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Alejandro V Funes, Luca Carrella, Yvonne Rechkemmer, Joris van Slageren, Eva Rentschler, Pablo Alborés
We have successfully prepared and structurally characterized a family of butterfly-like [CoLn] complexes where all magnetic properties are due to the Ln(iii) ions. The complexes with Ln = Tb(1), Dy(2), Ho(3), Er(4) and Yb(5) are iso-structural. An exception is the complex with Ln = Gd(6) which strings in a one dimensional chain. The structural similarity together with the high tendency of the crystallites to align under an applied magnetic field allowed an overall DC magnetic data treatment to extract phenomenological crystal field parameters and hence to determine the ground state multiplet energy level splitting...
February 27, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Youngho Cho, Si Won Song, Soo Yeong Lim, Jae Hun Kim, Chan Ryang Park, Hyung Min Kim
Although upconversion phosphors have been widely used in nanomedicine, laser engineering, bioimaging, and solar cell technology, the upconversion luminescence mechanism of the phosphors has been fiercely debated. A comprehensive understanding of upconversion photophysics has been significantly impeded because the number of photons incorporated in the process in different competitive pathways could not be resolved. Few convincing results to estimate the contribution of each of the two-, three-, and four-photon channels of near-infrared (NIR) energy have been reported in yielding upconverted visible luminescence...
February 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sophie Laffont, Cyril Seillet, Jean-Charles Guéry
Autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancer affect women and men differently. Because they tend to develop more vigorous adaptive immune responses than men, women are less susceptible to some infectious diseases but also at higher risk of autoimmunity. The regulation of immune responses by sex-dependent factors probably involves several non-redundant mechanisms. A privileged area of study, however, concerns the role of sex steroid hormones in the biology of innate immune cells, especially dendritic cells (DCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Daisuke Koga, Hiroki Bochimoto, Satoshi Kusumi, Tatsuo Ushiki, Tsuyoshi Watanabe
The increased discharge of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamic neurons after castration specifically stimulates pituitary gonadotropes. To elucidate the putative effects of GnRH on the three-dimensional ultrastructure of gonadotropes, we examined osmium-macerated pituitary tissues of male rats at various time points after castration by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with immunocytochemistry. Two days after castration, the Golgi apparatus was disassembled into small stacks; patch-like, tubuloreticular clusters of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes were present; and spherically enlarged mitochondria were accumulated in the central area of the stimulated gonadotropes...
2017: Biomedical Research
Yi Wang, Jianghui Zhu, Lei Zhang, Zhijun Zhang, Long He, Yong Mou, Yanhan Deng, Yong Cao, Ping Yang, Yunchao Su, Jianping Zhao, Shu Zhang, Qilin Yu, Jifa Hu, Zhishui Chen, Qin Ning, Xudong Xiang, Yongjian Xu, Cong-Yi Wang, Weining Xiong
BACKGROUND: C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a marker of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, exhibits aberrant expression patterns during the development of asthma. However, its exact role in asthma pathogenesis is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the function and mechanism of CHOP in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma in patients and animals. METHODS: Studies were conducted in asthmatic patients and CHOP(-/-) mice to dissect the role of CHOP and ER stress in asthma pathogenesis...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Swarnendra Singh, Atif Zafar, Saman Khan, Imrana Naseem
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of skin cancer with rapidly increasing incidence rate. The disease is largely considered incurable and the patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma have a survival of not more than five years. Despite of the recent advances in anti-melanoma chemo- and immunotherapies, the available drugs are relatively toxic and responsive to only a limited subset of lesions. Currently, topical pharmacotherapy is demonstrated as an effective approach for the treatment of various skin cancers...
February 23, 2017: Life Sciences
Jieun Kim, Ju Hwan Yang, In Soo Ryu, Eun Sang Choe
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key molecule involved in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in response to chronic stimulation of psychostimulants. This study demonstrated that BDNF in the dorsal striatum regulates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response after repeated exposure to cocaine. The results showed that unilateral intracaudate infusion of BDNF (0.40, 0.75, or 1.50μg/μL) decreased the repeated cocaine-induced increase in the expression of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) sensing unfolded or misfolded proteins in a dose-dependent manner...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Alexander R van Vliet, Francesca Giordano, Sarah Gerlo, Inmaculada Segura, Sofie Van Eygen, Geert Molenberghs, Susana Rocha, Audrey Houcine, Rita Derua, Tom Verfaillie, Jeroen Vangindertael, Herlinde De Keersmaecker, Etienne Waelkens, Jan Tavernier, Johan Hofkens, Wim Annaert, Peter Carmeliet, Afshin Samali, Hideaki Mizuno, Patrizia Agostinis
Loss of ER Ca(2+) homeostasis triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and drives ER-PM contact sites formation in order to refill ER-luminal Ca(2+). Recent studies suggest that the ER stress sensor and mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) PERK regulates intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, using proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID), we identified the actin-binding protein Filamin A (FLNA) as a key PERK interactor. Cells lacking PERK accumulate F-actin at the cell edges and display reduced ER-PM contacts...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Cell
Angela Lombardi, Yaron Tomer
Despite substantial advances in the research exploring the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain unknown. We hypothesized in this study that interferon alpha (IFNα) participates in the early stages of T1D development by triggering endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To verify our hypothesis, human islets and human EndoC-βH1 cells were exposed to IFNα and tested for ER stress markers, glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin content. IFNα treatment induced upregulation of ER stress markers including Binding immunoglobulin Protein, phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, spliced- X-box binding protein-1, C/EBP homologous protein and activating transcription factor 4...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
Ander Ernaga Lorea, María Cecilia Hernández Morhain, María Dolores Ollero García-Agulló, Juan Pablo Martínez de Esteban, Ana Iriarte Beroiz, Jaime Gállego Culleré
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stress hyperglycemia has been associated with a worse prognosis in patients hospitalized in critical care units. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels on the mortality of patients suffering a acute cerebro-vascular event, and to determine if this relationship depends on the presence of diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 255 patients admitted to the ER for stroke was performed...
