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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232694/hyperbranched-poly-%C3%AF%C2%B5-lysine-substrate-presenting-the-laminin-sequence-yigsr-induces-the-formation-of-spheroids-in-adult-bone-marrow-stem-cells
#1
Valeria Perugini, Steve T Meikle, Anna L Guildford, Matteo Santin
Unlike the fibroblast-like cells formed upon monolayer culture of human mesenchymal stem cells, the natural stem cell niche of the bone marrow and other types of tissues favours the formation of 3-dimensional (3D) cell clusters. The structuring and biological activity of these clusters are regulated by the contacts established by cells with both the basement membrane and neighbour cells and results in their asymmetric division and the consequent maintenance of both a stem population and a committed progeny...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231997/immortalization-of-canine-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-seminiferous-tubule-transplantation
#2
Jia Fang, Yudong Wei, Xin Teng, Shanting Zhao, Jinlian Hua
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are proven to provide good effects in numerous tissue engineering application and other cell-based therapies. However, the difficulty in the proliferation of ADSCs, known as the "Hayflick limit" in vitro, limits their clinical application. Here, we immortalized canine ADSCs (cADSCs) with SV40 gene and transplanted them into busulfan-induced seminiferous tubules of infertile mice. The proliferation of these immortalized cells was improved significantly. Then, cellular differentiation assays showed that the immortalized cADSCs could differentiate into three-germ-layer cells, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis phenotypes, and primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231967/therapeutic-potential-of-porcine-bronchoalveolar-fluid-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-a-pig-model-of-lps-induced-ali
#3
Mahesh Khatri, Levi Arthur Richardson
In this study, we isolated mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) from broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BAL) of 2-6 week-old commercial pigs. BAL-MSCs displayed fibroblastic morphology and possessed self-renewal properties. Similar to bone-marrow MSCs, BAL-MSCs expressed mesenchymal markers and both cell types lacked the expression of hematopoetic markers. BAL-MSCs, when cultured in differentiation induction media, differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. Next, we examined if BAL-MSCs have the ability to treat lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in a pig model...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231907/activated-hgf-c-met-axis-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Levi Arnold, Jonathan Enders, Sufi Mary Thomas
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly morbid disease. Recent developments including Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved molecular targeted agent's pembrolizumab and cetuximab show promise but did not improve the five-year survival which is currently less than 40%. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor; also known as mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and regulates tumor progression and response to therapy...
December 12, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231896/differential-expression-of-serum-micrornas-supports-cd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cell-differentiation-into-th2-th17-cells-in-severe-equine-asthma
#5
Alicja Pacholewska, Matthias F Kraft, Vincent Gerber, Vidhya Jagannathan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and may be exported from cells via exosomes or in partnership with RNA-binding proteins. MiRNAs in body fluids can act in a hormone-like manner and play important roles in disease initiation and progression. Hence, miRNAs are promising candidates as biomarkers. To identify serum miRNA biomarkers in the equine model of asthma we investigated small RNA derived from the serum of 34 control and 37 asthmatic horses. These samples were used for next generation sequencing, novel miRNA identification and differential miRNA expression analysis...
December 12, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230885/intercellular-transfer-of-microvesicles-from-young-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-rejuvenates-aged-murine-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#6
Rohan Kulkarni, Manmohan Bajaj, Suprita Ghode, Sapana Jalnapurkar, Lalita Limaye, Vaijayanti Kale
Donor age is one of the major concerns in Bone Marrow Transplantation, as the aged hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) fail to engraft efficiently. Here, using murine system we show that a brief interaction of aged HSCs with young mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) rejuvenates them and restores their functionality via inter-cellular transfer of microvesicles (MVs) containing autophagy-related mRNAs. Importantly, we show that MSCs gain activated AKT signaling as a function of aging. Activated AKT reduces the levels of autophagy-related mRNAs in their MVs, and partitions miR-17 and miR-34a into their exosomes, which upon transfer into HSCs down-regulate their autophagy-inducing mRNAs...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230632/ghrelin-accelerates-the-cartilagic-differentiation-of-rabbit-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-the-erk1-2-pathway
#7
Nan Ye, Lin Wang, Zhe Dou, Jian Huang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into chondroblasts, adipocytes, or cartilage under appropriate stimulation. Identifying a mechanism triggering the differentiation of MSCs into cartilage may help develop novel therapeutic approaches for treating heterotopic ossification, the pathological formation of lamellar bone in soft tissue outside the skeleton that can lead to debilitating immobility. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, stimulates growth hormone secretion, and has both orexigenic and adipogenic effects...
