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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923152/hydronephrosis-in-the-wnt5a-ablated-kidney-is-caused-by-an-abnormal-ureter-bladder-connection
#1
Kangsun Yun, Alan O Perantoni
The Wnt5a null mouse is a complex developmental model which, among its several posterior-localized axis defects, exhibits multiple kidney phenotypes, including duplex kidney and loss of the medullary zone. We previously reported that ablation of Wnt5a in nascent mesoderm causes duplex kidney formation as a result of aberrant development of the nephric duct and abnormal extension of intermediate mesoderm. However, these mice also display a loss of the medullary region late in gestation. We have now genetically isolated duplex kidney formation from the medullary defect by specifically targeting the progenitors for both the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme...
December 3, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923061/comparative-transcriptomic-and-epigenomic-analyses-reveal-new-regulators-of-murine-brown-adipogenesis
#2
Reinhard Brunmeir, Jingyi Wu, Xu Peng, Sun-Yee Kim, Sofi G Julien, Qiongyi Zhang, Wei Xie, Feng Xu
Increasing energy expenditure through brown adipocyte recruitment is a promising approach to combat obesity. We report here the comprehensive profiling of the epigenome and transcriptome throughout the lineage commitment and differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell line into brown adipocytes. Through direct comparison to datasets from differentiating white adipocytes, we systematically identify stage- and lineage-specific coding genes, lncRNAs and microRNAs. Utilizing chromatin state maps, we also define stage- and lineage-specific enhancers, including super-enhancers, and their associated transcription factor binding motifs and genes...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923049/expression-of-lncrnas-in-low-grade-gliomas-and-glioblastoma-multiforme-an-in-silico-analysis
#3
Brian J Reon, Jordan Anaya, Ying Zhang, James Mandell, Benjamin Purow, Roger Abounader, Anindya Dutta
BACKGROUND: Each year, over 16,000 patients die from malignant brain cancer in the US. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been shown to play critical roles in regulating neurogenesis and brain tumor progression. To better understand the role of lncRNAs in brain cancer, we performed a global analysis to identify and characterize all annotated and novel lncRNAs in both grade II and III gliomas as well as grade IV glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We determined the expression of all lncRNAs in over 650 brain cancer and 70 normal brain tissue RNA sequencing datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and other publicly available datasets...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922964/the-effect-of-uniaxial-mechanical-stretch-on-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Chuang Zhao, Yunfeng Li, Xuemei Wang, Shujuan Zou, Jing Hu, En Luo
Wnt/β-catenin signal is required in bone formation and remodling, but little is known about whether Wnt/β-catenin signal could promote osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) after uniaxial mechanical stretch. In this study, rat BMSCs were identified by flow cytometry and used for mechanical stretch. A custom-made uniaxial dynamic stretch apparatus was applied for rat BMSCs stretch. There were 2 groups in the study: the mechanical stretch group and the nonstretch control group...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922697/regulation-of-pd-l1-expression-in-a-high-grade-invasive-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-microenvironment
#5
Mariko Hirai, Hiroko Kitahara, Yutaka Kobayashi, Koroku Kato, George Bou-Gharios, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Shuichi Kawashiri
Blockade of the programmed-death 1 receptor (PD-1)/programmed-death ligand (PD-L1) pathway efficiently reduces tumour growth and improves survival. Durable tumour regression with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint has been demonstrated in recent clinical studies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is highly immunosuppressive, and PD-L1 expression has been proposed as a potential mechanism responsible for this phenotype. Despite the fact that anti-PD-1 treatment can produce durable responses, such therapy appears to benefit only a subset of patients...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922691/microarray-expression-profiles-of-genes-in-lung-tissues-of-rats-subjected-to-focal-cerebral-ischemia-induced-lung-injury-following-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
Yue Hu, Liu-Lin Xiong, Piao Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
Ischemia-induced stroke is the most common disease of the nervous system and is associated with a high mortality rate worldwide. Cerebral ischemia may lead to remote organ dysfunction, particular in the lungs, resulting in lung injury. Nowadays, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely studied in clinical trials as they may provide an effective solution to the treatment of neurological and cardiac diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury was successfully established and confirmed by neurological evaluation and lung injury scores...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922670/downregulation-of-laptm5-suppresses-cell-proliferation-and-viability-inducing-cell-cycle-arrest-at-g0-g1-phase-of-bladder-cancer-cells
#7
Liang Chen, Gang Wang, Yi Luo, Yongzhi Wang, Conghua Xie, Wei Jiang, Yu Xiao, Guofeng Qian, Xinghuan Wang
Our transcriptome analysis revealed in bladder cancer (BCa) tissues a significant induction of lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein 5 (LAPTM5), a lysosomal membrane protein preferentially expressing in immune cells and hematopoietic cells. Transportation of LAPTM5 from Golgi to lysosome could be inhibited by deficiency of Nedd4, a key member of E3 ubiquitin ligase family overexpressing in invasive BCa and promoting its progression. Therefore, we hypothesize that LAPTM5 may be closely correlated with BCa tumorigenesis...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922052/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-exert-hgf-dependent-cytoprotective-effects-in-a-human-relevant-pre-clinical-model-of-copd
