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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922417/lingering-single-strand-breaks-trigger-rad51-independent-homology-directed-repair-of-collapsed-replication-forks-in-the-polynucleotide-kinase-phosphatase-mutant-of-fission-yeast
#1
Arancha Sanchez, Mariana C Gadaleta, Oliver Limbo, Paul Russell
The DNA repair enzyme polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) protects genome integrity by restoring ligatable 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini at single-strand breaks (SSBs). In humans, PNKP mutations underlie the neurological disease known as MCSZ, but these individuals are not predisposed for cancer, implying effective alternative repair pathways in dividing cells. Homology-directed repair (HDR) of collapsed replication forks was proposed to repair SSBs in PNKP-deficient cells, but the critical HDR protein Rad51 is not required in PNKP-null (pnk1Δ) cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921984/melting-behavior-of-a-dna-four-way-junction-using-spectroscopic-and-calorimetric-techniques
#2
Carolyn E Carr, Luis A Marky
Intramolecular four-way junctions are structures present during homologous recombination, repair of double stranded DNA breaks and integron recombination, in addition to many others. Because of the wide range of biological processes four-way junctions are involved in, understanding how and under what conditions these structures form is critical. In this work, we used a combination of spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to present a complete thermodynamic description of the unfolding of a DNA four-way junction (FWJ) and its appropriate control stem-loop motifs (Dumbbell, GAAATT-Hp, CTATC-Hp, GTGC-Hp, and GCGC-Hp)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921592/radiosensitization-by-inhibiting-dna-repair-turning-the-spotlight-on-homologous-recombination
#3
EDITORIAL
Bhanu P Venkatesulu, Sunil Krishnan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920398/-fermentation-purification-and-immunogenicity-evaluation-of-hepatitis-e-virus-like-particles-expressed-in-hansenula-polymorpha
#4
Caixia Su, Li Li, Zhenji Jin, Xudong Han, Ping Zhao, Lin Wang, Chunhu Jiang, Yueli Wang, Wenwen Wang, Deqi Xu, Naishuo Zhu
To develop a new recombinant hepatitis E vaccine, we used Hansenula polymorpha expression system to express recombinant hepatitis E virus-like particles (HEV VLPs), to construct a recombinant engineered strain HP/HEV2.3. The fermentation conditions and purification process were studied next. The first working seed lots were fermented in liquid culture, and the fermentation products were collected, then crushed, clarified, purified by ultrafiltration, silica gel adsorbed and desorbed, concentrated by ultrafiltration, purified by liquid chromatography and sterilized by filtration...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919581/antitumor-response-to-a-codon-optimized-hpv-16-e7-hsp70-fusion-antigen-dna-vaccine
#5
Hoorieh Soleimanjahi, Hadi Razavinikoo, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Abdollah Ardebili
BACKGROUND: Vaccines based on virus-like particles are effective against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection; however, they have not shown a therapeutic effect against HPV-associated diseases. New immunotherapy strategies based on immune responses against tumor antigens can positively affect the clearance of HPV-associated lesions. OBJECTIVE: To generate two therapeutic fusion DNA vaccines (optimizedE7/mouseHSP70 and wildE7/mouseHSP70) to induce antitumor specific responses in mice models...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917323/seroprevalence-and-first-multilocus-microsatellite-genotyping-of-neospora-caninum-in-dairy-cattle-in-henan-central-china
#6
Weifeng Qian, Tianqi Wang, Wenchao Yan, Min Zhang, Lifang Han, Rui Xue, Shaofu Song, Chaochao Lv
Neospora caninum is one of the important causes of abortion in cattle worldwide, and losses due to neosporosis to the cattle industry are considerable. However, the knowledge of genetic characterization of this parasite is limited. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence and genetic characterization of N. caninum from dairy cows in Henan Province, central China. A total of 510 blood samples and 7 aborted fetuses were collected from 8 dairy farms in Henan Province. Serum antibodies to N. caninum were examined by ELISA using a recombinant tNcSRS2 protein as the coating antigen...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916771/complete-fusion-of-a-transposon-and-herpesvirus-created-the-teratorn-mobile-element-in-medaka-fish
#7
Yusuke Inoue, Tomonori Saga, Takumi Aikawa, Masahiko Kumagai, Atsuko Shimada, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Kiyoshi Naruse, Shinichi Morishita, Akihiko Koga, Hiroyuki Takeda
Mobile genetic elements (e.g., transposable elements and viruses) display significant diversity with various life cycles, but how novel elements emerge remains obscure. Here, we report a giant (180-kb long) transposon, Teratorn, originally identified in the genome of medaka, Oryzias latipes. Teratorn belongs to the piggyBac superfamily and retains the transposition activity. Remarkably, Teratorn is largely derived from a herpesvirus of the Alloherpesviridae family that could infect fish and amphibians. Genomic survey of Teratorn-like elements reveals that some of them exist as a fused form between piggyBac transposon and herpesvirus genome in teleosts, implying the generality of transposon-herpesvirus fusion...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916651/escherichia-coli-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-uvrd-helicase-unwinds-g4-dna-structures