December 12, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230389/cyclic-tensile-strain-can-play-a-role-in-directing-both-intramembranous-and-endochondral-ossification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Simon F Carroll, Conor T Buckley, Daniel J Kelly
Successfully regenerating damaged or diseased bone and other joint tissues will require a detailed understanding of how joint specific environmental cues regulate the fate of progenitor cells that are recruited or delivered to the site of injury. The goal of this study was to explore the role of cyclic tensile strain (CTS) in regulating the initiation of mesenchymal stem cell/multipotent stromal cell (MSC) differentiation, and specifically their progression along the endochondral pathway. To this end, we first explored the influence of CTS on the differentiation of MSCs in the absence of any specific growth factor, and secondly, we examined the influence of the long-term application of this mechanical stimulus on markers of endochondral ossification in MSCs maintained in chondrogenic culture conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230269/extracellular-vesicles-from-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-downregulate-senescence-features-in-osteoarthritic-osteoblasts
#9
Miguel Tofiño-Vian, Maria Isabel Guillén, María Dolores Pérez Del Caz, Miguel Angel Castejón, Maria José Alcaraz
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects all articular tissues leading to pain and disability. The dysregulation of bone metabolism may contribute to the progression of this condition. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) are attractive candidates in the search of novel strategies for OA treatment and exert anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects on cartilage. Chronic inflammation in OA is a relevant factor in the development of cellular senescence and joint degradation. In this study, we extend our previous observations of ASC paracrine effects to study the influence of conditioned medium and extracellular vesicles from ASC on senescence induced by inflammatory stress in OA osteoblasts...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230266/-shoulder-tumor-of-startling-appearance
#10
Ilhame Naciri, Baderddine Hassam
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of bone of mesenchymal origin which usually occurs in people after age 40 at the level of the pelvis and the shoulder. We report the case of a 65-year old female patient, with no particular past medical history, with impaired general condition, hospitalized for exploration of a large tumor of the right shoulder, evolving over 3 years. Clinical examination showed giant, humpbacked, hard, adherent tumor measuring 44 × 32 cm along its longer axis, with inflammatory signs associated with signs of vasculo-nervous compression...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230250/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-are-more-immunosuppressive-in-vitro-if-they-are-derived-from-endometriotic-lesions-than-from-eutopic-endometrium
#11
Fawaz Abomaray, Sebastian Gidlöf, Cecilia Götherström
Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease with predominance of immunosuppressive M2 macrophages in the pelvic cavity that could be involved in the pathology through support and immune escape of ectopic lesions. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are found in ectopic lesions, and MSC from nonendometriosis sources are known to induce M2 macrophages. Therefore, MSC were hypothesized to play a role in the pathology of endometriosis. The aim was to characterize the functional phenotype of MSC in ectopic and eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230249/the-impact-of-gfp-reporter-gene-transduction-and-expression-on-metabolomics-of-placental-mesenchymal-stem-cells-determined-by-uhplc-q-tof-ms
#12
Jinfeng Yang, Nan Wang, Deying Chen, Jiong Yu, Qiaoling Pan, Dan Wang, Jingqi Liu, Xiaowei Shi, Xiaotian Dong, Hongcui Cao, Liang Li, Lanjuan Li
Introduction: Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is widely used as a reporter gene in regenerative medicine research to label and track stem cells. Here, we examined whether expressing GFP gene may impact the metabolism of human placental mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs). Methods: The GFP gene was transduced into hPMSCs using lentiviral-based infection to establish GFP+hPMSCs. A sensitive 13C/12C-dansyl labeling LC-MS method targeting the amine/phenol submetabolome was used for in-depth cell metabolome profiling...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230248/a-concise-review-on-the-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-cell-sheet-based-tissue-engineering-with-special-emphasis-on-bone-tissue-regeneration
#13
REVIEW
A Cagdas Yorukoglu, A Esat Kiter, Semih Akkaya, N Lale Satiroglu-Tufan, A Cevik Tufan
The integration of stem cell technology and cell sheet engineering improved the potential use of cell sheet products in regenerative medicine. This review will discuss the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell sheet-based tissue engineering. Besides their adhesiveness to plastic surfaces and their extensive differentiation potential in vitro, MSCs are easily accessible, expandable in vitro with acceptable genomic stability, and few ethical issues. With all these advantages, they are extremely well suited for cell sheet-based tissue engineering...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230181/calvarial-suture-derived-stem-cells-and-their-contribution-to-cranial-bone-repair
#14
REVIEW
Daniel H Doro, Agamemnon E Grigoriadis, Karen J Liu
