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Liver anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331884/true-left-sided-gallbladder-a-case-report-and-comparison-with-the-literature-for-the-different-techniques-of-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-for-such-anomalies
#1
Tamer Saafan, James Yi Hu, Ahmed-Emad Mahfouz, Abdelrahman Abdelaal
INTRODUCTION: True left-sided gallbladder (LSG) is a rare finding that may present with symptoms similar to those of a normally positioned gallbladder. Moreover, it may be missed by preoperative imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or endoscopic ultrasound. True left-sided gallbladder is a surgical challenge and surgical technique may need to be modified for the completion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PRESENTATION OF CASE: In this case report, we present a case of true left-sided gallbladder that produced right-sided abdominal symptoms...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327594/liver-resection-and-surgical-strategies-for-management-of-primary-liver-cancer
#2
Sonia T Orcutt, Daniel A Anaya
Primary liver cancer-including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC)-incidence is increasing and is an important source of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Management of these cancers, even when localized, is challenging due to the association with underlying liver disease and the complex anatomy of the liver. Although for ICC, surgical resection provides the only potential cure, for HCC, the risks and benefits of the multiple curative intent options must be considered to individualize treatment based upon tumor factors, baseline liver function, and the functional status of the patient...
January 2018: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325356/-the-role-and-significance-of-digital-reconstruction-technique-in-liver-segments-based-on-portal-vein-structure
#3
X J Zhou, Q Dong, C Z Zhu, X Chen, B Wei, Y H Duan, J Zhao, X W Hao, H Zhang, P Nie, B Hu, W J Xu, R W Shen, Z H Chen, K R Dong, Y Z Bai, Q Shu, W J Luo, F Gao, N Xia, Q Y Yu
Objective: To study the segment of liver according to the large amount of three-dimensional(3D) reconstructive images of normal human livers and the vascular system, and to recognize the basic functional liver unit based on the anatomic features of the intrahepatic portal veins. Methods: The enhanced CT primitive DICOM files of 1 260 normal human livers from different age groups who treated from October 2013 to February 2017 provided by 16 hospitals were analyzed using the computer-aided surgery system.The 3D liver and liver vascular system were reconstructed, and the digital liver 3D model was established...
January 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312871/patient-specific-three-dimensional-printing-for-pre-surgical-planning-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-treatment
#4
Elizabeth Perica, Zhonghua Sun
Background: Recently, three-dimensional (3D) printing has shown great interest in medicine, and 3D printed models may be rendered as part of the pre-surgical planning process in order to better understand the complexities of an individual's anatomy. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of utilising 3D printed liver models as clinical tools in pre-operative planning for resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions. Methods: High-resolution contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images were acquired and utilized to generate a patient-specific 3D printed liver model...
December 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306507/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-novel-tetanus-toxoid-conjugated-anti-gastrin-vaccine-in-balb-c-mice
#5
Qing He, Hua Gao, Meng Gao, Shengmei Qi, Kun Yang, Yingqi Zhang, Junzhi Wang
The objective of this study is to determine the immunogenicity and safety of our novel anti-gastrin vaccine that is composed of the common amino-terminal portions of human carboxy-amidated gastrin-17 (G17) and glycine-extended gastrin-17 (gly-G17) as well as the common carboxy-terminal portion of the gastrin precursor progastrin (in a 50:50 mixture) all covalently linked to tetanus toxoid (TT) via peptide spacers. The vaccine, or immunogen, was injected intramuscularly into the legs of BALB/c mice, which produced high serum titres of specific IgG antibodies and IFN-γ in their spleen cells, identifiable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT), respectively...
