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Psychiatric diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781887/speculations-on-the-future-of-psychiatric-diagnosis
#1
A John Rush, Hisham M Ibrahim
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-V), criterion symptom listings are frequently used in clinical practice as checklists to make diagnoses. However, most DSM-V conditions are, in fact, syndromes, that is, collections of signs and symptoms that commonly occur together in the clinic. This report discusses the value of syndromes in medicine and psychiatry. It is argued that a more precise future enumeration of brain circuits and the pathogenesis of psychiatric conditions will help us better understand and treat psychiatric syndromes, but they are unlikely to eliminate the need to categorize psychiatric conditions...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777410/startling-differences-using-the-acoustic-startle-response-to-study-sex-differences-and-neurosteroids-in-affective-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Liisa Hantsoo, Carla E M Golden, Sara Kornfield, Christian Grillon, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroactive steroid hormones, such as estradiol and progesterone, likely play a role in the pathophysiology of female-specific psychiatric disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and postpartum depression and may contribute to the marked sex differences observed in the incidence and presentation of affective disorders. However, few tools are available to study the precise contributions of these neuroactive steroids (NSs). In this review, we propose that the acoustic startle response (ASR), an objective measure of an organism's response to an emotional context or stressor, is sensitive to NSs...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774515/eating-disorder-or-oesophageal-achalasia-during-adolescence-diagnostic-difficulties
#3
REVIEW
Aurélie Letranchant, Bénédicte Pigneur, Martine Flament, Nathalie Godart
Marine was a fourteen and a half-year-old adolescent female hospitalized for an eating disorder (ED) of the anorexic type with purging behaviors. She has had a complicated life course, made up of disruptions and discontinuities, both family and school. Since the age of five, Marine had been intermittently treated in psychiatry for a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder. The current illness started with spontaneous and induced vomiting associated with major weight loss (body mass index, 15.27 kg m-2 )...
May 17, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771555/the-quality-of-assessments-for-childhood-psychopathology-within-a-regional-medical-center
#4
Adam F Sattler, Jarrod M Leffler, Nicole L Harrison, Ewa D Bieber, Joseph J Kosmach, Leslie A Sim, Stephen P H Whiteside
Accurate assessment is essential to implementing effective mental health treatment; however, little research has explored child clinicians' assessment practices in applied settings. The current study thus examines practitioners' use of evidence-based assessment (EBA) instruments (i.e., self-report measures and structured interviews), specificity of identified diagnoses (i.e., use of specific diagnostic labels vs. nonstandardized labels, not otherwise specified [NOS] diagnoses, and adjustment disorder diagnoses), and documentation of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769511/an-elderly-lady-with-neurobrucellosis-and-multiple-co-morbid-conditions
#5
M N Islam
Neurobrucellosis is a rare (1.7-7.0% of prevalence) neurological complication of brucellosis which has neither a typical clinical picture nor specific cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and mimics other neurological disorders leading to clinical diagnostic dilemmas. This study describes one elderly patient of neurobrucellosis with fever, irrelevant behavior, sweating, fatigue, drowsiness, neck stiffness inability to speak and reduced activity for about 10 days hailing from Beanibazar, Sylhet, Bangladesh admitted in Mount Adora Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh on 16th October 2016...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768933/psychiatric-disorders-in-women-and-men-up-to-five-years-after-undergoing-assisted-reproductive-technology-treatment-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Helena Volgsten, Lone Schmidt, Agneta Skoog Svanberg, Lisa Ekselius, Inger Sundström Poromaa
This is a prospective cohort study with the objective to describe psychiatric disorders, such as any mood and anxiety disorders, in both women and men five years after assisted reproductive technology (ART). The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) questionnaire, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), was used as the diagnostic tool to evaluate psychiatric disorders. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and confidence interval (CI) for factors associated with psychiatric disorders at the follow-up...
May 17, 2018: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765343/questionnaire-based-maladaptive-decision-coping-patterns-involved-in-binge-eating-among-1013-college-students
#7
Wan-Sen Yan, Ran-Ran Zhang, Yan Lan, Zhi-Ming Li, Yong-Hui Li
Binge Eating Disorder (BED), considered a public health problem because of its impact on psychiatric, physical, and social functioning, merits much attention given its elevation to an independent diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Similar with substance use disorders, some neuropsychological and personality constructs are potentially implicated in the onset and development of BED, in which poor decision-making has been suggested to facilitate overeating and BED...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764602/psychiatric-disorders-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-iran-prevalence-severity-service-utilization-and-unmet-mental-health-needs
#8
Behrang Shadloo, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Abbas Motevalian, Minoo Mohraz, Abbas Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
BACKGROUND: HIV and psychiatric disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by some similar risk factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess psychiatric comorbidity and health service utilization for mental problems among people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. METHODS: A total of 250 cases were randomly selected from a large referral center for HIV treatment and care in Tehran, Iran. Psychiatric disorders in the past 12 months including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were assessed through face-to-face interview, using a validated Persian translation of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI v2...
