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Recombinant DNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727079/detection-of-dietary-dna-protein-and-glyphosate-in-meat-milk-and-eggs
#1
A L Van Eenennaam, A E Young
Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary "non-genetically modified organism" labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726126/characterization-of-a-cold-adapted-dna-photolyase-from-c-psychrerythraea-34h
#2
Sudipto Munshi, Ananthi Rajamoorthi, Robert J Stanley
The phrB gene encoding a putative cold-adapted DNA photolyase was cloned from the bacterial genomic DNA of Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H, a psychrophilic bacterium. Recombinant DNA photolyase, rCpPL, was overexpressed and purified from three different vectors. rCpPL binds its DNA substrate by flipping a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) into its active site and repairs CPD-containing DNA in vitro. rCpPL contains one catalytic flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, but displays promiscuity in cofactor binding, in which either a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or a methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) molecule is bound as an antenna molecule and found in sub-stoichiometric amounts...
July 19, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725230/genetics-and-genomics-of-cotton-leaf-curl-disease-its-viral-causal-agents-and-whitefly-vector-a-way-forward-to-sustain-cotton-fiber-security
#3
REVIEW
Mehboob-Ur- Rahman, Ali Q Khan, Zainab Rahmat, Muhammad A Iqbal, Yusuf Zafar
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin-transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724724/brct-domain-protein-brit1-influences-class-switch-recombination
#4
Wei-Feng Yen, Ashutosh Chaudhry, Bharat Vaidyanathan, William T Yewdell, Joseph N Pucella, Rahul Sharma, Yulong Liang, Kaiyi Li, Alexander Y Rudensky, Jayanta Chaudhuri
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) serve as obligatory intermediates for Ig heavy chain (Igh) class switch recombination (CSR). The mechanisms by which DSBs are resolved to promote long-range DNA end-joining while suppressing genomic instability inherently associated with DSBs are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we use a targeted short-hairpin RNA screen in a B-cell lymphoma line to identify the BRCT-domain protein BRIT1 as an effector of CSR. We show that conditional genetic deletion of BRIT1 in mice leads to a marked increase in unrepaired Igh breaks and a significant reduction in CSR in ex vivo activated splenic B cells...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724082/prospective-targeted-recombination-and-genetic-gains-for-quantitative-traits-in-maize
#5
Rex Bernardo
Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology have allowed targeted recombination in specific DNA sequences in yeast (). My objective was to determine if the selection gains from targeted recombination are large enough to warrant the development of targeted recombination technology in plants. Genomewide marker effects for quantitative traits in two maize ( L.) experiments were used to identify targeted recombination points that would maximize the per-chromosome genetic gains in a given cross...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723575/crispr-mediated-integration-of-large-gene-cassettes-using-aav-donor-vectors
#6
Rasmus O Bak, Matthew H Porteus
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been shown to facilitate high levels of precise genome editing using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to serve as donor template DNA during homologous recombination (HR). However, the maximum AAV packaging capacity of ∼4.5 kb limits the donor size. Here, we overcome this constraint by showing that two co-transduced AAV vectors can serve as donors during consecutive HR events for the integration of large transgenes. Importantly, the method involves a single-step procedure applicable to primary cells with relevance to therapeutic genome editing...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722656/corrupting-the-dna-damage-response-a-critical-role-for-rad52-in-tumor-cell-survival
#7
Rachel Lieberman, Ming You
The DNA damage response enables cells to survive, maintain genome integrity, and to safeguard the transmission of high-fidelity genetic information. Upon sensing DNA damage, cells respond by activating this multi-faceted DNA damage response leading to restoration of the cell, senescence, programmed cell death, or genomic instability if the cell survives without proper repair. However, unlike normal cells, cancer cells maintain a marked level of genomic instability. Because of this enhanced propensity to accumulate DNA damage, tumor cells rely on homologous recombination repair as a means of protection from the lethal effect of both spontaneous and therapy-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA...
July 15, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719910/correlating-the-genetic-and-physical-map-of-barley-chromosome-3h-revealed-limitations-of-the-fish-based-mapping-of-nearby-single-copy-probes-caused-by-the-dynamic-structure-of-metaphase-chromosomes
#8
Fernanda O Bustamante, Lala Aliyeva-Schnorr, Jörg Fuchs, Sebastian Beier, Andreas Houben
Genetic maps are based on the recombination frequency of molecular markers which often show different positions in comparison to the corresponding physical maps. To decipher the position and order of DNA sequences genetically mapped to terminal and interstitial regions of barley (Hordeum vulgare) chromosome 3H, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on mitotic metaphase chromosomes was performed with 16 genomic single-copy probes derived from fingerprinted BAC contigs. Long genetic distances at subterminal regions translated into short physical distances, confirming that recombination events occur more often at distal regions of chromosome 3H...
