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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922685/neoadjuvant-systemic-therapy-for-breast-cancer-the-westmead-experience
#1
Annelise M Cocco, David Messer, Alexander Brown, Nina Sriram, Jenny Gilchrist, Loma Al-Mansouri, Richard Kefford, Farid Meybodi, James French, Jeremy Hsu, Elisabeth Elder
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NAST) can be used to treat breast cancer. Pathologic complete response (pCR) is a surrogate marker for improved survival. This study examined response in the breast and axilla to NAST and identified features associated with pCR. METHODS: Patients undergoing NAST and surgery between January 2012 and June 2016 by surgeons at Westmead Breast Cancer Institute were identified. Patients with inflammatory or metastatic disease were excluded...
September 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922321/-patient-reported-outcomes-following-breast-conservation-therapy-and-barriers-to-referral-for-partial-breast-reconstruction
#2
Sebastian Q Vrouwe, Ron B Somogyi, Laura Snell, Catherine McMillan, Danny Vesprini, Joan E Lipa
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-reported aesthetic outcome of breast conservation therapy (BCT) in a generalized sample of patients, and to describe potential barriers to referral for partial breast reconstruction. METHODS: Consecutive BCT patients completing radiotherapy over a one-year period at a regional cancer centre were identified. Eligible patients were contacted via mail/email and invited to participate. Participants completed the BREAST-Q BCT module along with a questionnaire examining feelings about breast reconstruction...
September 14, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922081/clinical-outcomes-following-conservative-management-of-chronic-traumatic-cervical-myelopathy-a-case-report
#3
Justin Bridges, Roberto Sandoval
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is limited evidence supporting the conservative management of patients with cervical myelopathy. The purpose of this report is to describe the intervention and outcomes of conservative physical therapy interventions for one patient with chronic cervical myelopathy. CASE DESCRIPTION: This case was a 50-year-old male who sustained a neck injury following a rear-end collision 4 years prior to this therapeutic episode. The patient presented with decreased range of motion in the cervical spine and right upper extremity, strength deficits, altered sensation, poor posture, and reported chronic cervical region pain and difficulty sleeping...
September 18, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921521/a-paradigm-for-evaluation-and-management-of-the-maxillary-sinus-before-dental-implantation
#4
Yi-Wei Chen, Fu-Ying Lee, Po-Hung Chang, Chi-Che Huang, Chia-Hsiang Fu, Chien-Chia Huang, Ta-Jen Lee
OBJECTIVES: To determine a paradigm for evaluating and managing maxillary sinus conditions before dental implantation via preoperative sinonasal assessment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Eighty-four patients who underwent dental implantation with or without sinus augmentation were included. Maxillary sinus conditions were classified into groups 1 to 6 according to cone-beam computed tomography (CT) findings: 1) nonspecific findings, 2) solitary polyp or cyst, 3) mucosal thickening, 4) air-fluid level or fluid accumulation, 5) near-total opacification of the maxillary or other paranasal sinus, and 6) calcification spots in the maxillary sinus...
September 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921035/-midportion-achilles-tendinopathy
#5
REVIEW
J Weber, T Buchhorn
Although the incidence of midportion Achilles tendinopathy is under 1% in the general population, it is quite a common disease in runners that is characterized by the symptom triad of pain, swelling and impaired physical performance. Pain and swelling are located in the area 2 to 7 cm proximal the tendon insertion onto the calcaneus.Diagnosis is made by adequate clinical symptoms and corresponding findings in sonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging scans. Histopathologically, mostly degenerative changes in the tendon structure are found, sometimes accompanied by intra- and paratendinous inflammation...