July 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763648/autism-spectrum-disorder-classification-diagnosis-and-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Samata R Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I Tarazi
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD...
May 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759034/motives-offending-behavior-and-gender-differences-in-murder-perpetrators-with-or-without-psychosis
#10
Henning Hachtel, Margaret Nixon, Debra Bennett, Paul Mullen, James Ogloff
Little is known whether differences exist in motivation and reactive/instrumental offense behaviors between murder offenders with and without psychotic disorder. To contribute to better prevention strategies, the aim of this study was to investigate offense characteristics in murder offenders with a psychotic, nonpsychotic or no psychiatric diagnosis, and whether these factors differ according to sex. This data study examined the population of murder offenders between 1997 and 2005 ( N = 435) in Victoria, Australia...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757006/continuity-between-dsm-5-section-ii-and-iii-personality-disorders-in-a-dutch-clinical-sample
#11
Irene M J Orbons, Gina Rossi, Roel Verheul, Mirjam J A Schoutrop, Jan L L Derksen, Daniel L Segal, Sebastiaan P J van Alphen
The goal of this study was to evaluate the continuity across the Section II personality disorders (PDs) and the proposed Section III model of PDs in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a ). More specifically, we analyzed association between the DSM-5 Section III pathological trait facets and Section II PDs among 110 Dutch adults (M age = 35.8 years, range = 19-60 years) receiving mental health care. We administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders to all participants...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756987/can-pediatricians-recognize-eating-disorders-a-case-study-of-early-onset-anorexia-nervosa-in-a-male-child
#12
Emel Ataş Berksoy, Gonca Özyurt, Murat Anıl, Özlem Üzüm, Yeliz Çağan Appak
INTRODUCTION: this article examines a boy who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at eight years old. Pediatricians and family physicians encountered difficulties during the diagnosis and treatment stages due to the fact that early onset of the disease is rare. CASE REPORT: a boy aged eight years and four months presented with bradicardia, malnutrition and dehydration as far away from the preliminary diagnosis of anorexia nervosa investigated for possible organic pathologies at the pediatric ward...
February 27, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756044/gender-dysphoria-in-adults-an-overview-and-primer-for-psychiatrists
#13
William Byne, Dan H Karasic, Eli Coleman, A Evan Eyler, Jeremy D Kidd, Heino F L Meyer-Bahlburg, Richard R Pleak, Jack Pula
Regardless of their area of specialization, adult psychiatrists are likely to encounter gender-variant patients; however, medical school curricula and psychiatric residency training programs devote little attention to their care. This article aims to assist adult psychiatrists who are not gender specialists in the delivery of respectful, clinically competent, and culturally attuned care to gender-variant patients, including those who identify as transgender or transsexual or meet criteria for the diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (GD) as defined by The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition)...
2018: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754012/clinical-spectrum-of-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-in-children-an-observational-study
#14
Priyanka Madaan, Sheffali Gulati, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Savita Sapra, Rajesh Sagar, Akbar Mohammad, R M Pandey, Manjari Tripathi
PURPOSE: The current study was designed to analyze the clinical spectrum of Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) in children. METHODS: Children aged 6-16years with clinically suspected PNES, confirmed by short-term VEEG (STVEEG{video electroencephalogram}) and induction were classified as per Seneviratne classification. Stressors, associated co morbidities, Verbal IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and behavioral abnormalities were assessed using HTP(House tree person) test, DSM IV (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders) TR criteria, MISIC (Malin intelligence scale for Indian children) and CBCL (Child behaviour checklist)...
April 27, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753295/major-depressive-disorder-in-epilepsy-clinics-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Minjung Kim, Young-Soo Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Tae-Won Yang, Oh-Young Kwon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although depression is a frequent psychiatric comorbidity in people with epilepsy (PWE), its prevalence has been underestimated. Comorbid depression has negative impacts on treatment outcomes and quality of life (QOL). It also causes various problems in PWE, such as fatigue, irritability, and suicidality. This meta-analysis was performed to estimate the frequency of major depression disorder (MDD) in clinics managing PWE. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and SCOPUS to identify studies...