January 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297313/a-compendium-and-functional-characterization-of-mammalian-genes-involved-in-adaptation-to-arctic-or-antarctic-environments
#6
Nikolay S Yudin, Denis M Larkin, Elena V Ignatieva
BACKGROUND: Many mammals are well adapted to surviving in extremely cold environments. These species have likely accumulated genetic changes that help them efficiently cope with low temperatures. It is not known whether the same genes related to cold adaptation in one species would be under selection in another species. The aims of this study therefore were: to create a compendium of mammalian genes related to adaptations to a low temperature environment; to identify genes related to cold tolerance that have been subjected to independent positive selection in several species; to determine promising candidate genes/pathways/organs for further empirical research on cold adaptation in mammals...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285519/characterization-and-correction-of-intraoperative-soft-tissue-deformation-in-image-guided-laparoscopic-liver-surgery
#7
Jon S Heiselman, Logan W Clements, Jarrod A Collins, Jared A Weis, Amber L Simpson, Sunil K Geevarghese, T Peter Kingham, William R Jarnagin, Michael I Miga
Laparoscopic liver surgery is challenging to perform due to a compromised ability of the surgeon to localize subsurface anatomy in the constrained environment. While image guidance has the potential to address this barrier, intraoperative factors, such as insufflation and variable degrees of organ mobilization from supporting ligaments, may generate substantial deformation. The severity of laparoscopic deformation in humans has not been characterized, and current laparoscopic correction methods do not account for the mechanics of how intraoperative deformation is applied to the liver...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277446/phase-i-trial-of-stereotactic-mr-guided-online-adaptive-radiation-therapy-smart-for-the-treatment-of-oligometastatic-or-unresectable-primary-malignancies-of-the-abdomen
#8
Lauren Henke, Rojano Kashani, Clifford Robinson, Austen Curcuru, Todd DeWees, Jeffrey Bradley, Olga Green, Jeff Michalski, Sasa Mutic, Parag Parikh, Jeffrey Olsen
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: SBRT is used to treat oligometastatic or unresectable primary abdominal malignancies, although ablative dose delivery is limited by proximity of organs-at-risk (OAR). Stereotactic, magnetic resonance (MR)-guided online-adaptive radiotherapy (SMART) may improve SBRT's therapeutic ratio. This prospective Phase I trial assessed feasibility and potential advantages of SMART to treat abdominal malignancies. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty patients with oligometastatic or unresectable primary liver (n = 10) and non-liver (n = 10) abdominal malignancies underwent SMART...
December 22, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259374/improved-experimental-model-of-hepatic-cystic-hydatid-disease-resembling-natural-infection-route-with-stable-growing-dynamics-and-immune-reaction
#9
Rui-Qing Zhang, Xin-Hua Chen, Hao Wen
AIM: To investigate a safer way to set up the disease model of cystic echinococcosis without contamination risk and develop a novel experimental murine model of hepatic cystic echinococcosis. METHODS: C57B/6 mice were injected with human protoscolices of three different concentrations via the portal vein. The mice were followed for 10 mo by ultrasound, gross anatomy, and pathological and immunological examinations. The protoscolex migration in the portal vein, hydatid cyst growth, host immune reaction, and hepatic histopathology were examined periodically...
December 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249974/computational-modeling-in-liver-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Bruno Christ, Uta Dahmen, Karl-Heinz Herrmann, Matthias König, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Tim Ricken, Jana Schleicher, Lars Ole Schwen, Sebastian Vlaic, Navina Waschinsky
The need for extended liver resection is increasing due to the growing incidence of liver tumors in aging societies. Individualized surgical planning is the key for identifying the optimal resection strategy and to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure and tumor recurrence. Current computational tools provide virtual planning of liver resection by taking into account the spatial relationship between the tumor and the hepatic vascular trees, as well as the size of the future liver remnant. However, size and function of the liver are not necessarily equivalent...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243189/congenital-portosystemic-venous-shunt
#11
REVIEW
M Papamichail, M Pizanias, N Heaton
Congenital portosystemic venous shunts are rare developmental anomalies resulting in diversion of portal flow to the systemic circulation and have been divided into extra- and intrahepatic shunts. They occur during liver and systemic venous vascular embryogenesis and are associated with other congenital abnormalities. They carry a higher risk of benign and malignant liver tumors and, if left untreated, can result in significant medical complications including systemic encephalopathy and pulmonary hypertension...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242745/the-liver-and-chilaiditi-s-syndrome-significance-of-hepatic-surface-grooves
#12
Shamir O Cawich, Richard Spence, Fawwaz Mohammed, Michael T Gardner, Alex Sinanan, Vijay Naraynsingh
Chilaiditi's syndrome describes a symptomatic patient with radiographic findings of interposed colon between the diaphragm and right lobe of liver. It may mimic a pneumoperitoneum on plain radiographs. We present a case in which Chilaiditis' syndrome was entertained, delaying a decision for laparotomy. This case reinforces the diagnostic difficulty associated with Chilaiditi's syndrome, and it increases awareness of an uncommon variation in the liver surface anatomy.
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230676/gut-microbial-balance-and-liver-transplantation-alteration-management-and-prediction
#13
REVIEW
Xinyao Tian, Zhe Yang, Fangzhou Luo, Shusen Zheng
Liver transplantation is a conventional treatment for terminal stage liver diseases. However, several complications still hinder the survival rate. Intestinal barrier destruction is widely observed among patients receiving liver transplant and suffering from ischemia-reperfusion or rejection injuries because of the relationship between the intestine and the liver, both in anatomy and function. Importantly, the resulting alteration of gut microbiota aggravates graft dysfunctions during the process. This article reviews the research progress for gut microbial alterations and liver transplantation...
December 12, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226038/pencil-beam-scanning-proton-therapy-for-rhabdomyosarcoma-of-the-biliary-tract
#14
Luke Pater, Brian Turpin, Anthony Mascia
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood with 250-350 cases diagnosed annually in the United States. Biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma is rare, representing <1% of the RMS cases. Due to its location, resection is clinically challenging, and functional complications exist and persist from biliary obstruction. The anatomical location of this tumor presents both opportunities and challenges for pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Proton therapy offers a dosimetric and clinical advantage by sparing the healthy liver, stomach, contra-lateral kidney and bowel...