September 18, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920780/use-of-composite-materials-as-a-component-of-tusk-fracture-management-in-an-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-and-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#6
Richard R Sim, Elizabeth Stringer, Dennis Donovan, Rachael Chappell, Pat Flora, Jon Hall, Selvum Pillay, Benjamin G Willis, Stephanie McCain
Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920712/maximized-nanodrug-loaded-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-a-dual-drug-loaded-mode-for-the-systemic-treatment-of-metastatic-lung-cancer
#7
Sen Yao, Xuqian Li, Jingxuan Liu, Yuqing Sun, Zhuanhe Wang, Yanyan Jiang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), exhibiting tumor-tropic and migratory potential, can serve as cellular carriers to improve the effectiveness of anticancer agents. However, several challenges, such as the safety issue, the limited drug loading, the conservation of stemness and migration of MSCs, still remain in the MSC-based delivery system. In the present study, a novel nano-engineered MSC delivery system was established by loading doxorubicin (DOX)-polymer conjugates for the systemic treatment of pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918934/reconstructive-microsurgical-approach-for-the-treatment-of-pyoderma-gangrenosum
#8
Karl Schwaiger, Elisabeth Russe, Hassan Kholosy, Michaela Hladik, Klemens Heinrich, Laurenz Weitgasser, Thomas Schoeller, Gottfried Wechselberger
INTRODUCTION: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare type of autoimmune disease that results in progressive ulcers with or without previous trauma. However, PG is not well understood to date, and its treatment therefore remains a challenge. Because of the disease's systemic characteristic and the unpredictability of the clinical course, no gold standard treatment is available, especially concerning the surgical procedures to treat pyodermic lesions. Often, PG is not recognized during routine clinical practice, and standard ulcer treatment (conservative wound care, debridement, skin grafting, and local flap coverage) is initiated; this induces an autoinflammatory response, resulting in disastrous ulcers, thereby making free flap coverage necessary...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918490/notch-signaling-pathway-networks-in-cancer-metastasis-a-new-target-for-cancer-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Li Li, Ping Tang, Shun Li, Xiang Qin, Hong Yang, Chunhui Wu, Yiyao Liu
Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in mammals, which plays an important role in cell development and differentiation. In recent years, increasing evidence has shown that aberrant activation of Notch is associated with tumor process. Aberrant activation of Notch signaling pathway has been found in many different solid tumors can induce cell proliferation, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Notch receptor and its ligand are both single transmembrane protein, and Notch is activated when it binds to the Notch ligand of neighbor cells...
September 16, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918033/six-highly-conserved-targets-of-rnai-revealed-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-from-russia-are-also-present-in-many-hiv-1-strains-worldwide
#10
Olga V Kretova, Daria M Fedoseeva, Maria A Gorbacheva, Natalya M Gashnikova, Maria P Gashnikova, Nataliya V Melnikova, Vladimir R Chechetkin, Yuri V Kravatsky, Nickolai A Tchurikov
RNAi has been suggested for use in gene therapy of HIV/AIDS, but the main problem is that HIV-1 is highly variable and could escape attack from the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) due to even single nucleotide substitutions in the potential targets. To exhaustively check the variability in selected RNA targets of HIV-1, we used ultra-deep sequencing of six regions of HIV-1 from the plasma of two independent cohorts of patients from Russia. Six RNAi targets were found that are invariable in 82%-97% of viruses in both cohorts and are located inside the domains specifying reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase, vpu, gp120, and p17...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917673/b-type-natriuretic-peptide-and-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-for-risk-stratification-in-low-flow-low-gradient-aortic-stenosis-a-substudy-of-the-topas-study
#11
Abdellaziz Dahou, Marie-Annick Clavel, Romain Capoulade, Kim O'Connor, Henrique B Ribeiro, Nancy Côté, Florent Le Ven, Josep Rodés-Cabau, Jean G Dumesnil, Patrick Mathieu, Philippe Pibarot
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic value of combined measures of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) in patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (LF-LG AS) who had either a preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). BACKGROUND: An elevated BNP level is associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with LF-LG AS. The incremental prognostic value of hsTnT in these patients is unknown...
September 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917306/evaluation-of-surface-antigen-tf1-17-in-feline-tritrichomonas-foetus-isolates
#12
E N Gould, L B Corbeil, S A Kania, M K Tolbert
Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a flagellated protozoa that infects the distal ileum and proximal colon of domestic cats, as well as the urogenital tract of cattle. Feline trichomonosis is recognized as a prevalent cause of chronic diarrhea in cats worldwide. The suspected route of transmission is fecal-oral, with cats in densely crowded environments at highest risk for infection. Thus, the recommended strategy for minimizing spread of infection is to identify and isolate T. foetus-positive cats from the general population...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916253/the-place-of-transanal-endoscopic-surgery-in-the-treatment-of-recto-urethral-fistula
#13
X Serra-Aracil, M Labro-Ciurans, L Mora-Lopez, J Muñoz-Rodriguez, R Martos-Calvo, J Prats-López, S Navarro-Soto
OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of TEO/TEM in recto-urethral fistulas (RUF). RUF may appear after radical prostatectomy. Their treatment represents a challenge; many therapies have been proposed, from conservative to aggressive surgical approaches. Transanal endoscopic surgery (TEO/TEM) is a minimally invasive technique to access the site of the RUF to perform repair. METHODS: Observational study with prospective data collection, conducted between September 2006 and December 2015...