February 18, 2017: Medicina Clínica
Sujatha Baddam, Inmaculada Aban, Lee Hilliard, Thomas Howard, David Askenazi, Jeffrey D Lebensburger
BACKGROUND: Patients who develop sickle cell disease (SCD) nephropathy are at a high risk for mortality. The pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive pain crisis may contribute to acute kidney injury (AKI). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, known inducers of AKI, are used to treat pain crises. Multiple gaps exist in the knowledge about the impact of AKI in SCD. METHODS: We conducted a 2-year retrospective review of AKI events in patients admitted for vaso-occlusive crisis...
February 25, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Cassandra E Callmann, Nathan C Gianneschi
Nanomedicine for cancer therapy seeks to treat malignancies through the selective accumulation of therapeutics in diseased tissue. Nanoparticles offer the convenience of high drug loading capacities and can be readily decorated with targeting moieties, drugs, and/or diagnostics. Our lab has pioneered a new tissue targeting strategy where enhanced accumulation of nanomaterials occurs as a result of morphology changes to the material in response to overexpressed enzymes in diseased tissues. Herein, we describe the general strategy for the preparation of these enzyme-responsive nanoparticles (ER-NPs) for therapeutic applications...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lan Ma, Hai-Jun Yu, Sheng-Wei Gan, Rui Gong, Ke-Jie Mou, Jun Xue, Shan-Quan Sun
Oligodendrocyte apoptosis mediated demyelination is a pathological change characteristic of compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI). However, the mechanism of demyelination due to oligodendrocyte apoptosis is not known. In this study, after successfully establishing a rat CSCI model using a custom-made compressor, we investigated the pathological changes, MBP expression, as well as apoptosis-related protein (p53, active caspase-3) expression to determine whether or not apoptosis and demyelination occurred after injury...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Chodisetty Sarvani, Dornadula Sireesh, Kunka Mohanram Ramkumar
ER stress is provoked by the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen leading to perturbations in ER homeostasis. ER stress activates a signaling cascade called the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) which triggers a set of transcriptional and translational events that restore ER homeostasis, promoting cell survival and adaptation. If this adaptive response fails, a terminal UPR program commits such cells to apoptosis. Existing preclinical and clinical evidence testify that prolonged ER stress escalates the risk of several metabolic disorders including diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia...
February 22, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Yu-Fu Zhou, Qian Sun, Ya-Jun Zhang, Geng-Ming Wang, Bin He, Tao Qi, Yan Zhou, Xing-Wang Li, Sheng Li, Lin He
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of targeted inhibition of Notch1 gene on the killing effects of paclitaxel on triple negative breast cancer cells. METHODS: The triple negative [estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)] breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and ER/PR/HER-2-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were cultured, transfected with Notch1-siRNA-overexpression plasmid and blank plasmid, and treated with different concentrations of paclitaxel, and then the cell proliferation activity and apoptosis rate as well as the mRNA expression of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bcl-2 were determined...
February 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Dolapo Adegboye, Annette Sterr, Jean-Pierre Lin, Tamsin J Owen
AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether children and adolescents with dystonic cerebral palsy (CP) present with emotional and social difficulties along side motor limitations. PARTICIPANTS/MEASURES: Twenty-two verbal and nonverbal children and adolescents with dystonic CP were compared with a normative sample of twenty children and adolescents on measures of theory of mind (ToM), emotion regulation (ER), and social difficulties (SD). RESULTS: Higher social and emotional difficulties were found in the dystonic CP group compared to the control group...
January 31, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Verena Christen, Susanne Faltermann, Nadja Rebecca Brun, Petra Y Kunz, Karl Fent
Frequently used biocidal disinfectants, including quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), glutaraldehyde and poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB), occur in the aquatic environment but their potential effects in fish are poorly known, in particular when occurring as mixtures. To investigate their joint activity, we assessed the cytotoxicity of three QACs (BAC, barquat and benzalkonium chloride), glutaraldehyde andPHMB by the MTT assay individually, followed by assessing binary and ternary mixtures in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and human liver cells (Huh7)...
February 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Rong-Hua Pan, Hong-Mei He, Yue Dai, Yu-Feng Xia
Bergenin, isolated from the herb of Saxifrage stolonifera Curt. (Hu-Er-Cao) has hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and neuroprotective activities. The aim of the present study was to establish a simple, rapid, and sensitive RP-HPLC method for determination of bergenin in rat plasma and compare its oral pharmacokinetic behaviors in normal and CCl4-induced hepatic injury rats. With norisoboldine as an internal standard, chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 analytical column with acetonitrile and water (11 : 89, V/V) containing 0...
October 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Jae Man Lee
Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress culminating in proteotoxicity contributes to the development of insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacologic interventions targeting several different nuclear receptors have emerged as potential treatments for insulin resistance. The mechanistic basis for these antidiabetic effects has primarily been attributed to multiple metabolic and inflammatory functions. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the association of ER stress with insulin resistance and the role of nuclear receptors in promoting ER stress resolution and improving insulin resistance in the liver...
February 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Aravind Mittur, Suneel Gupta, Nishit B Modi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurological disorder characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Levodopa, the precursor to dopamine, coadministered with carbidopa or benserazide, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitors, is the most effective and widely used therapeutic agent in the treatment of PD. With continued levodopa treatment, a majority of patients develop motor complications such as dyskinesia and motor 'on-off' fluctuations, which are, in part, related to the fluctuations in plasma concentrations of levodopa...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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