#8
Kaustubh Shukla, Roshan Thakur, Debayan Ganguli, Desirazu Rao, Ganesh Nagaraju
G-quadruplex (G4) secondary structures have been implicated in various biological processes including gene expression, DNA replication and telomere maintenance. However, unresolved G4 structures impede replication progression which can lead to generation of DNA double-strand breaks and genome instability. Helicases have been shown to resolve G4 structures to facilitate faithful duplication of the genome. Escherichia coli UvrD (EcUvrD) helicase plays a crucial role in nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and in the regulation of homologous recombination...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916450/capsule-switching-of-neisseria-meningitidis-sequence-type-7-serogroup-a-to-serogroup-x
#9
Xuemeng Ji, Ping-Ping Yao, Le-Yi Zhang, Yi Li, Fang Xu, Ling-Ling Mei, Shui-Rong Zhu, Yan-Jun Zhang, Han-Ping Zhu, Stijn van der Veen
OBJECTIVES: The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is able to escape the currently available capsule-based vaccines by undergoing capsule switching. In this study, we investigated whether capsule switching has occurred in a recently emerged sequence type (ST) 7 serogroup X isolate in China, for which currently no vaccine is available. METHODS: To identify capsule switching breakpoints, the capsule locus and flanking regions of the ST-7 serogroup X isolate and three endemic ST-7 serogroup A isolates were sequenced and compared...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916391/zika-virus-structural-biology-and-progress-in-vaccine-development
#10
REVIEW
Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916314/immunization-with-recombinant-gntr-plasmid-confers-protection-against-brucella-challenge-in-balb-c-mice
#11
Zhiqiang Li, Shuli Wang, Hui Zhang, Li Xi, Jinliang Zhang, Xiaogen Zhang, Jincheng Han, Junbo Zhang
It is essential to improve animal vaccine for brucellosis since conventional vaccines are residual virulent and poor protective effect, limit their applications. To solve these problems, the recombinant DNA vaccines were appeared, which could improve protective immunity and were attenuated to animals. In current research, the recombinant DNA vaccine (pVGntR) based on transcriptional regulator GntR of Brucella abortus (B. abortus) was constructed. The results show that pVGntR is significantly more protective than the conventional RB51 vaccine...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916186/clinical-immunological-and-genetic-spectrum-of-696-patients-with-combined-immunode%C3%AF-ciency
#12
Hassan Abolhassani, Janet Chou, Wayne Bainter, Craig Platt, Mahmood Tavassoli, Toba Momen, Marzieh Tavakol, Mohammad Hossein Eslamian, Mohammad Gharagozlou, Masoud Movahedi, Mohsen Ghadami, Amir Ali Hamidieh, Gholamreza Azizi, Reza Yazdani, Mohsen Afarideh, Alireza Ghajar, Arash Havaei, Zahra Chavoushzadeh, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Taher Cheraghi, Nasrin Behniafard, Reza Amin, Soheila Aleyasin, Reza Faridhosseini, Farahzad Jabbari-Azad, Mohammamd Nabavi, Mohammad Hassan Bemanian, Saba Arshi, Rasol Molatefi, Roya Sherkat, Mahboubeh Mansouri, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Delara Babaie, Iraj Mohammadzadeh, Javad Ghaffari, Alireza Shafiei, Najmeddin Kalantari, Hamid Ahanchian, Maryam Khoshkhui, Habib Soheili, Abbas Dabbaghzadeh, Afshin Shirkani, Rasoul Nasiri Kalmarzi, Seyed Hamidreza Mortazavi, Javad Tafaroji, Abbas Khalili, Javad Mohammadi, Babak Negahdari, Mohammad-Taghi Joghataei, Basel K Al-Ramadi, Capucine Picard, Nima Parvaneh, Nima Rezaei, Talal Chatila, Michel J Massaad, Sevgi Keles, Lennart Hammarström, Raif S Geha, Asghar Aghamohammadi
BACKGROUND: Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) are diseases of defective adaptive immunity with diverse clinical phenotypes. Although CIDs are more prevalent in the Middle East than Western countries, the resources for genetic diagnosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to characterize the categories of CID patients in Iran clinically and genetically. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 696 patients with CIDs. Patients were subdivided into those with syndromic (344 patients) and non-syndromic CIDs (352 patients)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915590/combination-of-desi2-and-ip10-gene-therapy-significantly-improves-therapeutic-efficacy-against-murine-carcinoma
#13
Chao Lin, HuaYing Yan, Jun Yang, Lei Li, Mei Tang, Xinyu Zhao, Chunlai Nie, Na Luo, Yuquan Wei, Zhu Yuan
DESI2 (also known as PNAS-4) is a novel pro-apoptotic gene activated during the early response to DNA damage. We previously reported that overexpression of DESI2 induces S phase arrest and apoptosis by activating checkpoint kinases. The present study was designed to test whether combination of DESI2 and IP10 could improve the therapy efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The recombinant plasmid co-expressing DESI2 and IP10 was encapsulated with DOTAP/Cholesterol nanoparticle. Immunocompetent mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma and LL2 lung cancer were treated with the complex...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915271/extending-topological-surgery-to-natural-processes-and-dynamical-systems
#14
Stathis Antoniou, Sofia Lambropoulou
