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Psychiatric diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331151/the-impact-of-parental-mental-illness-across-the-full-diagnostic-spectrum-on-externalising-and-internalising-vulnerabilities-in-young-offspring
#1
Kimberlie Dean, Melissa J Green, Kristin R Laurens, Maina Kariuki, Stacy Tzoumakis, Titia Sprague, Rhoshel Lenroot, Vaughan J Carr
BACKGROUND: The intergenerational risk for mental illness is well established within diagnostic categories, but the risk is unlikely to respect diagnostic boundaries and may be reflected more broadly in early life vulnerabilities. We aimed to establish patterns of association between externalising and internalising vulnerabilities in early childhood and parental mental disorder across the full spectrum of diagnoses. METHODS: A cohort of Australian children (n = 69 116) entering the first year of school in 2009 were assessed using the Australian Early Development Census, providing measures of externalising and internalising vulnerability...
January 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329065/factors-associated-with-depression-among-homeless-mothers-results-of-the-enfams-survey
#2
M Roze, S Vandentorren, J Van-Der-Waerden, M Melchior
PURPOSE: Women are disproportionately likely to suffer from depression. This is especially true for those who experience socioeconomic hardship, such as homelessness. In France, among homeless mothers many are migrant. However, it is not clear whether risk factors associated with depression are specific for this group or the same as in the general population. Our objective was to describe socio-demographic, relational, living and housing conditions and health factors associated with depression among homeless mothers...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328008/-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-current-insights-in-diagnostics-treatment-and-prevention
#3
A Lok, J L Frijling, M van Zuiden
- Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may develop after traumatic events.- PTSD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the Netherlands, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 7%.- Recurrent re-experiencing of the traumatic event is the most characteristic PTSD symptom.- Recognition of PTSD may be hampered by the heterogeneous symptomatology, avoidance to talk about the trauma and highly frequent comorbid psychiatric and somatic comorbidity.- Feelings of guilt and shame may also influence reported trauma history...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327358/opioid-medication-use-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-diagnoses-vs-unexplained-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-the-us-veterans-health-administration
#4
G S Sayuk, N Kanuri, C P Gyawali, B M Gott, B D Nix, R A Rosenheck
BACKGROUND: While opioid prescriptions have increased alarmingly in the United States (US), their use for unexplained chronic gastrointestinal (GI) pain (eg, irritable bowel syndrome) carries an especially high risk for adverse effects and questionable benefit. AIM: To compare opioid use among US veterans with structural GI diagnoses (SGID) and those with unexplained GI symptoms or functional GI diagnoses (FGID), a group for whom opioids have no accepted role. METHODS: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data from fiscal year 2012 were used to identify veterans with diagnostic codes recorded for SGID and FGID...
January 12, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325620/primary-familial-brain-calcifications
#5
Beatriz Quintáns, Joao Oliveira, María-Jesús Sobrido
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disease with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions. The disease usually presents as a combination of abnormal movements, cognitive and psychiatric manifestations, clinically indistinguishable from other adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders. The differential diagnosis must be established with genetic and nongenetic disorders that can also lead to calcium deposits in encephalic structures. In the past years PFBC causal mutations have been discovered in genes related to calcium phosphate homeostasis (SLC20A2, XPR1) and in genes involved with endothelial function and integrity (PDGFB, PDGFRB)...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324086/how-robust-is-the-influence-of-causal-explanation-on-clinical-judgments-assessments-in-structured-clinical-interviews
#6
Mason R Jenkins, Nancy S Kim
When causal life-event explanations for disorder symptoms are available, clinicians tend to explain away those symptoms (Ahn, Novick, & Kim, 2003 ; Meehl, 1973 ), eschewing formal diagnostic guidelines such as the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). We asked whether this effect is attenuated in the context of a structured diagnostic clinical interview procedure, which deliberately directs evaluators' attention to symptoms alone, or whether it is robust enough to continue to emerge. Across two experiments, lay evaluators given causal life-event explanations for disordered behaviors gave them lower judgments of abnormality and need for treatment compared to evaluators not given such explanations, regardless of whether they used a structured clinical interview...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324054/bayesian-diagnostics-of-hidden-markov-structural-equation-models-with-missing-data
#7
Jingheng Cai, Ming Ouyang, Kai Kang, Xinyuan Song
Cocaine is a type of drug that functions to increase the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. However, cocaine dependence or abuse is highly related to an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and deficits in cognitive performance, attention, and decision-making abilities. Given the chronic and persistent features of drug addiction, the progression of abstaining from cocaine often evolves across several states, such as addiction to, moderate dependence on, and swearing off cocaine. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are well suited to the characterization of longitudinal data in terms of a set of unobservable states, and have increasingly been used to uncover the dynamic heterogeneity in progressive diseases or activities...
