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Anatomy larynx

Katherine R Kavanagh, Valerie Cote, Yvonne Tsui, Simon Kudernatsch, Donald R Peterson, Tulio A Valdez
OBJECTIVE: Simulation to acquire and test technical skills is an essential component of medical education and residency training in both surgical and nonsurgical specialties. High-quality simulation education relies on the availability, accessibility, and reliability of models. The objective of this work was to describe a practical pediatric laryngeal model for use in otolaryngology residency training. Ideally, this model would be low-cost, have tactile properties resembling human tissue, and be reliably reproducible...
October 12, 2016: Laryngoscope
N A Koontz, T A Seltman, S F Kralik, K M Mosier, H R Harnsberger
Radiologists have long relied upon the use of metaphoric imaging signs to attribute meaning to disease or anatomy-specific imaging patterns encountered in clinical imaging. Teachers of radiology often employ the use of such signs to help learners rapidly identify the typical appearance of various pathologies. Head and neck (H&N) imaging is no exception, and as a specialty that deals with uncommon pathologies and complex anatomy, learners and practising radiologists alike may benefit from this simplistic, pattern-based approach...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Radiology
Simon van Kranen, Olga Hamming-Vrieze, Annelisa Wolf, Eugène Damen, Marcel van Herk, Jan-Jakob Sonke
PURPOSE: We set out to investigate loss of target coverage from anatomy changes in head and neck cancer patients as a function of applied safety margins and to verify a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based adaptive strategy with an average patient anatomy to overcome possible target underdosage. METHODS AND MATERIALS: For 19 oropharyngeal cancer patients, volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans (2 arcs; simultaneous integrated boost, 70 and 54.25 Gy; 35 fractions) were automatically optimized with uniform clinical target volume (CTV)-to-planning target volume margins of 5, 3, and 0 mm...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
A J Bates, R Cetto, D J Doorly, R C Schroter, N S Tolley, A Comerford
This paper considers factors that play a significant role in determining inspiratory pressure and energy losses in the human trachea. Previous characterisations of pathological geometry changes have focussed on relating airway constriction and subsequent pressure loss, however many pathologies that affect the trachea cause deviation, increased curvature, constriction or a combination of these. This study investigates the effects of these measures on tracheal flow mechanics, using compressive goitre (a thyroid gland enlargement) as an example...
September 9, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Kurt Nikander, Dirk von Hollen, El Hassane Larhrib
INTRODUCTION: The mouth, the pharynx and the larynx are potential sites of aerosol deposition in the upper airway during inhalation of aerosolized drugs. The right angle bend of the lumen at the back of the mouth, the position of the tongue, the variable size and shape of the lumen in the pharynx and the larynx, and the breathing pattern could increase aerosol deposition in the upper airway and decrease lung deposition. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the anatomy of the upper airway from the oral cavity to the glottis and the impact of mandibular protrusion and incisal opening on the size of the upper airway are highlighted...
August 22, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Daniel Alvarez-Berdugo, Laia Rofes, J Francesc Casamitjana, Andreína Padrón, Miquel Quer, Pere Clavé
Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) affects older and neurological patients, causing malnutrition and dehydration and increasing the risk for aspiration pneumonia. There is evidence that sensory deficits in those populations are closely related to swallowing disorders, and several research groups are developing new therapies based on sensory stimulation of this area. More information on the sensory innervation participating in the swallow response is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of OD and to develop new treatments...
July 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Demet Altun, Nükhet Sivrikoz, Emre Çamcı
Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a multisystemic disorder characterised by granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory system. The growing of proliferative tissue towards the larynx and trachea may cause airway obstruction on account of subglottic stenosis. In this situation, the surgical goal is to eliminate the airway obstruction by providing natural airway anatomy. While mild lesions do not require surgical intervention, in fixed lesions, surgical intervention is required, such as tracheostomy, laser resection and dilatation...
October 2015: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Amanda Hu, Patricia A Shewokis, Kimberly Ting, Kevin Fung
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Computer-aided instruction (CAI) is defined as instruction in which computers play a central role as the means of information delivery and direct interaction with learners. Computer-aided instruction has become mainstream in medical school curricula. For example, a three-dimensional (3D) computer module of the larynx has been created to teach laryngeal anatomy. Although the novelty and educational potential of CAI has garnered much attention, these new technologies have been plagued with low utilization rates...
August 2016: Laryngoscope
Brandon Michael Henry, Jens Vikse, Matthew J Graves, Silvia Sanna, Beatrice Sanna, Iwona M Tomaszewska, R Shane Tubbs, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
INTRODUCTION: The recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) are branches of the vagus nerve that go on to innervate most of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx. Historically, the RLN has been considered to branch after it enters the larynx, but numerous studies have demonstrated that it often branches before. The wide variability of this extralaryngeal branching (ELB) has significant implications for the risk of iatrogenic injury. We aimed to assess the anatomical characteristics of ELB comprehensively...
June 2, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Sarah Nemanic, Serena Mills, Matt Viehdorfer, Terri Clark, Mike Bailey
Teaching the anatomy of the canine larynx and hyoid apparatus is challenging because dissection disassembles and/or damages these structures, making it difficult to understand their three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and spatial interrelationships. This study assessed the effectiveness of an interactive, computerized 3D tutorial for teaching the anatomy of the canine larynx and hyoid apparatus using a randomized control design with students enrolled in the first-year professional program at Oregon State University College of Veterinary Medicine...
