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Psychiatric diagnostics

Caroline M Nievergelt, Allison E Ashley-Koch, Shareefa Dalvie, Michael A Hauser, Rajendra A Morey, Alicia K Smith, Monica Uddin
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a traumatic event is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Heritability estimates from twin studies as well as from recent molecular data (single nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability) indicate moderate to high heritability, yet robust genetic variants for PTSD have not yet been identified and the genetic architecture of this polygenic disorder remains largely unknown. To date, fewer than 10 large-scale genome-wide association studies of PTSD have been published, with findings that highlight the unique challenges for PTSD genomics, including a complex diagnostic entity with contingency of PTSD diagnosis on trauma exposure and the large genetic diversity of the study populations...
February 2, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Ahmad Abu-Akel, Chad Bousman, Efstratios Skafidas, Christos Pantelis
Currently, there is an intense pursuit of pathognomonic markers and diagnostic ('risk-based') classifiers of psychiatric conditions. Commonly, the epidemiological prevalence of the condition is not factored into the development of these classifiers. By not adjusting for prevalence, classifiers overestimate the potential of their clinical utility. As valid predictive values have critical implications in public health and allocation of resources, development of clinical classifiers should account for the prevalence of psychiatric conditions in both general and high-risk populations...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Sanna Selinheimo, Tuula Vasankari, Markus Jokela, Merja Kanervisto, Sami Pirkola, Jaana Suvisaari, Tiina Paunio
BACKGROUND: We examined the prevalence of self-perceived respiratory symptoms (SRS) in the absence of any objective findings of respiratory pathology, and the association of such prevalence with psychological factors and healthcare use in the general population. METHODS: The study was conducted among a nationally representative sample of Finnish adults (BRIF8901). Respiratory functioning was measured by a spirometry test. Structured questionnaires were used to measure SRS, physician visits and psychological factors of alexithymia, sense of coherence, illness worry and common mental disorders...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
C Laurel Franklin, Amanda M Raines, Jessica L Chambliss, Jessica L Walton, Kelly P Maieritsch
BACKGROUND: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) includes Other- and Unspecified- Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders to capture subthreshold Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, the DSM-5 does not specify the number or type of symptoms needed to assign them. The purpose of the current study was to extend our understanding of subthreshold PTSD by comparing four commonly used definitions adapted to the DSM-5 PTSD criteria in an outpatient treatment-seeking sample...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jayashri Kulkarni, Natalie Thomas, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Emorfia Gavrilidis, Jasmin Grigg, Raelene Tan, Jacinta Cheng, Amelia Arnold, Caroline Gurvich
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex, severe and highly stigmatised psychiatric illness. Several lines of evidence highlight the causal link between chronic stress, glucocorticoid response to stress and glutamatergic overactivity as a key event in the pathophysiology of BPD. Therefore, molecular mechanisms capable of regulating glutamate excitotoxicity represent novel and potentially promising treatment targets. Memantine-HCl is a voltage-dependent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 'channel blocker' that selectively blocks pathological glutamate overactivity...
March 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
Benjamin D Wissel, Alok K Dwivedi, Aristide Merola, Danielle Chin, Cara Jacob, Andrew P Duker, Jennifer E Vaughan, Lilia Lovera, Kathrin LaFaver, Ariel Levy, Anthony E Lang, Francesca Morgante, Melissa Jill Nirenberg, Christopher Stephen, Nutan Sharma, Alberto Romagnolo, Leonardo Lopiano, Bettina Balint, Xin X Yu, Kailash P Bhatia, Alberto J Espay
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain demographic and clinical features of Parkinson disease (PD) associated with functional neurological features. METHODS: A standardised form was used to extract data from electronic records of 53 PD patients with associated functional neurological disorders (PD-FND) across eight movement disorders centres in the USA, Canada and Europe. These subjects were matched for age, gender and disease duration to PD patients without functional features (PD-only)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Sakshi Chopra, Harsimarpreet Kaur, Ravindra M Pandey, Ashima Nehra
Background: Due to the paucity of quick, cognitive screening tools available in India that are independent of cultural and educational influences, a 6-item paper and pencil test, covering areas of memory, executive functioning, attention, and visuospatial ability domains - the Neuropsychological Evaluation Screening Tool (NEST) was developed. Aim and Method: NEST was administered to 84 healthy controls to analyze, revise, and review items. In the second phase, 408 patients, above 16 years of age, with their educational level ranging from being illiterate to having greater than 25 years of education, with various neurological and psychiatric conditions were independently administered NEST, Hindi Mental State Examination (HMSE), and a detailed cognitive evaluation using PGI Memory Scale (PGIMS)...
March 2018: Neurology India
Emanuele F Osimo, Rudolf N Cardinal, Peter B Jones, Golam M Khandaker
Low-grade inflammation is a risk factor for depression, psychosis and other major psychiatric disorders. It is associated with poor response to antidepressant and antipsychotics, and could potentially be a treatment target. However, there is limited data on the prevalence of low-grade inflammation in major psychiatric disorders, and on the characteristics of patients who show evidence of inflammation. We examined the prevalence of low-grade inflammation and associated socio-demographic and clinical factors in acute psychiatric inpatients...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Giovanni Castellini, Lorenzo Lelli, Emanuele Cassioli, Eleonora Ciampi, Francesco Zamponi, Beatrice Campone, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Valdo Ricca
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of childhood adversities in long-term outcomes in eating disorders (EDs). One hundred thirty-three eating disorder patients were studied by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and psychometric tests, at baseline, at the end of individual cognitive behavioural therapy, and at 3-year follow-up. As compared with the other patients, those reporting childhood abuse (overall: 24.8%; physical abuse: 20.3%; sexual abuse: 13.6%) showed higher impulsivity, psychiatric comorbidity, lower full recovery at follow-up (12...