#8
Helen Kennelly, Bernard P Mahon, Karen English
Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have potent immunomodulatory and tissue reparative properties, which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as COPD. This study examined the mechanisms by which human MSCs protect against elastase induced emphysema. Using a novel human relevant pre-clinical model of emphysema the efficacy of human MSC therapy and optimal cell dose were investigated. Protective effects were examined in the lung through histological examination. Further in vivo experiments examined the reparative abilities of MSCs after tissue damage was established and the role played by soluble factors secreted by MSCs...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921242/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-adipose-tissue-differentiated-into-neuronal-or-glial-phenotype-express-different-aquaporins
#9
Rosanna Avola, Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Giovanna Pannuzzo, Venera Cardile
Aquaporins (AQPs) are 13 integral membrane proteins that provide selective pores for the rapid movement of water and other uncharged solutes, across cell membranes. Recently, AQPs have been focused for their role in production, circulation, and homeostasis of the cerebrospinal fluid and their importance in several human diseases is becoming clear. This study investigated the time course (0, 14, and 28 days) of AQP1, 4, 7, 8, and 9 during the neural differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue (AT)...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921202/endogenous-stem-cells-were-recruited-by-defocused-low-energy-shock-wave-in-treating-diabetic-bladder-dysfunction
#10
Yang Jin, Lina Xu, Yong Zhao, Muwen Wang, Xunbo Jin, Haiyang Zhang
Defocused low-energy shock wave (DLSW) has been shown effects on activating mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vitro. In this study, recruitment of endogenous stem cells was firstly examined as an important pathway during the healing process of diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) treated by DLSW in vivo. Neonatal rats received intraperitoneal injection of 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) and then DBD rat model was created by injecting streptozotocin. Four weeks later, DLSW treatment was performed. Afterward, their tissues were examined by histology...
December 5, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921126/successful-ct-guided-cryoablation-of-phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumor-in-the-soft-tissues-causing-tumor-induced-osteomalacia-a-case-report
#11
Sophie Cowan, Santiago A Lozano-Calderon, Raul N Uppot, Dipti Sajed, Ambrose J Huang
We report the case of a 25-year-old male patient with tumor-induced osteomalacia from a 1.8-cm phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor in the right distal thigh, who was treated at our institution with a single session of CT-guided cryoablation in December 2015, which resulted in biochemical and clinical resolution. We present the clinical history, physical examination, biochemistry, functional imaging, anatomic characterization, and follow-up for clinical outcome. The response to treatment was documented in terms of normalization of serum fibroblastic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and phosphorous levels, symptomatic improvement, as well as normalization of bone mineralization on femur radiographs 3 months after the procedure...
December 5, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921117/mcp1-triggers-monocyte-dysfunctions-during-abnormal-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-ankylosing-spondylitis
#12
Zhongyu Xie, Peng Wang, Jinteng Li, Yuxi Li, Shan Wang, Xiaohua Wu, Suhe Sun, Shuizhong Cen, Hongjun Su, Wen Deng, Zhenhua Liu, Yi Ouyang, Yanfeng Wu, Huiyong Shen
: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pathological osteogenesis and inflammation. However, the pathogenesis of AS and the pathological relationship between osteogenesis and inflammation in this disease remain largely unknown. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells capable of osteogenic differentiation and immunoregulation. Recently, we demonstrated that MSCs from AS patients (ASMSCs) have a greater potential for osteogenic differentiation than MSCs from healthy donors (HDMSCs), which therefore seems to be a component of pathological osteogenesis in AS...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921041/signaling-crosstalk-between-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-interstitial-fibroblasts-after-kidney-injury
#13
REVIEW
Roderick J Tan, Dong Zhou, Youhua Liu
BACKGROUND: A wide variety of kidney diseases ultimately lead to tubulointerstitial damage. The initial site of injury is usually the renal tubules, with activation of fibroblasts occurring later. Self-limited disease is characterized by transient cellular activation with timed deactivation and ultimately a return to normal functioning, whereas sustained responses characterize chronic disease and the development of irreversible fibrosis. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of this cascade of events remain an area of active research...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920879/recurrent-solitary-fibrous-tumor-of-lumbar-spine-with-vertebral-body-involvement-imaging-features-and-differential-diagnosis-with-report-of-a-case
#14
Zerwa Farooq, Zain Badar, Daniel Zaccarini, Felix B Tavernier, Anthony Mohamed, Rajiv Mangla
Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) of the spine are exceedingly rare tumors of mesenchymal origin. Most spinal SFTs arise from the thoracic spine, followed by cervical spine, and last lumbar spine with only 6 cases reported in literature. SFTs represent a wide range of neoplasms, ranging from benign to malignant. These tumors can develop a late recurrence, even after a decade or more of initial presentation, requiring long-term follow-up. We present a case of recurrent SFT of the lumbar spine with vertebral body involvement, presenting more than a decade after initial resection...
