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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346234/outstanding-animal-studies-in-allergy-i-from-asthma-to-food-allergy-and-anaphylaxis
#1
Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Franziska Roth-Walter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343583/indirect-hand-and-forearm-vasomotion-regional-variations-in-cutaneous-thermosensitivity-during-normothermia-and-mild-hyperthermia
#2
Catriona A Burdon, Kyoko Tagami, Joonhee Park, Joanne N Caldwell, Nigel A S Taylor
In this experiment, hand and forearm vasomotor activity was investigated during localised, but stable heating and cooling of the face, hand and thigh, under open-loop (clamped) conditions. It was hypothesised that facial stimulation would provoke the most potent vascular changes. Nine individuals participated in two normothermic trials (mean body temperature clamp: 36.6°C; water-perfused suit and climate chamber) and two mildly hyperthermic trials (37.9°C). Localised heating (+5°C) and cooling (-5°C) stimuli were applied to equal surface areas of the face, hand and thigh (perfusion patches: 15min), while contralateral forearm or hand blood flows (venous-occlusion plethysmography) were measured (separate trials)...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332435/mild-acute-intermittent-hypoxia-improves-respiratory-function-in-unanesthetized-rats-with-midcervical-contusion
#3
Kun-Ze Lee, Shu-Chi Chiang, Yu-Jie Li
BACKGROUND: Mild intermittent hypoxia has been considered a potential approach to induce respiratory neuroplasticity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether mild acute intermittent hypoxia can improve breathing function in a clinically relevant spinal cord injury animal model. METHODS: Adult male rats received laminectomy or unilateral contusion at the C3-C4 spinal cord using a MASCIS Impactor (height: 6.25 or 12...
April 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330778/intratracheal-lps-administration-attenuates-the-acute-hypoxic-ventilatory-response-role-of-brainstem-il-1%C3%AE-receptors
#4
A P Ribeiro, C A Mayer, C G Wilson, R J Martin, P M MacFarlane
Perinatal inflammation and infection are commonly associated with various respiratory morbidities in preterm infants including apnea of prematurity. In this study, we investigated whether pulmonary inflammation via intra-tracheal micro-injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into neonatal rats modifies respiratory neural control via an IL-1β receptor-dependent mechanism. Prior to an intra-tracheal micro-injection of LPS (1mg/kg), 10day old (Postnatal age, P10) rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracisternal (i...
March 19, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330427/comparison-of-airway-response-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-ovalbumin-sensitized-mice-during-short-term-inhalation-exposure-to-chlorine
#5
Mia Johansson, Åsa Gustafsson, Gunnar Johanson, Mattias Öberg
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that asthmatics are more susceptible than healthy individuals to airborne irritating chemicals in general. However, there is limited human data available to support this hypothesis due to ethical and practical difficulties. We explored a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation to study susceptibility during acute exposure to chemicals with chlorine as a model substance. METHODS: Naïve and OVA sensitized female BALB/c mice were exposed to chlorine at four different concentrations (0, 5, 30 and 80 ppm) for 15 minutes with online recording of the respiratory function by plethysmography...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324618/thermogelling-chitosan-lactate-hydrogel-improves-functional-recovery-after-a-c2-spinal-cord-hemisection-in-rat
#6
Katarzyna Nawrotek, Tanguy Marqueste, Zofia Modrzejewska, Roman Zarzycki, Agnieszka Rusak, Patrick Decherchi
The present study was designed to provide an appropriate micro-environment for regenerating axotomized neurons and proliferating/migrating cells. Because of its intrinsic permissive properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability, we chose to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of a chitosan-based biopolymer. The biomaterial toxicity was measured through in vitro test based on fibroblast cell survival on thermogelling chitosan lactate hydrogel substrate and then polymer was implanted into a C2 hemisection of the rat spinal cord...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323205/modelling-mixing-within-the-dead-space-of-the-lung-improves-predictions-of-functional-residual-capacity
#7
Chris D Harrison, Phi Anh Phan, Cathy Zhang, Daniel Geer, Andrew D Farmery, Stephen J Payne
Routine estimation of functional residual capacity (FRC) in ventilated patients has been a long held goal, with many methods previously proposed, but none have been used in routine clinical practice. This paper proposes three models for determining FRC using the nitrous oxide concentration from the entire expired breath in order to improve the precision of the estimate. Of the three models proposed, a dead space with two mixing compartments provided the best results, reducing the mean limits of agreement with the FRC measured by whole body plethysmography by up to 41%...
