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Psychiatric diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098920/-too-long-in-tbs-a-study-on-patients-receiving-forensic-psychiatric-tbs-treatment-for-15-years-or-longer
#1
H Nijman, S Lammers, M Vrinten, E Bulten
In 2013 in the Netherlands about 100 forensic psychiatric patients were treated in tbs-hospitals for 15 years or more.<br/> AIM: To investigate the variables that characterise patients who have been receiving forensic psychiatric treatment (tbs) for 15 years or more, and to obtain insight in which actions might be helpful to facilitate discharge or transfer of such patients to other (mental health care) facilities, according to their caregivers and experts.<br/> METHOD: The group of long-term tbs-patients (n = 97) was compared with regard to diagnostic characteristics, 'basic historical risks' (as assessed by risk assessment instruments), and behaviour  to three other groups of forensic patients: a...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096881/design-and-methodology-of-the-korean-early-psychosis-cohort-study
#2
Sung-Wan Kim, Bong Ju Lee, Jung Jin Kim, Je-Chun Yu, Kyu Young Lee, Seung-Hee Won, Seung-Hwan Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Shi Hyun Kang, Young-Chul Chung
The present study details the rationale and methodology of the Korean Early Psychosis Cohort Study (KEPS), which is a clinical cohort investigation of first episode psychosis patients from a Korean population. The KEPS is a prospective naturalistic observational cohort study that follows the participants for at least 2 years. This study includes patients between 18 and 45 years of age who fulfill the criteria for one of schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders according to the diagnostic criteria of DSM-5...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095702/sleep-problems-and-suicide-associated-with-mood-instability-in-the-adult-psychiatric-morbidity-survey-2007
#3
Keltie C McDonald, Kate Ea Saunders, John R Geddes
OBJECTIVE: Mood instability is common in the general population. Mood instability is a precursor to mental illness and associated with a range of negative health outcomes. Sleep disturbance appears to be closely linked with mood instability. This study assesses the association between mood instability and sleep disturbance and the link with suicidal ideation and behaviour in a general population sample in England. METHOD: The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007 collected detailed information about mental health symptoms and correlates in a representative sample of adult household residents living in England ( n = 7303)...
January 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095340/body-image-in-patients-with-mental-disorders-characteristics-associations-with-diagnosis-and-treatment-outcome
#4
Mia Scheffers, Jooske T van Busschbach, Ruud J Bosscher, Liza C Aerts, Durk Wiersma, Robert A Schoevers
OBJECTIVE: Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety of mental disorders and to compare scores with those in the general population in order to obtain more insight in the relative disturbance of body image in the patients group compared to healthy controls...
January 10, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095001/callousness-and-affective-face-processing-in-adults-behavioral-and-brain-potential-indicators
#5
Sarah J Brislin, James R Yancey, Emily R Perkins, Isabella M Palumbo, Laura E Drislane, Randall T Salekin, Kostas A Fanti, Eva R Kimonis, Paul J Frick, R James R Blair, Christopher J Patrick
The investigation of callous-unemotional (CU) traits has been central to contemporary research on child behavior problems, and served as the impetus for inclusion of a specifier for conduct disorder in the latest edition of the official psychiatric diagnostic system. Here, we report results from 2 studies that evaluated the construct validity of callousness as assessed in adults, by testing for affiliated deficits in behavioral and neural processing of fearful faces, as have been shown in youthful samples. We hypothesized that scores on an established measure of callousness would predict reduced recognition accuracy and diminished electocortical reactivity for fearful faces in adult participants...
January 16, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093821/decreasing-rates-of-pediatric-bipolar-within-an-outpatient-practice
#6
Daniel Wesemann
PROBLEM: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) prevalence is estimated to be 1-3%. Nationally and internationally, rates of PBD have increased by over 400%. However, in Iowa and at one psychiatric clinic in Iowa, from 2008-2013, there was a decrease in PBD diagnosis of 33 and 51.2% respectively. This study examined the diagnosing practices of PBD by local providers in one outpatient mental health center. METHOD: Parents completed a screening packet to differentiate between PBD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using three tools: Child Mania Rating Scale (CMRS), Child Behavior Checklist-Mania Scale (CBCL-MS), and the NICHQ Vanderbilt...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089652/hippocampal-prefrontal-connectivity-as-a-translational-phenotype-for-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
Florian Bähner, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Finding novel biological targets in psychiatry has been difficult, partly because current diagnostic categories are not defined by pathophysiology and difficult to model in animals. The study of species-conserved systems-level mechanisms implicated in psychiatric disease could be a promising strategy to address some of these difficulties. Altered hippocampal-prefrontal (HC-PFC) connectivity during working memory (WM) processing is a candidate for such a translational phenotype as it has been repeatedly associated with impaired cognition in schizophrenia patients and animal models for psychiatric risk factors...