In addition to the natural turnover during life, the bones in the skeleton possess the ability to self-repair in response to injury or disease-related bone loss. Based on studies of bone defect models, both processes are largely supported by resident stem cells. In the long bones, the source of skeletal stem cells has been widely investigated over the years, where the major stem cell population is thought to reside in the perivascular niche of the bone marrow. In contrast, we have very limited knowledge about the stem cells contributing to the repair of calvarial bones...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230102/specific-deletion-of-%C3%AE-catenin-in-col2-expressing-cells-leads-to-defects-in-epiphyseal-bone
#15
Tingyu Wang, Jun Li, Guang-Qian Zhou, Peter Ma, Yue Zhao, Baoli Wang, Di Chen
The role of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in postnatal bone growth has not been fully defined. In the present studies, we generated β-catenin conditional knockout (KO) mice and deleted β-catenin in Col2-expressing chondrocytes and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Findings from analyzing the β-cateninCol2CreER KO mice revealed severe bone destruction and bone loss phenotype in epiphyseal bone, probably due to the increase in osteoclast formation and the accumulation of adipocytes in this area. In addition, we also found bone destruction and bone loss phenotype in vertebral bone in β-cateninCol2CreER KO mice...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230039/gli1-identifies-osteogenic-progenitors-for-bone-formation-and-fracture-repair
#16
Yu Shi, Guangxu He, Wen-Chih Lee, Jennifer A McKenzie, Matthew J Silva, Fanxin Long
Bone formation in mammals requires continuous production of osteoblasts throughout life. A common molecular marker for all osteogenic mesenchymal progenitors has not been identified. Here, by lineage-tracing experiments in fetal or postnatal mice, we discover that Gli1+ cells progressively produce osteoblasts in all skeletal sites. Most notably, in postnatal growing mice, the Gli1+ cells residing immediately beneath the growth plate, termed here "metaphyseal mesenchymal progenitors" (MMPs), are essential for cancellous bone formation...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230000/snail-mediates-crosstalk-between-tgf%C3%AE-and-lxr%C3%AE-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Claudia Bellomo, Laia Caja, Isabel Fabregat, Wolfgang Mikulits, Dimitris Kardassis, Carl-Henrik Heldin, Aristidis Moustakas
Understanding the complexity of changes in differentiation and cell survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is essential for the design of new diagnostic tools and therapeutic modalities. In this context, we have analyzed the crosstalk between transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) pathways. TGFβ is known to promote cytostatic and pro-apoptotic responses in HCC, and to facilitate mesenchymal differentiation. We here demonstrate that stimulation of the nuclear LXRα receptor system by physiological and clinically useful agonists controls the HCC response to TGFβ...
December 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229920/integration-of-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-models-for-constructing-a-neurovascular-tissue
#18
Hiroyuki Uwamori, Takuya Higuchi, Ken Arai, Ryo Sudo
Neurovascular unit (NVU) is a basic unit in the brain, including neurons, glial cells, blood vessels and extracellular matrix. This concept implies the importance of a three-dimensional (3D) culture model including these cell types for investigating brain functions. However, little is known about the construction of an in vitro 3D NVU model. In the present study, we aimed at constructing 3D neurovascular tissues by combining in vitro neurogenesis and angiogenesis models using a microfluidic platform, which is a critical step toward the NVU construction in vitro...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229918/negative-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-mkk6-p38-and-mek-erk-signalling-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-rac1b
#19
David Witte, Hannah Otterbein, Maria Förster, Klaudia Giehl, Robert Zeiser, Hendrik Lehnert, Hendrik Ungefroren
Prompted by earlier findings that the Rac1-related isoform Rac1b inhibits transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced canonical Smad signalling, we studied here whether Rac1b also impacts TGF-β1-dependent non-Smad signalling such as the MKK6-p38 and MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transient depletion of Rac1b protein in pancreatic cancer cells by RNA interference increased the extent and duration of TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in a Smad4-independent manner...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229885/mir-876-5p-suppresses-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-lung-cancer-by-directly-down-regulating-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4
#20
Liang Bao, Lei Lv, Jinping Feng, Yuyu Chen, Xinhua Wang, Shuguang Han, Hongqing Zhao
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death throughout the world. We aimed to investigate the role of a novel microRNA-876-5p and its potential molecular target bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung cancer. Expressions of microRNA-876-5p and its potential target BMP-4 were analysed in lung cancer cells and patient tissues. Luciferase activity assay was conducted to verify direct targeting of microRNA- 876-5p to the 3'-UTR of BMP-4 mRNA. Migration, invasion capacities of lung cancer cells expressing microRNA-876-5p were analysed, and characteristics of lung cancer EMT protein markers were also evaluated...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
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