October 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225990/cholecystectomy-of-an-intrahepatic-gallbladder-in-an-ectopic-pelvic-liver-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Rachel Mathis, Joshua Stodghill, Timothy Shaver, George Younan
Introduction: Ectopic pelvic liver is an exceedingly rare condition usually resulting after repair of congenital abdominal wall defects. Intrahepatic gallbladder is another rare condition predisposing patients to cholelithiasis and its sequelae. We describe a cholecystectomy in a patient with an intrahepatic gallbladder in a pelvic ectopic liver. Presentation of Case: A 33-year-old woman with a history of omphalocele repair as an infant presented with signs and symptoms of symptomatic cholelithiasis and chronic cholecystitis, however, in an unusual location...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222964/east-meets-west-east-and-west-pioneers-of-anatomical-right-hepatectomy-period-of-dawn-to-establishment
#16
EDITORIAL
Atsushi Nanashima, Shun-Ichi Ariizumi, Masakazu Yamamoto
Right hepatectomy is a standard anatomical procedure used worldwide, and consists of two important steps: access to the portal pedicle at the hepatic hilus and approach through the right hepatic vein. With interest in the early work in the field of right hepatectomy, we searched for official documents, published not only in English but also non-English languages for insights on the history of the great work conducted by pioneer liver surgeons in the East and West. To discuss anatomical right hepatectomy, it is important to consider several issues, including liver anatomy, other anatomical liver resection procedures, control of vascular in-flow and out-flow, operative procedures or approaches, preoperative management and other related issues...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198688/hanging-hepato-atrial-anastomosis-in-deceased-donor-liver-transplantation-for-budd-chiari-syndrome-with-extensive-vena-cava-obliteration-a-case-report
#17
S Y Hong, B-W Kim, H-J Wang, I-G Kim, X-G Hu
INTRODUCTION: Although outcomes of liver transplantation (LT) have improved as the result of progress in surgical procedures, a failure to restore sufficient graft outflow may yield fatal consequences including graft dysfunction and even graft loss to date. In particular, patients with pre-existing obliterated venous drainage, such as those with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), are at high risk of having venous complications followed by conventional LT. In selected cases, the transplant surgeons are compelled to modify the surgical procedures of LT from the conventional procedure...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198389/cumulative-dose-of-radiation-therapy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-and-its-deterministic-relation-to-radiation-induced-liver-disease
#18
Pu Huang, Gang Yu, Daniel S Kapp, Xue-Feng Bian, Chang-Sheng Ma, Hong-Sheng Li, Jin-Hu Chen, Yue-Qiang Liang, Yang Zhang, Shao-Hua Qin, Yao-Qin Xie, Yong Yang, Yong Yin, Lei Xing, Deng-Wang Li
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dose and radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Twenty-three patients with HCC who received conventional fractionated 3DCRT, including 7 who were diagnosed with classic RILD, were enrolled in this retrospective investigation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were acquired at the time of treatment for each patient. The beams from each patient's treatment plan were applied to each pretreatment CBCT (the modified CBCT or mCBCT) to construct the delivered dose distribution of the day considering inter-treatment anatomy changes...
November 29, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197705/a-real-time-and-registration-free-framework-for-dynamic-shape-instantiation
#19
Xiao-Yun Zhou, Guang-Zhong Yang, Su-Lin Lee
Real-time 3D navigation during minimally invasive procedures is an essential yet challenging task, especially when considerable tissue motion is involved. To balance image acquisition speed and resolution, only 2D images or low-resolution 3D volumes can be used clinically. In this paper, a real-time and registration-free framework for dynamic shape instantiation, generalizable to multiple anatomical applications, is proposed to instantiate high-resolution 3D shapes of an organ from a single 2D image intra-operatively...
November 30, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191470/optimal-beam-margins-in-linac-based-vmat-stereotactic-ablative-body-radiotherapy-a-pareto-front-analysis-for-liver-metastases
#20
Savino Cilla, Anna Ianiro, Francesco Deodato, Gabriella Macchia, Cinzia Digesù, Vincenzo Valentini, Alessio G Morganti
We explored the Pareto fronts mathematical strategy to determine the optimal block margin and prescription isodose for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments of liver metastases using the volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique. Three targets (planning target volumes [PTVs] = 20, 55, and 101 cc) were selected. A single fraction dose of 26 Gy was prescribed (prescription dose [PD]). VMAT plans were generated for 3 different beam energies. Pareto fronts based on (1) different multileaf collimator (MLC) block margin around PTV and (2) different prescription isodose lines (IDL) were produced...
November 27, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
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