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Community Psychiatry

Emmanuel Umama-Agada, Muhammad Asghar, Aoife Curley, Jane Gilhooley, Richard M Duffy, Brendan D Kelly
Involuntary psychiatric admission is an established practice for patients who are acutely or severely mentally ill but the factors contributing to involuntary (as opposed to voluntary) admission are not fully clear. Nor is it clear why rates of involuntary admission often vary between hospitals within the same jurisdiction. We studied all admissions, voluntary and involuntary, in three inpatient psychiatry units in Dublin, Ireland, which cover a population of 552,019 people, over a one-year period (1 July 2014 until 30 June 2015, inclusive), as part of the Dublin Involuntary Admission Study (DIAS)...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Rakesh Kumar Chadda, Mamta Sood
Background: General hospital psychiatry units (GHPUs) are the major providers of mental health services in India. Unlike in high-income countries, GHPUs in India are also the main training centers for providing postgraduate training in psychiatry and allied disciplines. Aim: This paper traces the history of the GHPUs in India from beginning to the present. Material and Methods: PubMed, old issues of the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and related sources were searched with key words general hospital and psychiatry both electronically and manually to look for the related literature...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Ranjan Bhattacharyya
The communication between G. S Bose and Sigmund Freud is a well-documented fact, and philosophical blend of rich cultural experiences is unique to modification of traditional psychoanalysis in the context of development of psychiatry in West Bengal. The Calcutta lunatic asylum was established at Bhowanipore, and first general hospital psychiatric unit was formed at R. G. Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Prof. Ajita Chakraborty was a pioneer to describe her struggling days in the early career and shared her views with experiences in her autobiography...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Carolin Laqua, Eric Hahn, Kerem Böge, Lara K Martensen, Tat Dinh Nguyen, Georg Schomerus, Tien Duc Cao, Michael Dettling, Anita von Poser, Joerg-Christian Lanca, Albert Diefenbacher, Matthias C Angermeyer, Thi Minh Tam Ta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In recent years, there has been a growing awareness of the need to protect human rights in psychiatry. Within the last years, considerable effort has been made to reduce restrictive measures in mental health settings. Reducing restrictive measures within mental health care has also moved increasingly into the focus of public debate. This study aims, for the first time in a Southeast Asian sample, to explore whether socio-demographic factors affect public attitudes toward restrictions on mentally ill people in Hanoi, Vietnam...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Michelle Colder Carras, Ramin Mojtabai, Bernadette Cullen
OBJECTIVE: Popular media applications have been shown to benefit people with severe mental illness by facilitating communication and social support, helping patients cope with or manage symptoms, and providing a way to monitor or predict mental health states. Although many studies of technology use by individuals with severe mental illness have focused primarily on use of social media, this study provides additional information about use of Internet applications such as blogs, wikis (websites that allow collaborative editing of content and structure by users), video games, and Skype by a community psychiatry population...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Mollie Gordon, Temilola Salami, John Coverdale, Phuong T Nguyen
Human trafficking is an outrageous human rights violation with potentially devastating consequences to individuals and the public health. Victims are often underrecognized and there are few guidelines for how best to identify, care for, and safely reintegrate victims back into the community. The purpose of this paper is to propose a multifaceted, interdisciplinary, and interprofessional guideline for providing care and services to human trafficking victims. Databases such as PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for papers outlining human trafficking programs with a primary psychiatric focus...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
R Mezzina
AIM: Italy pioneered deinstitutionalisation over the past 60 years and enforced a famous mental health (MH) reform law in 1978. Deinstitutionalisation has been completed with the very closure of all psychiatric hospitals over two decades. METHODS: After 40 years of implementation, this article presents the main achievements and challenges of the Italian MH reform law, including its long-term effect and impact in Italy and abroad. RESULTS: The Legislation of 1978 was based on the discovery of rights as a key tool in mental healthcare...
March 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Mamta Sood, Rakesh Kumar Chadda, Roy Abraham Kallivayalil
The focus of primary prevention is on reducing the disease incidence. Primary prevention in mental health has been given minimal priority in low-resource settings with no significant investments. General hospitals are one of the main providers of mental health services in South Asia. This paper focuses on primary prevention activities, which can be undertaken in a general hospital in South Asia with abysmally low-mental health resources. For implementing primary prevention in psychiatry, a general hospital may be conceptualized as a population unit, located in a well-populated area with easy accessibility where different kinds of communities, for example, students and resident doctors, consultants, patients and their caregivers, and paramedical, nursing, administrative and other supportive staff, coexist and have varied functions...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Ali Anwar, Michael D Yingling, Alicia Zhang, Ujjwal Ramtekkar, Ginger E Nicol
As part of a university-based quality improvement project, we aimed to evaluate child psychiatrists' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessment and treatment of pediatric sleep problems. We developed a nine-question survey of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessing for and treating sleep complaints in pediatric patients, and administered this survey to child psychiatrists in training and in practice in the state of Missouri. Respondents reported sleep hygiene as the first-line treatment strategy, followed by the use of supplements or over-the-counter remedies...
