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Anatomy larynx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148119/the-anatomy-of-the-pediatric-airway-has-our-knowledge-changed-in-120-years-a-review-of-historic-and-recent-investigations-of-the-anatomy-of-the-pediatric-larynx
#1
REVIEW
Josef Holzki, Karen A Brown, Robert G Carroll, Charles J Coté
BACKGROUND: There is disagreement regarding the anatomy of the pediatric airway, particularly regarding the shape of the cricoid cartilage and the location of the narrowest portion of the larynx. AIMS: The aim of this review is to clarify the origin and the science behind these differing views. METHODS: We undertook a review of published literature, University Libraries, and authoritative textbooks with key search words and phrases. RESULTS: In vivo observations suggest that the narrowest portion of the airway is more proximal than the cricoid cartilage...
November 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032129/linear-measurements-of-vocal-folds-and-laryngeal-dimensions-in-freshly-excised-human-larynges
#2
Mohamed K Mobashir, Abd El Raof S Mohamed, Amal S Quriba, Ahmad M Anany, Elham M Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the morphology of the larynx, one of the most complex organs of the human body, is an important step toward understanding the detailed laryngeal anatomy, and physiology. Different studies have described the linear measurements of the larynx in different measuring methods, but no studies have been structured to describe vocal fold length in freshly excised larynges. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe exact anatomical measurements of vocal folds and some laryngeal structures in freshly excised larynges, and to compare such measurements between males and females...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956497/juan-valverde-de-amusco-1525-1588-an-eminent-anatomist-of-the-renaissance-or-a-plagiarist-of-vesalius-his-work-and-its-impact-in-renaissance-anatomy
#3
Konstantinos Markatos, Konstantina Arkoudi, Georgios Androutsos
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to review and summarize the life and work of Juan Valverde de Amusco (1525-1588), his impact on the anatomy of the sixteenth century and focus on his controversy with Andreas Vesalius. METHODS: A thorough search of the literature was undertaken in PubMed and Google Scholar as well as in history books through the internet and in History and Medical University libraries. RESULTS: Valverde took almost directly from Andreas Vesalius 38 pictures...
September 28, 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808821/-airway-anatomy-relevant-structures-in-emergency-medicine
#4
M Schulze, A Wree
The subject of this article is the anatomy of the respiratory tract with an emphasis on the larynx. A differentiation is made between the upper and lower airways according to topographical and functional aspects, the limits of which are marked by the lower section of the larynx. The focus is on the anatomy of the structures involved, which are relevant for emergency medicine.
September 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627987/computerised-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-practical-approach
#5
Francesco Agnello, Francesco Cupido, Gianvincenzo Sparacia, Federico Midiri, Martina Miroddi, Emanuele Grassedonio, Massimo Galia
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common head and neck cancer. This review describes the state-of-the-art computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging protocols of the neck and the normal larynx anatomy, and provides a practical approach for the diagnosis and staging of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
June 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578533/unusually-high-pitched-neonate-distress-calls-of-the-open-habitat-mongolian-gazelle-procapra-gutturosa-and-their-anatomical-and-hormonal-predictors
#6
Ilya A Volodin, Elena V Volodina, Roland Frey, Vadim E Kirilyuk, Sergey V Naidenko
In neonate ruminants, the acoustic structure of vocalizations may depend on sex, vocal anatomy, hormonal profiles and body mass and on environmental factors. In neonate wild-living Mongolian gazelles Procapra gutturosa, hand-captured during biomedical monitoring in the Daurian steppes at the Russian-Mongolian border, we spectrographically analysed distress calls and measured body mass of 22 individuals (6 males, 16 females). For 20 (5 male, 15 female) of these individuals, serum testosterone levels were also analysed...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566046/are-all-manikins-created-equal-a-pilot-study-of-simulator-upper-airway-anatomic-fidelity
#7
Jennifer A Woo, Sonya Malekzadeh, Kelly M Malloy, Ellen S Deutsch
This study evaluates the anatomic fidelity of several commercially available pediatric and adult manikins, including airway task trainers, which could be used in aerodigestive procedure training. Twenty-three experienced otolaryngologists assessed the aerodigestive anatomy of 5 adult and 5 pediatric manikins in a passive state, using rigid and flexible endoscopy. Anatomic fidelity was rated on a 5-point scale for the following: nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, esophagus, and neck...