January 11, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323510/consensual-lay-profiles-of-narcissism-and-their-connection-to-the-five-factor-narcissism-inventory
#8
Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam, Lane Siedor, Michael Crowe, W Keith Campbell
Although there is evidence that experts agree on the traits that characterize narcissism, this agreement may be due, in part, to the influence of the operationalizations based on the American Psychiatric Association's series of Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980, 1994, 2013). Because these trait descriptions are important in shaping conceptualizations and serving as empirical criteria for construct validation, we explored their generalizability...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323509/five-factor-model-personality-disorder-scales-an-introduction-to-a-special-section-on-assessment-of-maladaptive-variants-of-the-five-factor-model
#9
R Michael Bagby, Thomas A Widiger
The Five-Factor Model (FFM) is a dimensional model of general personality structure, consisting of the domains of neuroticism (or emotional instability), extraversion versus introversion, openness (or unconventionality), agreeableness versus antagonism, and conscientiousness (or constraint). The FFM is arguably the most commonly researched dimensional model of general personality structure. However, a notable limitation of existing measures of the FFM has been a lack of coverage of its maladaptive variants...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321104/neurectomy-for-anterior-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-in-children
#10
Lindsey B Armstrong, Pradeep Dinakar, David P Mooney
INTRODUCTION: Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is an underrecognized etiology of chronic abdominal pain that causes great morbidity to those affected. We sought to determine the outcome of neurectomy for ACNES in children. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data on children who underwent neurectomy for ACNES by a single surgeon from 10/2011 to 01/2017 were reviewed. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients underwent neurectomy for ACNES...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320384/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-and-the-consulting-psychiatrist-a-case-study-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-an-emerging-disorder-in-psychiatric-practice
#11
Kristopher A Kast, Liliya Gershengoren
The increasing prevalence of cannabis use in the United States requires awareness of cannabis-related disorders and familiarity with treatment options. We present a case of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome that required psychiatric consultation for diagnostic clarification and effective treatment with intravenous haloperidol. Literature from emergency medicine, toxicology, and gastroenterology is reviewed, including proposed diagnostic criteria for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome and reported off-label treatment options, with a specific focus on clinical questions facing the practicing psychiatrist regarding this emerging disorder...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319031/association-of-comorbid-anxiety-and-depression-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Ruchi Dua, Anindya Das, Abhishek Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Mayank Mishra, Kapil Sharma
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease with known systemic manifestations including psychiatric comorbidities most commonly being depression and/or anxiety. Studies regarding the association of these psychiatric comorbidities in terms of symptom scores, spirometric variables, and hospitalizations among patients of COPD are lacking, especially in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-eight patients of COPD attending the Outpatient Department of AIIMS Rishikesh, and fulfilling inclusion criteria were screened by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and those who scored above the cutoff underwent psychiatric evaluation using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition Diagnostic Criteria for Research for confirmation of their diagnosis...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318339/-e-health-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-mental-disorders-will-therapists-soon-become-superfluous
#13
REVIEW
Stefan Lüttke, Martin Hautzinger, Kristina Fuhr
Digital media, online programs, and electronic health systems are available and easily accessible for diagnostic, prevention, and intervention of somatic and psychiatric disorders. These modern tools can assess objective as well as subjective information about acute symptoms, wellbeing, life quality, sleep, physiological indicators, etc. Wearables and apps collect data over days and weeks in the real world of subjects. This information can be used to document baselines as well as changes over time influenced by events or interventions...