May 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753047/chromosomal-microarray-analysis-of-bulgarian-patients-with-epilepsy-and-intellectual-disability
#16
Valentina Peycheva, Kunka Kamenarova, Neviana Ivanova, Dimitar Stamatov, Daniela Avdjieva-Tzavella, Iliana Alexandrova, Sashka Zhelyazkova, Iliana Pacheva, Petya Dimova, Ivan Ivanov, Ivan Litvinenko, Veneta Bozhinova, Ivailo Tournev, Emil Simeonov, Vanyo Mitev, Albena Jordanova, Radka Kaneva
High resolution chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has facilitated the identification of small chromosomal rearrangements throughout the genome, associated with various neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including ID/DD. Recently, it became evident that intellectual disability (ID)/developmental delay (DD) can occur with associated co-morbidities like epileptic seizures, autism and additional congenital anomalies. These observations require whole genome approach in order to detect the genetic causes of these complex disorders...
May 9, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746190/criterion-a-of-the-ampd-in-hitop
#17
Thomas A Widiger, Bo Bach, Michael Chmielewski, Lee Anna Clark, Colin DeYoung, Christopher J Hopwood, Roman Kotov, Robert F Krueger, Joshua D Miller, Leslie C Morey, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, Christopher J Patrick, Aaron L Pincus, Douglas B Samuel, Martin Sellbom, Susan C South, Jennifer L Tackett, David Watson, Mark H Waugh, Aidan G C Wright, Johannes Zimmermann, R Michael Bagby, David C Cicero, Christopher C Conway, Barbara De Clercq, Anna R Docherty, Nicholas R Eaton, Kelsie T Forbush, J D Haltigan, Masha Y Ivanova, Robert D Latzman, Donald R Lynam, Kristian E Markon, Ulrich Reininghaus, Katherine M Thomas
The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ) is highly and fundamentally problematic. Proposed for DSM-5 and provided within Section III (for Emerging Measures and Models) was the Alternative Model of Personality Disorder (AMPD) classification, consisting of Criterion A (self-interpersonal deficits) and Criterion B (maladaptive personality traits)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745699/maladaptive-personality-traits-and-romantic-relationship-satisfaction-a-monozygotic-co-twin-control-analysis
#18
Sylia Wilson, Irene J Elkins, Jessica L Bair, Victoria C Oleynick, Stephen M Malone, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
The recent inclusion of an alternative model for personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) highlights the importance of extreme variants of personality for psychopathology. The maladaptive personality traits described in the alternative model comprise 5 higher-order domains and 25 lower-order facets that capture pathological levels of personality. The present report adds to a growing body of research on the implications of maladaptive personality traits for functioning by demonstrating significant associations between each of the higher-order domains (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism) and most of the lower-order facets and lower romantic relationship satisfaction in a population-based sample of 284 monozygotic (MZ) adult twins...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745698/borderline-personality-disorder-symptoms-and-affective-responding-to-perceptions-of-rejection-and-acceptance-from-romantic-versus-nonromantic-partners
#19
Sophie A Lazarus, Lori N Scott, Joseph E Beeney, Aidan G C Wright, Stephanie D Stepp, Paul A Pilkonis
We examined event-contingent recording of daily interpersonal interactions in a diagnostically diverse sample of 101 psychiatric outpatients who were involved in a romantic relationship. We tested whether the unique effect of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms on affective responses (i.e., hostility, sadness, guilt, fear, and positive affect) to perceptions of rejection or acceptance differed with one's romantic partner compared with nonromantic partners. BPD symptoms were associated with more frequent perceptions of rejection and less frequent perceptions of acceptance across the study...
May 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743057/specialty-preferences-and-influencing-factors-a-repeated-cross-sectional-survey-of-first-to-sixth-year-medical-students-in-jena-germany
#20
Diana Grasreiner, Uta Dahmen, Utz Settmacher
BACKGROUND: Given the expected increase in those entering retirement, the number of practising physicians is predicted to decrease. Conversely, the number of physicians needed is set to increase, due to higher demands resulting from the increasing average age of the German population. This may cause a deficit in the availability and accessibility of medical care for the population in Germany, as well as in other countries. As such, there needs to be a specific focus on the next generation of physicians...
May 9, 2018: BMC Medical Education
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