January 12, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089559/microglia-derived-neuregulin-expression-in-psychiatric-disorders
#8
Daisuke Ikawa, Manabu Makinodan, Keiko Iwata, Masahiro Ohgidani, Takahiro A Kato, Yasunori Yamashita, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Sohei Kimoto, Michihiro Toritsuka, Takahira Yamauchi, Shin-Ichi Fukami, Hiroki Yoshino, Kazuki Okumura, Tatsuhide Tanaka, Akio Wanaka, Yuji Owada, Masatsugu Tsujii, Toshiro Sugiyama, Kenji Tsuchiya, Norio Mori, Ryota Hashimoto, Hideo Matsuzaki, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Several studies have revealed that neuregulins (NRGs) are involved in brain function and psychiatric disorders. While NRGs have been regarded as neuron- or astrocyte-derived molecules, our research has revealed that microglia also express NRGs, levels of which are markedly increased in activated microglia. Previous studies have indicated that microglia are activated in the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, we investigated microglial NRG mRNA expression in multiple lines of mice considered models of ASD...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088222/clinical-importance-of-personality-difficulties-diagnostically-sub-threshold-personality-disorders
#9
Max Karukivi, Tero Vahlberg, Kalle Horjamo, Minna Nevalainen, Jyrki Korkeila
BACKGROUND: Current categorical classification of personality disorders has been criticized for overlooking the dimensional nature of personality and that it may miss some sub-threshold personality disturbances of clinical significance. We aimed to evaluate the clinical importance of these conditions. For this, we used a simple four-level dimensional categorization based on the severity of personality disturbance. METHODS: The sample consisted of 352 patients admitted to mental health services...
January 14, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081431/clinical-characterization-of-autoimmune-encephalitis-and-psychosis
#10
Qinjian Hao, Dahai Wang, Lanting Guo, Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Autoimmune disorders are growing alarmingly high in prevalence across the globe. Autoimmune encephalitis has had a dramatic impact on the medical field, effectually altering diagnostic and treatment paradigms in regard to neuropsychiatric disorders. Our primary goal in conducting this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of autoimmune encephalitis patients, with special focus on psychiatric presentations, in the West China Hospital and report patient prognoses after immunotherapy...
December 27, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080106/validity-of-the-brief-symptom-inventory-18-bsi-18-for-identifying-depression-and-anxiety-in-young-adult-cancer-survivors-comparison-with-a-structured-clinical-diagnostic-interview
#11
Christopher J Recklitis, Jaime E Blackmon, Grace Chang
The Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) is widely used to assess psychological symptoms in cancer survivors, but the validity of conventional BSI-18 cut-off scores in this population has been questioned. This study assessed the accuracy of the BSI-18 for identifying significant anxiety and depression in young adult cancer survivors (YACS), by comparing it with a "gold standard" diagnostic interview measure. Two hundred fifty YACS, age 18-40 completed the BSI-18 and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; SCID) interview assessing anxiety and depressive disorders...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#12
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076672/prenatal-psychostimulant-and-antidepressant-exposure-and-risk-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy
#13
D Jeffrey Newport, Amy L Hostetter, Sarah H Juul, Sunny M Porterfield, Bettina T Knight, Zachary N Stowe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association, if any, of prenatal mental illness and psychotropic exposure with the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: A case-cohort analysis was conducted of 686 pregnant women participating in prospective, longitudinal observational studies in a tertiary referral center between January 1998 and May 2012. Risk estimates were produced using multivariate logistic regression modeling. Medication- and diagnosis-specific data were utilized to conduct post hoc confirmatory analyses of the risk estimates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075519/an-update-of-management-of-insomnia-in-patients-with-chronic-orofacial-pain
#14
REVIEW
Galit Almoznino, Yaron Haviv, Yair Sharav, Rafael Benoliel
In this review we discuss the management of chronic orofacial pain (COFP) patients with insomnia. Diagnostic work-up and follow-up routines of COFP patients should include assessment of sleep problems. Management is based on a multidisciplinary approach, addressing the factors that modulate the pain experience as well as insomnia and including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Parallel to treatment, patients should receive therapy for co-morbid medical and psychiatric disorders, and possible substance abuse that may be that may trigger or worsen the COFP and/or their insomnia...