January 9, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317599/dna-methylome-variation-in-a-perinatal-nurse-visitation-program-that-reduces-child-maltreatment-a-27-year-follow-up
#14
Kieran J O'Donnell, Li Chen, Julia L MacIsaac, Lisa M McEwen, Thao Nguyen, Katherine Beckmann, Yuecai Zhu, Lawrence Ming Chen, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, David Goldman, Elena L Grigorenko, James F Leckman, Josie Diorio, Neerja Karnani, David L Olds, Joanna D Holbrook, Michael S Kobor, Michael J Meaney
This study reveals the influence of child maltreatment on DNA methylation across the genome and provides the first evidence that a psychosocial intervention program, the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP), which targets mothers at risk for abusive parenting, associates with variation in the DNA methylome in adult offspring. The 188 participants were born to women randomly assigned to control (n = 99) or nurse-visited intervention groups (n = 89) and provided blood samples and a diagnostic interview at age 27 years...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317441/chronic-tic-disorders-in-children-with-adhd
#15
William Poh, Jonathan M Payne, Alisha Gulenc, Daryl Efron
OBJECTIVE: To examine in a community-based cohort: (1) the prevalence of chronic tic disorder (CTD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with non-ADHD controls at ages 7 and 10; and (2) the additional psychiatric and functional burden of CTD in children with ADHD. METHODS: Children aged 6-8 years with ADHD (n=179) and controls (n=212) were recruited through 43 Victorian schools using parent and teacher screening surveys (Conners 3 ADHD Index), followed by case confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV))...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306117/difficulties-in-emotion-regulation-in-treatment-seeking-alcoholics-with-and-without-co-occurring-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#16
Clara M Bradizza, Whitney C Brown, Melanie U Ruszczyk, Kurt H Dermen, Joseph F Lucke, Paul R Stasiewicz
Emotion regulation difficulties (ERD) are known to underlie mental health conditions including anxiety and depressive disorders and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Although AUD, mood, and anxiety disorders commonly co-occur, no study has examined the association between these disorders and ERD among AUD outpatients. In the current study, emotion regulation (ER) scores of AUD individuals with no co-occurring mental health condition were compared to the ER scores of individuals who met diagnostic criteria for co-occurring mood and/or anxiety disorders...
December 29, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305022/emergency-department-length-of-stay-for-ethanol-intoxication-encounters
#17
Lauren R Klein, Brian E Driver, James R Miner, Marc L Martel, Jon B Cole
BACKGROUND: Emergency Department (ED) encounters for ethanol intoxication are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with ED length of stay (LOS) for ethanol intoxication encounters. METHODS: This was a multi-center, retrospective, observational study of patients presenting to the ED for ethanol intoxication. Data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. To explore factors associated with ED LOS, we created a mixed-effects generalized linear model...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303950/cns-drug-development-lessons-learned-part-4-the-role-of-brain-circuitry-and-genes-tasimelteon-as-an-example
#18
Sheldon H Preskorn
This is the fourth in a series of columns discussing the rational and targeted development of drugs to affect specific central nervous system (CNS) circuits in specific ways based on knowledge gained by molecular biology and the human genome project. The first column in this series described 6 CNS drugs with novel mechanisms of action developed over the last 25 years. The second column discussed differences between syndromic diagnoses as exemplified by the third through the fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III through DSM-5) and the new approach to psychiatric diagnoses championed by the National Institute of Mental Health in their Research Domain Criteria Initiative...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303949/psychosis-risk-syndrome-what-now
#19
Othman Sentissi, Maria A Andreou, Clotilde Moeglin, Logos Curtis, Micaela Santos Brosch
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder that generally begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. This early onset is often linked with a devastating lifelong impact on both the social network and work capacities of the affected subjects. Beginning in the mid-1990s, several sets of diagnostic criteria aiming to identify "high-risk" patients were developed and applied in clinical studies. Short-term rates of onset of psychosis in this subgroup of subjects ranged from 20% to 40%...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302222/animal-models-of-addiction
#20
Rainer Spanagel
In recent years, animal models in psychiatric research have been criticized for their limited translational value to the clinical situation. Failures in clinical trials have thus often been attributed to the lack of predictive power of preclinical animal models. Here, I argue that animal models of voluntary drug intake-under nonoperant and operant conditions-and addiction models based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are crucial and informative tools for the identification of pathological mechanisms, target identification, and drug development...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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