July 19, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719630/oligo-and-dsdna-mediated-genome-editing-using-a-teta-dual-selection-system-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Young Shin Ryu, Sathesh-Prabu Chandran, Kyungchul Kim, Sung Kuk Lee
The ability to precisely and seamlessly modify a target genome is needed for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques aimed at creating potent biosystems. Herein, we report on a promising method in Escherichia coli that relies on the insertion of an optimized tetA dual selection cassette followed by replacement of the same cassette with short, single-stranded DNA (oligos) or long, double-stranded DNA and the isolation of recombinant strains by negative selection using NiCl2. This method could be rapidly and successfully used for genome engineering, including deletions, insertions, replacements, and point mutations, without inactivation of the methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) system and plasmid cloning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719308/a-recombinant-47-kda-outer-membrane-protein-induces-an-immune-response-against-orientia-tsutsugamushi-strain-boryong
#10
Sangho Choi, Hang Jin Jeong, Kyu-Jam Hwang, Byoungchul Gill, Young Ran Ju, Yeong Seon Lee, Jeongmin Lee
We investigated the 47-kDa outer membrane protein (OMP), which is a periplasmic serine protease and an antigenic major surface protein of Orientia tsutsugamushi, as a vaccine candidate. We developed a conventional subunit vaccine expressing recombinant 47-kDa OMP (rec47) and a DNA vaccine (p47). In mouse immunization experiments, intranasal immunization with rec47 alone or with rec47 plus heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit from Escherichia coli or plus cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvants induced a higher amount of rec47-specific antibodies than intramuscular immunization with p47 alone or with p47 plus pBOOST2-samIRF7/3 (pB) as adjuvant...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719288/evaluation-of-the-protective-effect-of-deoxyribonucleic-acid-vaccines-encoding-granule-antigen-2-and-5-against-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-balb-c-mice
#11
Xiao Teng Ching, Mun Yik Fong, Yee Ling Lau
AbstractToxoplasma gondii infects a broad range of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. Important clinical manifestations include encephalitis in immunocompromised patients as well as miscarriage and fetal damage during early pregnancy. Toxoplasma gondii dense granule antigen 2 and 5 (GRA2 and GRA5) are essential for parasitophorous vacuole development of the parasite. To evaluate the potential of GRA2 and GRA5 as recombinant DNA vaccine candidates, these antigens were cloned into eukaryotic expression vector (pcDNA 3...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718810/dna2-an-important-player-in-dna-damage-response-or-just-another-dna-maintenance-protein
#12
REVIEW
Elzbieta Pawłowska, Joanna Szczepanska, Janusz Blasiak
The human DNA2 (DNA replication helicase/nuclease 2) protein is expressed in both the nucleus and mitochondria, where it displays ATPase-dependent nuclease and helicase activities. DNA2 plays an important role in the removing of long flaps in DNA replication and long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER), interacting with the replication protein A (RPA) and the flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1). DNA2 can promote the restart of arrested replication fork along with Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase (WRN) and Bloom syndrome protein (BLM)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718400/histone-h3g34r-mutation-causes-replication-stress-homologous-recombination-defects-and-genomic-instability-in-s-pombe
#13
Rajesh K Yadav, Carolyn M Jablonowski, Alfonso G Fernandez, Brandon R Lowe, Ryan A Henry, David Finkelstein, Kevin J Barnum, Alison L Pidoux, Yin-Ming Kuo, Jie Huang, Matthew J O'Connell, Andrew J Andrews, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Robin C Allshire, Janet F Partridge
Recurrent somatic mutations of H3F3A in aggressive pediatric high-grade gliomas generate K27M or G34R/V mutant histone H3.3. H3.3-G34R/V mutants are common in tumors with mutations in p53 and ATRX, an H3.3-specific chromatin remodeler. To gain insight into the role of H3-G34R, we generated fission yeast that express only the mutant histone H3. H3-G34R specifically reduces H3K36 tri-methylation and H3K36 acetylation, and mutants show partial transcriptional overlap with set2 deletions. H3-G34R mutants exhibit genomic instability and increased replication stress, including slowed replication fork restart, although DNA replication checkpoints are functional...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717002/human-ribonuclease-h1-resolves-r-loops-and-thereby-enables-progression-of-the-dna-replication-fork
#14
Shankar Parajuli, Daniel C Tealsey, Bhavna Murali, Jessica Jackson, Alessandro Vindigni, Sheila A Stewart
Faithful DNA replication is essential for genome stability. To ensure accurate replication, numerous complex and redundant replication and repair mechanisms function in tandem with the core replication proteins to ensure DNA replication continues even when replication challenges are present that could impede progression of the replication fork. A unique topological challenge to the replication machinery is posed by RNA:DNA hybrids, commonly referred to as R-loops. While R-loops play important roles in gene expression and recombination at immunoglobulin sites, their persistence is thought to interfere with DNA replication by slowing or impeding replication fork progression...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716949/biochemical-regulatory-features-of-aid-remain-conserved-from-lamprey-to-humans
#15
Emma M Quinlan, Justin J King, Chris T Amemiya, Ellen Hsu, Mani Larijani
Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a genome-mutating enzyme that initiates class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of antibodies in jawed vertebrates. We previously described the biochemical properties of human AID and found that it is an unusual enzyme in that it exhibits binding affinities for its substrate DNA and catalytic rates several orders of magnitude higher and lower, respectively, than a typical enzyme. Recently, we solved the functional structure of AID and demonstrated that these properties are due to non-specific DNA binding on its surface, along with a catalytic pocket that predominantly assumes a closed conformation...