January 11, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#15
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073092/acute-suicidal-affective-disturbance-factorial-structure-and-initial-validation-across-psychiatric-outpatient-and-inpatient-samples
#16
Megan L Rogers, Bruno Chiurliza, Christopher R Hagan, Mirela Tzoneva, Jennifer L Hames, Matthew S Michaels, Mario J Hitschfeld, Brian A Palmer, Timothy W Lineberry, David A Jobes, Thomas E Joiner
BACKGROUND: A new clinical entity, Acute Suicidal Affective Disturbance (ASAD), was recently proposed to characterize rapid-onset, acute suicidality including the cardinal symptom of behavioral intent. This study examines the proposed ASAD criteria factor-analytically and in relation to correlates of suicidal behavior and existing psychiatric disorders in samples of psychiatric outpatients and inpatients. METHODS: Two samples of psychiatric outpatients (N=343, aged 18-71 years, 60...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073041/major-depressive-disorder-with-subthreshold-hypomanic-mixed-features-a-real-world-assessment-of-treatment-patterns-and-economic-burden
#17
Roger S McIntyre, Daisy Ng-Mak, Chien-Chia Chuang, Rachel Halpern, Pankaj A Patel, Krithika Rajagopalan, Antony Loebel
BACKGROUND: To compare outcomes for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) with or without subthreshold hypomania (mixed features) in naturalistic settings. METHODS: Using the Optum Research Database (1/1/2009─10/31/2014), a retrospective analysis of individuals newly diagnosed with MDD was conducted. Continuous enrollment for 12-months before and after the initial MDD diagnosis was required. MDD with subthreshold hypomania (mixed features) (MDD-MF) was defined based on ≥1 hypomania diagnosis within 30 days after an MDD diagnosis during the one-year follow-up period, in the absence of bipolar I diagnoses...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069664/physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-symptoms-of-major-depression-in-middle-childhood
#18
Tonje Zahl, Silje Steinsbekk, Lars Wichstrøm
OBJECTIVE: The prospective relation between physical activity and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-defined major depression in middle childhood is unknown, as is the stability of depression. We therefore aimed to (1) determine whether there are reciprocal relations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior, on one hand, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition defined symptoms of major depressive disorder, on the other and (2) assess the extent of stability in depressive symptoms from age 6 to 10 years...
January 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067415/the-measurement-of-adolescent-alcohol-problems-via-item-response-theory-and-their-15-year-prospective-associations-with-alcohol-and-other-psychiatric-disorders
#19
Michael Windle, Rebecca C Windle
BACKGROUND: A limited number of measures exist to assess alcohol problems during adolescence. Item response theory modeling was used to scale a measure of adolescent alcohol problems, including drinking and driving, and then related to alcohol and other psychiatric disorders that occurred over a 15-year period. METHODS: High school students (N = 832) completed the 13-item Alcohol Problems Index (API) at age 18 years as part of a long-term longitudinal study of predictors of alcohol use and alcohol disorders...
January 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065168/functional-outcomes-of-child-and-adolescent-mental-disorders-current-disorder-most-important-but-psychiatric-history-matters-as-well
#20
J Ormel, A M Oerlemans, D Raven, O M Laceulle, C A Hartman, R Veenstra, F C Verhulst, W Vollebergh, J G M Rosmalen, S A Reijneveld, A J Oldehinkel
BACKGROUND: Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting individual differences in functional outcomes. METHOD: We used data from the Dutch TRAILS study in which 1778 youths were followed from pre-adolescence into young adulthood (retention 80%)...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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