February 23, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Melissa Taitimu, John Read, Tracey McIntosh
This project explored how Māori understand experiences commonly labelled "schizophrenic" or "psychotic". Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 Māori participants who had either personal experiences labelled as "psychosis" or "schizophrenia", or who work with people with such experiences; including tangata whaiora (users of mental health services), tohunga (traditional healers), kaumatua/kuia (elders), Māori clinicians, cultural support workers and students...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Vikram Patel, Kamaldeep Bhui
Chaining of people with mental disorders, and their incarceration and abuse in prisons or mental hospitals, is an affront to psychiatry and humanity. Although mental healthcare always needs attention to cultural and social contexts, this must never be at the cost of allowing human rights violations to go unchallenged. A rights-based approach must enforce well-established international human rights conventions, and scale-up comprehensive community services around the needs and preferences of people affected by mental disorders...
January 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Ana M Díaz Zuluaga, Kelly Duica, Carlos Ruiz Galeano, Cristian Vargas, Yuli Agudelo Berruecos, Sigifredo Ospina, Carlos López-Jaramillo
BACKGROUND: Functional improvement in bipolar and schizophrenic patients is one of the main aims of treatment. Nevertheless, there is no evidence about the effect of socio-occupational intervention within a multimodal intervention (MI) programme. OBJECTIVE: To describe the socio-occupational profile and to evaluate the functional effect of a MI in bipolar I and schizophrenic patients. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was performed including 302 subjects (104 schizophrenic and 198 Bipolar Disorder I [BDI] patients), who were randomised into two groups, multimodal (psychiatry, psychology, medicine, occupational therapy, neuropsychology, and family therapy), or traditional intervention (psychiatry and medicine only)...
January 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Cecilia Åslund, Kent W Nilsson
The gene-environment interaction research field in psychiatry has traditionally been dominated by the diathesis-stress framework, where certain genotypes are assumed to confer increased risk for adverse outcomes in a stressful environment. In later years, theories of differential susceptibility, or biological sensitivity, suggest that candidate genes that interact with environmental events do not exclusively confer a risk for behavioural or psychiatric disorders but rather seem to alter the sensitivity to both positive and negative environmental influences...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Tanya T Nguyen, Tomasz Kosciolek, Lisa T Eyler, Rob Knight, Dilip V Jeste
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are among the leading causes of disability, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. In addition to being serious mental illnesses, these disorders are associated with considerable systemic physiological dysfunction, including chronic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress. The advent of sophisticated sequencing techniques has led to a growing interest in the potential role of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Advances in this area have transformed our understanding of a number of medical conditions and have generated a new perspective suggesting that gut microbiota might be involved in the development and maintenance of brain/mental health...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Inge Debast, Gina Rossi, S P J van Alphen
The alternative model for personality disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-5) is considered an important step toward a possibly better conceptualization of personality pathology in older adulthood, by the introduction of levels of personality functioning (Criterion A) and trait dimensions (Criterion B). Our main aim was to examine age-neutrality of the Short Form of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-SF; Criterion A) and Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF; Criterion B)...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Ajita Nayak, Bijal Sangoi, Hrishikesh Nachane
OBJECTIVES: School refusal is seen as an emergency in child psychiatry and various risk factors have been analyzed. Children who present with school refusal have been shown to have several associated psychiatric comorbidities. However, risk assessment of psychiatric comorbidities is lacking, particularly in the Indian context. The authors aimed to study the sociodemographic profile and associated psychopathology in children with school refusal. They compared the prevalence rates of psychiatric illnesses to that of the community...
February 1, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Katherine Jonas, Grazyna Kochanska
Although the association between deficits in effortful control and later externalizing behavior is well established, many researchers (Nigg Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3-4), 395-422, 2006; Steinberg Developmental Review, 28(1), 78-106, 2008) have hypothesized this association is actually the product of the imbalance of dual systems, or two underlying traits: approach and self-regulation. Very little research, however, has deployed a statistically robust strategy to examine that compelling model; further, no research has done so using behavioral measures, particularly in longitudinal studies...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
A Fioritti
On 13 May 1978, the Italian Parliament approved Law 180, universally known as 'Basaglia Law' after the name of the leader of the anti-institutional movement which promoted this radical community mental health care reform. Forty years later, Italian psychiatry still runs a community care system, albeit with degrees of solidity and quality very varied along the peninsula. Mental health care is still an integral part of the National Health System, with liberal regulations on coercion and a lowest number of general hospital and residential facilities beds...
January 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Şermin Yalin Sapmaz, Handan Özek Erkuran, Nefize Yalin, Özlem Önen, Siğnem Öztekin, Canem Kavurma, Ertuğrul Köroğlu, Ömer Aydemir
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) Level 2 Anger Scale. Methods: The scale was prepared by translation and back translation of DSM-5 Level 2 Anger Scale. Study groups consisted of a clinical sample of cases diagnosed with depressive disorder and treated in a child and adolescent psychiatry unit and a community sample. The study was continued with 218 children and 160 parents...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
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