March 15, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Duy Vu Tran, Carol S North
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate potential association between psychopathology and subjective evaluation of the experience of debriefing in disaster-exposed rescue and recovery workers. METHODS: Structured diagnostic interviews for DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders were conducted with 166 firefighters who served as rescue and recovery workers for the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, who categorized their satisfaction with the debriefing on 4 levels...
March 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
J C Stagnaro, A H Cia, H Vommaro, S Sustas, N Vázquez, E Serfaty, R C Kessler, C Benjet
AIMS: While there are effective treatments for psychiatric disorders, many individuals with such disorders do not receive treatment and those that do often take years to get into treatment. Information regarding treatment contact failure and delay in Argentina is needed to guide public health policy and planning. Therefore, this study aimed to provide data on prompt treatment contact, lifetime treatment contact, median duration of treatment delays and socio-demographic predictors of treatment contact after the first onset of a mental disorder...
March 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Matthew W Roché, Douglas J Boyle, Chia-Cherng Cheng, Jill Del Pozzo, Lindsay Cherneski, Joe Pascarella, Alicia Lukachko, Steven M Silverstein
Research has consistently demonstrated that people diagnosed with serious mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk for violent ideation and behavior (VIB) and that this is especially the case for SMI patients with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD). Despite this, what is still largely unknown is the relative prevalence of VIB across diagnostic categories, whether the rates of VIB in SMI groups exceed the rates observed in people with SUD only, and which demographic factors increase the likelihood of VIB under different circumstances for people with SMI...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sevdalina Kandilarova, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Ivo D Popivanov, Stefan Kostianev
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have attempted to replicate the findings of altered emotional processing in depressed patients compared with healthy controls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging during passive viewing of positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Pictures System. METHODS: Nineteen medicated depressed patients and 19 sex and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during presentation of affective pictures in a block design...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Margaret O Akinhanmi, Joanna M Biernacka, Stephen M Strakowski, Susan L McElroy, Joyce E Balls Berry, Kathleen R Merikangas, Shervin Assari, Melvin G McInnis, Thomas G Schulze, Marion LeBoyer, Carol Tamminga, Christi Patten, Mark A Frye
OBJECTIVES: Health disparities between individuals of African and European ancestry are well documented. The disparities in bipolar disorder may be driven by racial bias superimposed on established factors contributing to misdiagnosis, including: evolving empirically based diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Diseases [ICD], Research Diagnostic Criteria [RDC] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]), multiple symptom domains (i.e. mania, depression and psychosis), and multimodal medical and additional psychiatric comorbidity...
March 12, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Marisa A Patti, Vanessa Troiani
Atypical sulcogyral patterns in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, as well as with quantitative traits associated with schizophrenia, such as anhedonia. Here we conduct a cross-diagnostic comparison to assess whether atypical OFC sulcogyral patterns confer risk for multiple brain disorders. We examined structural images from 4 groups of adult participants (N = 189), including those diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ; N = 49), bipolar disorder (BP; N = 46), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 41), and controls (N = 53)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rebecca M Saracino, Devika R Jutagir, Amy Cunningham, Kelly A Foran-Tuller, Mary A Driscoll, William H Sledge, Sukru H Emre, Dwain C Fehon
CONTEXT: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and mental health service utilization among patients with End Stage Liver Disease (ESLD) awaiting transplant remains understudied. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence of psychological disorders and symptoms with the use of a structured diagnostic interview and self-report measures, and examined patient-reported mental health service utilization and barriers to care. METHOD: Waitlisted liver transplant candidates (N = 120) completed assessments during routine clinic appointments at a single time point...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Stephanie Benson, Katherine S Elkington, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Amelia Bucek, Curtis Dolezal, Patricia Warne, Claude Mellins
As youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection age, there is a need for studies that identify predictors and correlates of sexual risk behaviors. We examined the association between psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) with sexual risk behaviors in youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected youth. Participants were recruited from four medical centers in New York City. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and the Adolescent Sexual Behavior Assessment were administered to assess psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors, respectively...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Alexander N Yatsenko, Paul J Turek
PURPOSE: To examine current evidence of the known effects of advanced paternal age on sperm genetic and epigenetic changes and associated birth defects and diseases in offspring. METHODS: Review of published PubMed literature. RESULTS: Advanced paternal age (> 40 years) is associated with accumulated damage to sperm DNA and mitotic and meiotic quality control mechanisms (mismatch repair) during spermatogenesis. This in turn causes well-delineated abnormalities in sperm chromosomes, both numerical and structural, and increased sperm DNA fragmentation (3%/year of age) and single gene mutations (relative risk, RR 10)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
J Steiner, H Prüß, S Köhler, A Hasan, P Falkai
Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM‑5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics...
March 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Thierry Brue, Vincent Amodru, Frédéric Castinetti
With fewer than 200 reported cases, Cushing's syndrome (CS) in pregnancy remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In normal pregnancies, misleading signs may be observed such as striae or hypokalemia, while plasma cortisol and urinary free cortisol may rise up to 2-3-fold. While the dexamethasone suppression test is difficult to use, reference values for salivary cortisol appear valid. The predominant cause is adrenal adenoma (sometimes without decreased ACTH), rather than Cushing's disease. There are considerable imaging pitfalls in Cushing's disease...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
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