December 2016: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920525/fabrication-and-characterization-of-drug-loaded-nano-hydroxyapatite-polyamide-66-scaffolds-modified-with-carbon-nanotubes-and-silk-fibroin
#15
Meng-Zhu Yao, Ming-Yi Huang-Fu, Hui-Na Liu, Xia-Rong Wang, Xiaoxia Sheng, Jian-Qing Gao
Nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (nHA/PA66) porous scaffolds were fabricated by a phase inversion method. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silk fibroin (SF) were used to modify the surface of the nHA/PA66 scaffolds by freeze-drying and cross-linking. Dexamethasone was absorbed to the CNTs to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The cell viability of BMSCs was investigated by changing the concentration of the CNT dispersion, and the most biocompatible scaffold was selected...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920253/bmp-induces-osteoblast-differentiation-through-both-smad4-and-mtorc1-signaling
#16
Courtney M Karner, Seung-Yon Lee, Fanxin Long
The bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) family of secreted molecules has been extensively studied in the context of osteoblast differentiation. However, the intracellular signaling cascades mediating the osteoblastogenic function of Bmp have not been fully elucidated. By profiling mRNA expression in the bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cell line ST2 cells, we discover that BMP2 induces not only genes commonly associated with ossification and mineralization, but also genes important for general protein synthesis...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919987/the-complete-loss-of-tyrosine-kinase-receptors-met-and-ron-is-a-poor-prognostic-factor-in-patients-with-extrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#17
Yuki Hayashi, Junpei Yamaguchi, Toshio Kokuryo, Tomoki Ebata, Yukihiro Yokoyama, Tsuyoshi Igami, Gen Sugawara, Masato Nagino
BACKGROUND: Although the survival of patients with cholangiocarcinoma has improved, the prognosis remains unfavorable. The overexpression of mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) and recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) has been considered to be indicative of a poor prognosis in some types of cancer. On the other hand, some studies have shown that the expression of MET and RON is a favorable prognostic factor in certain types of tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on the immunohistochemical analysis of MET and RON, 290 patients who underwent resection for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were divided into three groups: MET/RON-negative, -intermediate, and -positive...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919967/epithelial-mesenchymal-expression-phenotype-of-primary-melanoma-and-matched-metastases-and-relationship-with-overall-survival
#18
Shaofeng Yan, Britt M Holderness, Zhongze Li, Gregory D Seidel, Jiang Gui, Jan L Fisher, Marc S Ernstoff
E-Cadherin and N-cadherin are important components of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The majority of studies on EMT in melanoma have been performed with cultured cell lines or pooled melanoma samples. The goal of our study was to evaluate the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in matched tissue samples from primary and metastatic sites of melanoma and to determine the correlation with survival outcome. We analyzed tissues from 42 melanoma primary lesions and their corresponding metastases, as well as 53 benign nevi, for expression levels of E-cadherin and N-cadherin using immunohistochemical methods...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919944/multicellular-spheroids-as-a-model-for-hypoxia-induced-emt
#19
Casey Lee, Amanda Siu, Daniel M Ramos
Oral cancer is aggressive and invasive. The 5-year survival rate is around 50% and has not improved in over 50 years. One-third of oral cancer patients develop local and/or regional tumor recurrence following treatment. We continue to use our multicellular spheroid (MCS) model to better understand how the extracellular matrix contributes to epithelial to mesenchymal transition and how hypoxia contributes to the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919849/intraportal-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-prevents-acute-liver-failure-through-promoting-cell-proliferation-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#20
Jian-Feng Sang, Xiao-Lei Shi, Bin Han, Tao Huang, Xu Huang, Hao-Zhen Ren, Yi-Tao Ding
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been regarded as a potential treatment for acute liver failure (ALF), but the optimal route was unknown. The present study aimed to explore the most effective MSCs transplantation route in a swine ALF model. METHODS: The swine ALF model induced by intravenous injection of D-Gal was treated by the transplantation of swine MSCs through four routes including intraportal injection (InP group), hepatic intra-arterial injection (AH group), peripheral intravenous injection (PV group) and intrahepatic injection (IH group)...
December 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
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