July 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716362/phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase-system-components-positively-regulate-klebsiella-biofilm-formation
#16
Yu-Tze Horng, Chi-Jen Wang, Wen-Ting Chung, Huei-Jen Chao, Yih-Yuan Chen, Po-Chi Soo
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of device-related infections (DRIs), which are associated with attachment of bacteria to these devices to form a biofilm. The latter is composed of not only bacteria but also extracellular polymeric substances (EPSes) consisting of extracellular DNAs, polysaccharides, and other macromolecules. The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulates diverse processes of bacterial physiology...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715998/detection-of-active-transposable-elements-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-using-oxford-nanopore-sequencing-technology
#17
Emilie Debladis, Christel Llauro, Marie-Christine Carpentier, Marie Mirouze, Olivier Panaud
BACKGROUND: Transposables elements (TEs) contribute to both structural and functional dynamics of most eukaryotic genomes. Because of their propensity to densely populate plant and animal genomes, the precise estimation of the impact of transposition on genomic diversity has been considered as one of the main challenges of today's genomics. The recent development of NGS (next generation sequencing) technologies has open new perspectives in population genomics by providing new methods for high throughput detection of Transposable Elements-associated Structural Variants (TEASV)...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715961/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-mating-type-determination-in-paramecium-and-tetrahymena
#18
Eduardo Orias, Deepankar Pratap Singh, Eric Meyer
While sex is an ancient and highly conserved eukaryotic invention, self-incompatibility systems such as mating types or sexes appear to be derived limitations that show considerable evolutionary plasticity. Within a single class of ciliates, Paramecium and Tetrahymena species have long been known to present a wide variety of mating type numbers and modes of inheritance, but only recently have the genes involved been identified. Although similar transmembrane proteins mediate self/nonself recognition in both ciliates, the mechanisms of mating type determination differ widely, ranging from Mendelian systems to developmental nuclear differentiation, either stochastic or maternally inherited...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715960/histone-methylation-by-set-domain-proteins-in-fungi
#19
Michael Freitag
Histone-modifying enzymes are responsible for regulating transcription, recombination, DNA repair, DNA replication, chromatid cohesion, and chromosome segregation. Fungi are ideally suited for comparative chromatin biology because sequencing of numerous genomes from many clades is coupled to existing rich methodology that allows truly holistic approaches, integrating evolutionary biology with mechanistic molecular biology and ecology, promising applications in medicine or plant pathology. While genome information is rich, mechanistic studies on histone modifications are largely restricted to two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and one filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa-three species that arguably are not representative of this diverse kingdom...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715629/structure-and-dynamics-of-electron-injection-and-charge-recombination-in-i-motif-dna-conjugates
#20
Taiga Fujii, Arun K Thazhathveetil, Ilyas Yildirim, Ryan M Young, Michael R Wasielewski, George C Schatz, Frederick D Lewis
The dynamics of electron injection have been investigated in intramolecular i-motif conjugates possessing stilbenediether (Sd) and perylenediimide (PDI) chromophores separated by either four or six hemi-protonated cytosine C-C base pairs assembled with synthetic loops. Circular dichroism spectra are consistent with the formation of i-motif structures in the absence or presence of Sd and PDI chromophores. The fluorescence of the Sd chromophore is essentially completely quenched by neighboring C-C base pairs, consistent with their function as an electron donor and electron acceptor, respectively...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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