June 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547793/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-normal-and-abnormal-swallowing-in-oropharyngeal-dysphagia
#8
REVIEW
A Sasegbon, S Hamdy
BACKGROUND: Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus...
November 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513864/the-influence-of-non-rigid-anatomy-and-patient-positioning-on-endoscopy-ct-image-registration-in-the-head-and-neck
#9
W Scott Ingram, Jinzhong Yang, Richard Wendt, Beth M Beadle, Arvind Rao, Xin A Wang, Laurence E Court
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of non-rigid anatomy and differences in patient positioning between CT acquisition and endoscopic examination on endoscopy-CT image registration in the head and neck. METHODS: Radiotherapy planning CTs and 31-35 daily treatment-room CTs were acquired for nineteen patients. Diagnostic CTs were acquired for thirteen of the patients. The surfaces of the airways were segmented on all scans and triangular meshes were created to render virtual endoscopic images with a calibrated pinhole model of an endoscope...
August 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405749/the-anterior-commissure-of-the-human-larynx-revisited
#10
Jean Michel Prades, M Peoc'h, C Petcu, A Karkas, J M Dumollard, M Gavid
BACKGROUND: The anterior commissure (AC) of the human larynx is usually understood as an area of the glottis anteriorly situated between the two vocal folds inserting to the thyroid cartilage (TC). The pattern of spread of AC carcinoma could hypothesize that AC could include other structures of the ventral larynx as developmental anatomy could demonstrate. METHODS: Ten adult larynx specimens from donation program cadavers and 15 selected fetal specimens (from 11 to 34 weeks of amenorrhoea) were studied using microdissection and histological serial sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and reticuline...
April 12, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243697/classification-system-for-lateral-pharyngotomy-systematic-study-of-anatomic-exposure-in-a-human-cadaver-model
#11
Courtney Shires, Aaron Smith, Jenn Lee, John Boughter, Merry Sebelik
INTRODUCTION: Lateral pharyngotomy (LP) is a surgical procedure that allows exposure to tumors of the pharynx and supraglottic larynx. This study was undertaken to: (1) propose a classification system of LP used in exposing various sites of the oropharynx, supraglottis, and hypopharynx. (2) Describe the structures visible with each category of LP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five tissue-fixed human cadavers from our gross anatomy laboratory were dissected in a manner similar to surgical lateral pharyngotomy...
February 27, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131459/hemilaryngeal-microsomia-an-anatomic-variant
#12
Matthew J Urban, Jillian Mattioni, Aaron Jaworek, Valeria Potigailo, Robert T Sataloff
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe a congenital laryngeal structural variant, hemilaryngeal microsomia (HLM), and to correlate identification on physical examination with computerized tomography scan (CT) and laryngoscopy findings. METHODS: The study was conducted at a tertiary care center. Six patients presenting with hoarseness were admitted to a tertiary care otolaryngology office. These patients had asymmetrical thyroid cartilage prominence on palpation during physical examination...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076426/evidence-of-a-vocalic-proto-system-in-the-baboon-papio-papio-suggests-pre-hominin-speech-precursors
#13
Louis-Jean Boë, Frédéric Berthommier, Thierry Legou, Guillaume Captier, Caralyn Kemp, Thomas R Sawallis, Yannick Becker, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. It has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. Examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (Papio papio) produce sounds sharing the F1/F2 formant structure of the human [ɨ æ ɑ ɔ u] vowels, and that similarly with humans those vocalic qualities are organized as a system on two acoustic-anatomic axes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958601/open-partial-horizontal-laryngectomies-is-it-time-to-adopt-a-modular-form-of-consent-for-the-intervention
#14
REVIEW
L Giordano, D Di Santo, E Crosetti, A Bertolin, G Rizzotto, G Succo, M Bussi
Nowadays, open partial horizontal laryngectomies (OPHLs) are well-established procedures for treatment of laryngeal cancer. Their uniqueness is the possibility to modulate the intervention intraoperatively, according to eventual tumour extension. An OPHL procedure is not easy to understand: there are several types of procedures and the possibility to modulate the intervention can produce confusion and lack of adherence to the treatment from the patient. Even if the surgery is tailored to a patient's specific lesion, a unified consent form that discloses any possible extensions, including a total laryngectomy, is still needed...