Topological surgery is a mathematical technique used for creating new manifolds out of known ones. We observe that it occurs in natural phenomena where a sphere of dimension 0 or 1 is selected, forces are applied and the manifold in which they occur changes type. For example, 1-dimensional surgery happens during chromosomal crossover, DNA recombination and when cosmic magnetic lines reconnect, while 2-dimensional surgery happens in the formation of tornadoes, in the phenomenon of Falaco solitons, in drop coalescence and in the cell mitosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914798/genome-instability-and-%C3%AE-h2ax
#15
REVIEW
Anastasios Georgoulis, Constantinos E Vorgias, George P Chrousos, Emmy P Rogakou
γH2AX has emerged in the last 20 years as a central player in the DDR (DNA damage response), with specificity for DSBs (double-strand breaks). Upon the generation of DSBs, γ-phosphorylation extends along megabase-long domains in chromatin, both sides of the damage. The significance of this mechanism is of great importance; it depicts a biological amplification mechanism where one DSB induces the γ-phosphorylation of thousands of H2AX molecules along megabaselong domains of chromatin, that are adjusted to the sites of DSBs...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914618/hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-syndrome-moving-beyond-brca1-and-brca2
#16
Lien N Hoang, Blake C Gilks
The recent implementation of next generation sequencing and multigene platforms has expanded the spectrum of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, beyond the traditional genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. A large number of other moderate penetrance genes have now been uncovered, which also play critical roles in repairing double stranded DNA breaks through the homologous recombination pathway. This review discusses the landmark discoveries of BRCA1 and BRCA2, the homologous repair pathway and new genes discovered in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, as well as their clinicopathologic significance and implications for genetic testing...
September 13, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913424/reca-filament-maintains-structural-integrity-using-atp-driven-internal-dynamics
#17
Sung Hyun Kim, TakKyoon Ahn, Tao Ju Cui, Sweeny Chauhan, Jaeyoung Sung, Chirlmin Joo, Doseok Kim
At the core of homologous DNA repair, RecA catalyzes the strand exchange reaction. This process is initiated by a RecA loading protein, which nucleates clusters of RecA proteins on single-stranded DNA. Each cluster grows to cover the single-stranded DNA but may leave 1- to 2-nucleotide (nt) gaps between the clusters due to three different structural phases of the nucleoprotein filaments. It remains to be revealed how RecA proteins eliminate the gaps to make a seamless kilobase-long filament. We develop a single-molecule fluorescence assay to observe the novel internal dynamics of the RecA filament...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912877/fen1-knockdown-improves-trastuzumab-sensitivity-in-human-epidermal-growth-factor-2-positive-breast-cancer-cells
#18
Xue Zeng, Xiaofang Che, Yun-Peng Liu, Xiu-Juan Qu, Lu Xu, Chen-Yang Zhao, Chun-Lei Zheng, Ke-Zuo Hou, Yuee Teng
Trastuzumab has been widely applied as a treatment for human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacy of trastuzumab is limited. Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is a multifunctional endonuclease that has a crucial role in DNA recombination and repair. Inhibition of FEN1 is associated with the reversal of anticancer drug resistance. However, it is unclear whether FEN1 is involved in trastuzumab resistance. In the present study, it was demonstrated that trastuzumab increases the expression of FEN1, and FEN1 knockdown significantly enhanced the sensitivity of BT474 cells to trastuzumab (P<0...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912486/the-homologous-recombination-machinery-orchestrates-post-replication-dna-repair-during-self-renewal-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#19
Eui-Hwan Choi, Seobin Yoon, Kyung-Soon Park, Keun P Kim
Embryonic stem (ES) cells require homologous recombination (HR) to cope with genomic instability caused during self-renewal. Here, we report expression dynamics and localization of endogenous HR factors in DNA break repair of ES cells. In addition, we analyzed gene expression patterns of HR-related factors at the transcript level with RNA-sequencing experiments. We showed that ES cells constitutively expressed diverse HR proteins throughout the cell cycle and that HR protein expression was not significantly changed even in the DNA damaging conditions...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912341/the-role-of-blm-helicase-in-homologous-recombination-gene-conversion-tract-length-and-recombination-between-diverged-sequences-in-drosophila
#20
Henry A Ertl, Daniel P Russo, Noori Srivastava, Joseph T Brooks, Thu N Dao, Jeannine R LaRocque
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a particularly deleterious class of DNA damage that threatens genome integrity. DSBs are repaired by three pathways: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR), and single-strand annealing (SSA). Drosophila melanogaster Blm (DmBlm) is the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SGS1 and human BLM, and has been shown to suppress crossovers in mitotic cells and repair mitotic DNA gaps via HR. To further elucidate the role of DmBlm in repair of a simple DSB, and in particular recombination mechanisms, we utilized the DR-white and DR-white...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
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