September 12, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915706/the-role-of-autophagy-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-friend-or-foe
#14
REVIEW
Lian Liu, Jia-Zhi Liao, Xing-Xing He, Pei-Yuan Li
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-dependent catabolic process which degrades cell's components in order to recycle substrates to exert optimally and adapt to tough circumstances. It is a critical cellular homeostatic mechanism with stress resistance, immunity, antiaging, and pro-tumor or anti-tumor effects. Among these, the role of autophagy in cancer is the most eye-catching that is not immutable but dynamic and highly complex. Basal autophagy acts as a tumor suppressor by maintaining genomic stability in normal cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915682/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-breast-conservation-therapy-followed-by-radiotherapy-in-four-breast-cancer-subtypes
#15
Xin-Bin Pan, Rou-Jun Chen, Shi-Ting Huang, Yan-Ming Jiang, Xiao-Dong Zhu
The different molecular subtypes of breast cancer are associated with distinct outcomes. We assessed the efficacy of breast conservation therapy (BCT) followed by radiotherapy for patients with different breast cancer subtypes. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies published prior to April 30, 2016 that assessed the efficacy of BCT followed by radiotherapy in breast cancer patients with different molecular subtypes. A meta-analysis of seven studies that included 3,798 luminal A, 770 luminal B, 344 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2), and 767 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients was performed...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915209/the-expanded-use-of-auto-augmentation-techniques-in-oncoplastic-breast-surgery
#16
Albert Losken, Alexandra M Hart, James Walter Dutton, Justine S Broecker, Toncred M Styblo, Grant W Carlson
BACKGROUND: Auto-augmentation techniques have been applied to oncoplastic reductions to assist with filling larger, more remote defects and women with smaller breasts. The purpose of this report is to describe the use of auto-augmentation techniques in OR and compare the results with traditional OR. METHODS: We queried a prospectively maintained database of all women who underwent partial mastectomy and OR between 1994 and October 2015. The auto-augmentation techniques were defined as 1) extended primary nipple auto-augmentation pedicle, and 2) primary nipple pedicle and secondary auto-augmentation pedicle...
September 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914624/management-of-type-i-and-type-ii-laryngeal-clefts-controversies-and-evidence
#17
Sarah N Bowe, Christopher J Hartnick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the pediatric Type I and Type II laryngeal cleft literature, paying special attention to recent trends, including evolution of surgical techniques, standardization of outcome assessments, and utilization of management algorithms. RECENT FINDINGS: There are a variety of options to choose from whenever considering Type I and Type II cleft repair, including endoscopic repair, transoral robotic surgery, and injection laryngoplasty. Conservative management including feeding therapy and treatment of comorbid medical conditions is recommended prior to repair...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913687/non-atherosclerotic-vascular-disease-in-women
#18
REVIEW
Lee Joseph, Esther S H Kim
Takayasu arteritis, fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), spontaneous arterial dissection, Raynaud's phenomenon, and chilblains are vascular conditions that are associated with an increased predisposition in women and are often underdiagnosed. Takayasu arteritis has an incidence rate of 2.6 cases per million individuals per year in the USA and predominantly affects women of childbearing age. HLA-B5 genetic locus is linked with Takayasu arteritis susceptibility. Methods to determine active disease are limiting; currently utilized clinical and imaging findings and laboratory tests are of limited value for this purpose...
September 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912766/environmental-bacteriophages-of-the-emerging-enterobacterial-phytopathogen-dickeya-solani-show-genomic-conservation-and-capacity-for-horizontal-gene-transfer-between-their-bacterial-hosts
#19
Andrew Day, Jiyoon Ahn, Xinzhe Fang, George P C Salmond
Dickeya solani is an economically important phytopathogen widespread in mainland Europe that can reduce potato crop yields by 25%. There are no effective environmentally-acceptable chemical systems available for diseases caused by Dickeya. Bacteriophages have been suggested for use in biocontrol of this pathogen in the field, and limited field trials have been conducted. To date only a small number of bacteriophages capable of infecting D. solani have been isolated and characterized, and so there is a need to expand the repertoire of phages that may have potential utility in phage therapy strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911033/formulation-of-chitosan-with-the-polyepitope-hiv-1-protein-candidate-vaccine-efficiently-boosts-cellular-immune-responses-in-mice
#20
Ehsan Ollah Jazaeri, Atiyeh Mahdavi, Asghar Abdoli
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) continues to be a major global public health issue and priority. Despite the variety of antiretroviral therapies, it seems that an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is still very necessary. An ideal HIV-1 vaccine should be able to elicit both humoral and cellular immunities. In this respect, polyepitope vaccines, incorporated from several conserved regions of HIV-1 proteins, have received much attention recently. Herein, the immunogenicity of the HIV-1 polyepitope protein-based candidate vaccines was evaluated in BALB/c mice...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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