2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Yue Yang, Fang Shi, Xiaoping Chen, Wei Huang, Haitao Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of indirect CT lymphography (CT-LG) combined with nanocarbon tracer suspension staining in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection of rabbit tongue (cancer). METHOD: Eight rabbits were divided into two groups, i. e. normal control group (6 rabbits) and VX2 tongue carcinoma group (2 rabbits). Pre-contrast CT images were taken for all rabbits. The mixture of iohexol and nanocarbon tracer suspension (iohexol 0.25 ml and nanocarbon tracer 0...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Helena K Hippard, Govindan Kalyani, Olutoyin A Olutoye, David G Mann, Mehernoor F Watcha
BACKGROUND: Video-laryngoscopes provide better glottic visualization, but tracheal intubation times are longer, compared to conventional direct laryngoscopy in adult patients with normal airways. The objective of this randomized crossover study was to compare times to successful tracheal intubation with video-laryngoscope and direct laryngoscopy in manikins simulating infants with normal and abnormal airways. METHODS: Thirty experienced pediatric anesthesia practitioners performed tracheal intubation in three distinct manikins simulating infants with (i) a normal airway (ii), an anterior larynx, and (iii) the Pierre Robin sequence anatomy...
June 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
S Méndez Garrido, R F Ocete Pérez
The vocal cords play a key role in the functions of the larynx. Their motor innervation depends on the recurrent laryngeal nerve (a branch of the tenth cranial nerve), which follows a long trajectory comprising intracranial, cervical, and mediastinal segments. Vocal cord paralysis usually manifests as dysphonia, the main symptom calling for CT study, the first-line imaging test to investigate the cause of the lesion. Patients are asymptomatic in a third of cases, so the incidental detection of signs of vocal cord paralysis in a CT study done for other reasons should prompt a search for a potentially severe occult lesion...
May 2016: Radiología
Justine Kane-Smyth, Timothy P Barnett, John Mark O'Leary, Padraic M Dixon
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel surgical technique for correcting postoperative ventral glottic stenosis (cicatrix or web formation) and the outcome in 2 Thoroughbred racehorses. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case report. ANIMALS: Thoroughbreds diagnosed with ventral glottic stenosis (n=2). METHODS: Horses presenting with iatrogenic ventral glottic stenosis and resultant exercise intolerance and abnormal exercise-related noise were anesthetized and a midline sagittal skin incision was made over the ventral larynx and between the sternohyoideus muscles overlying the cricothyroid notch...
May 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Kseniya O Efremova, Roland Frey, Ilya A Volodin, Guido Fritsch, Natalia V Soldatova, Elena V Volodina
This study quantitatively documents the progressive development of sexual dimorphism of the vocal organs along the ontogeny of the goitred gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa). The major, male-specific secondary sexual features, of vocal anatomy in goitred gazelle are an enlarged larynx and a marked laryngeal descent. These features appear to have evolved by sexual selection and may serve as a model for similar events in male humans. Sexual dimorphism of larynx size and larynx position in adult goitred gazelles is more pronounced than in humans, whereas the vocal anatomy of neonate goitred gazelles does not differ between sexes...
June 2016: Journal of Morphology
Kyle Plotsky, Drew Rendall, Kevin Chase, Tobias Riede
The hyo-laryngeal complex is a multi-segmented structure integrating the oral and pharyngeal cavities and thus a variety of critical functions related to airway control, feeding, and vocal communication. Currently, we lack a complete understanding of how the hyoid complex, and the functions it mediates, can also be affected by changes in surrounding cranio-facial dimensions. Here, we explore these relationships in a breed of domestic dog, the Portuguese Water Dog, which is characterized by strong cranio-facial variation...
June 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Ramazan Gun, Enver Ozer
Traditional external surgical approaches have been used for the surgical management of the oropharyngeal and laryngeal tumors. Trans-oral robotic surgery allows surgeon to operate oropharyngeal and supraglottic tumors through the mouth with preservation of functions. The surgeons must be knowledgeable about the anatomy of the oral cavity and oropharynx medial to lateral perspective. In this article, we will describe the relevant inside out surgical anatomy and its clinical implications for trans-oral robotic surgery...
December 2015: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Mahsuk Taylan, Omer Faruk Can, Mehmet Guli Cetincakmak, Musa Ozbay
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to investigate and measure airway dynamics in anatomical regions where laryngeal cancer was most common in comparison to other regions of the larynx, thereby determining the effect of airway dynamics on the development of laryngeal cancer. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Pulmonary function test airflow data and larynx anatomy measurement data obtained by three-dimensional computed tomography. A healthy male adult was modeled by simulation using the ANSYS program...
May 2016: Laryngoscope
Naveed Siddiqui, Cristian Arzola, Zeev Friedman, Laarni Guerina, Kong Eric You-Ten
BACKGROUND: Misidentification of the cricothyroid membrane in a "cannot intubate-cannot oxygenate" situation can lead to failures and serious complications. The authors hypothesized that preprocedure ultrasound-guided identification of the cricothyroid membrane would reduce complications associated with cricothyrotomy. METHODS: A group of 47 trainees were randomized to digital palpation (n = 23) and ultrasound (n = 24) groups. Cricothyrotomy was performed on human cadavers by using the Portex device (Smiths Medical, USA)...
November 2015: Anesthesiology
Annika Jakobi, Kristin Stützer, Anna Bandurska-Luque, Steffen Löck, Robert Haase, Linda-Jacqueline Wack, David Mönnich, Daniel Thorwarth, Damien Perez, Armin Lühr, Daniel Zips, Mechthild Krause, Michael Baumann, Rosalind Perrin, Christian Richter
BACKGROUND: To determine by treatment plan comparison differences in toxicity risk reduction for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) from proton therapy either used for complete treatment or sequential boost treatment only. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 45 HNSCC patients, intensity-modulated photon (IMXT) and proton (IMPT) treatment plans were created including a dose escalation via simultaneous integrated boost with a one-step adaptation strategy after 25 fractions for sequential boost treatment...
2015: Acta Oncologica
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