October 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883179/evidence-that-an-internal-schema-adapts-swallowing-to-upper-airway-requirements
#15
Seng Mun Wong, Rickie J Domangue, Sidney Fels, Christy L Ludlow
KEY POINTS: To swallow food and liquid safely, airway protection is essential. Upward and forward movements of the hyoid and larynx in the neck during swallowing vary in magnitude between individuals. In healthy human adults, hyoid and laryngeal movements during swallowing were scaled by differences in initial upper airway area before swallowing. Individuals increased laryngeal elevation during swallowing in response to increased airway opening before swallowing. We show that when upper airway protection requirements change, individuals use an internal sensorimotor scaling system to adapt movements to maintain swallow safety...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808413/a-new-solution-for-neonatal-bilateral-vocal-cord-paralysis-endoscopic-arytenoid-abduction-lateropexy
#16
Shahram Madani, Ádám Bach, Vera Matievics, Eszter Erdélyi, Balázs Sztanó, Ilona Szegesdi, Paul F Castellanos, László Rovó
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Bilateral vocal cord paralysis in early childhood is a life-threatening condition, which often requires immediate intervention. One of the treatment options is a quick, reversible simple suture vocal cord lateralizing technique, whereby the arytenoid cartilage is directly lateralized to the normal abducted position. Considering pediatric laryngeal anatomy, a small endolaryngeal thread guide instrument was designed for precise suture insertion. STUDY DESIGN: New instrument validation...
July 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730649/pediatric-laryngeal-simulator-using-3d-printed-models-a-novel-technique
#17
Katherine R Kavanagh, Valerie Cote, Yvonne Tsui, Simon Kudernatsch, Donald R Peterson, Tulio A Valdez
OBJECTIVE: Simulation to acquire and test technical skills is an essential component of medical education and residency training in both surgical and nonsurgical specialties. High-quality simulation education relies on the availability, accessibility, and reliability of models. The objective of this work was to describe a practical pediatric laryngeal model for use in otolaryngology residency training. Ideally, this model would be low-cost, have tactile properties resembling human tissue, and be reliably reproducible...
April 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712907/classic-signs-in-head-and-neck-imaging
#18
REVIEW
N A Koontz, T A Seltman, S F Kralik, K M Mosier, H R Harnsberger
Radiologists have long relied upon the use of metaphoric imaging signs to attribute meaning to disease or anatomy-specific imaging patterns encountered in clinical imaging. Teachers of radiology often employ the use of such signs to help learners rapidly identify the typical appearance of various pathologies. Head and neck (H&N) imaging is no exception, and as a specialty that deals with uncommon pathologies and complex anatomy, learners and practising radiologists alike may benefit from this simplistic, pattern-based approach...
December 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681762/head-and-neck-margin-reduction-with-adaptive-radiation-therapy-robustness-of-treatment-plans-against-anatomy-changes
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Simon van Kranen, Olga Hamming-Vrieze, Annelisa Wolf, Eugène Damen, Marcel van Herk, Jan-Jakob Sonke
PURPOSE: We set out to investigate loss of target coverage from anatomy changes in head and neck cancer patients as a function of applied safety margins and to verify a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based adaptive strategy with an average patient anatomy to overcome possible target underdosage. METHODS AND MATERIALS: For 19 oropharyngeal cancer patients, volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans (2 arcs; simultaneous integrated boost, 70 and 54.25 Gy; 35 fractions) were automatically optimized with uniform clinical target volume (CTV)-to-planning target volume margins of 5, 3, and 0 mm...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619197/the-effects-of-curvature-and-constriction-on-airflow-and-energy-loss-in-pathological-tracheas
#20
A J Bates, R Cetto, D J Doorly, R C Schroter, N S Tolley, A Comerford
This paper considers factors that play a significant role in determining inspiratory pressure and energy losses in the human trachea. Previous characterisations of pathological geometry changes have focussed on relating airway constriction and subsequent pressure loss, however many pathologies that affect the trachea cause deviation, increased curvature, constriction or a combination of these. This study investigates the effects of these measures on tracheal flow mechanics, using the compressive goitre (a thyroid gland enlargement) as an example...
December 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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