought to define the expression pattern of C19MC miRNA in early pregnancy and in response to viral infection in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: We prospectively followed women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and determined their blood level of C19MC miRNA using RT-qPCR...
May 2017: Placenta
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