March 18, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321638/wearing-graduated-compression-stockings-augments-cutaneous-vasodilation-in-heat-stressed-resting-humans
#8
Naoto Fujii, Toshiya Nikawa, Bun Tsuji, Narihiko Kondo, Glen P Kenny, Takeshi Nishiyasu
PURPOSE: We investigated whether graduated compression induced by stockings enhances cutaneous vasodilation in passively heated resting humans. METHODS: Nine habitually active young men were heated at rest using water-perfusable suits, resulting in a 1.0 °C increase in body core temperature. Heating was repeated twice on separate occasions while wearing either (1) stockings that cause graduated compression (pressures of 26.4 ± 5.3, 17.5 ± 4.4, and 6...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318340/characteristic-plethysmographic-findings-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-copd
#9
Edgar Ramírez-Ramírez, Armando Torres-Ramírez, Jesús Alquicira-Mireles, Abraham Cañavera-Constantino, Patricia Segura-Medina, Martha Montaño-Ramírez, Carlos Ramos-Abraham, Mario H Vargas, José Luis Arreola-Ramírez
AIM OF THE STUDY: Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke generates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in guinea pigs, but a comprehensive evaluation of changes in lung function, as assessed by barometric whole body plethysmography (WBP), is lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female guinea pigs were exposed to the smoke of 20 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week, during 10 weeks (COPD group, n = 8), and were compared with unexposed female guinea pigs of the same age (control group, n = 8)...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301327/high-resolution-respiratory-inductive-plethysmography-in-rats-validation-in-anesthetized-conditions
#10
Timothe Flenet, Julie Fontecave-Jallon, Pierre-Yves Gumery, Charles Eynard, Francois Boucher, Pierre Baconnier, Stephane Tanguy
Respiratory monitoring is often required in experimental physiological and pharmacological studies in rodents. Currently, the mostly used techniques are direct measurement of airflow on intubated animals and whole body plethysmography. Although the reliability of these methods has been broadly demonstrated, they also have several drawbacks such as invasiveness, high cost of use or confinement of the animals. Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography (RIP) is a non-invasive technique already used in medium-sized mammals that has not yet been evaluated in small rodents...
March 16, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295577/higher-growth-fat-and-fat-free-masses-correlate-with-larger-cerebellar-volumes-in-preterm-infants-at-term
#11
Giulia Paviotti, Angela De Cunto, Floriana Zennaro, Giulia Boz, Laura Travan, Gabriele Cont, Jenny Bua, Sergio Demarini
AIM: Smaller cerebellar volumes in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at term have been related to adverse cognitive outcomes and this study evaluated whether these volumes were associated with a growth in body composition during hospital stays. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 42 VLBW infants from an Italian neonatal unit between January 2013 and August 2015. Cerebellar volumes and body composition were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and air-displacement plethysmography, respectively, at 40 weeks of gestational age and anthropometric and nutritional data were collected...
March 12, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284753/effects-of-nebulised-magnesium-sulphate-on-inflammation-and-function-of-the-guinea-pig-airway
#12
Dawn L Turner, William R Ford, Emma J Kidd, Kenneth J Broadley, Colin Powell
Magnesium sulphate is a potential treatment for acute severe asthma. However, the mechanisms and dose-response relationships are poorly understood. The first objective of this study was to examine whether inhaled magnesium sulphate exerts bronchodilator activity measured as bronchoprotection against histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in conscious guinea-pigs alone and combined with salbutamol. Secondly, we examined whether inhaled magnesium sulphate inhibits airways inflammation and function in models of neutrophilic and eosinophilic lung inflammation induced, respectively, by inhaled lipopolysaccharide or the inhaled antigen, ovalbumin (OVA)...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280109/exercise-induced-dehydration-alters-pulmonary-function-but-does-not-modify-airway-responsiveness-to-dry-air-in-athletes-with-mild-asthma
#13
Andrew J Simpson, Lee M Romer, Pascale Kippelen
BACKGROUND: Local airway water loss is the main physiological trigger for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). AIM: To investigate the effects of whole-body water loss on airway responsiveness and pulmonary function in athletes with mild asthma and/or EIB. METHODS: Ten recreational athletes with a doctor diagnosis of mild asthma and/or EIB completed a randomized, cross-over study. Pulmonary function tests (spirometry, whole-body plethysmography and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) were conducted before and after three conditions: i) 2 h exercise in the heat with no fluid intake (dehydration); ii) 2 h exercise with ad libitum fluid intake (control); and iii) time-matched rest period (rest)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258938/ventilation-distribution-and-small-airway-function-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#14
B R A Silva, R Rufino, C H Costa, V S Vilela, R A Levy, A J Lopes
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of traditional pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in managing systemic sclerosis (SSc), many patients with pulmonary disease diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) present with normal PFTs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the nitrogen single-breath washout (N2SBW) test in diagnosing SSc and to correlate N2SBW parameters with the PFT indexes used in the follow-up of these patients, clinical data, and CT findings. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which 52 consecutive SSc patients were subjected to spirometry, body plethysmography, analysis of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), analysis of respiratory muscle strength, N2SBW testing, and CT analysis...
March 1, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242824/gender-differences-in-tibial-microvascular-flow-responses-to-head-down-tilt-and-lower-body-negative-pressure
#15
Jamila H Siamwala, Brandon R Macias, Paul C Lee, Alan R Hargens
The purpose of the investigation was to study lower body negative pressure recovery in response to head down tilt position in men and women. The study examined the primary hypothesis that tibial bone microvascular flow responses to HDT and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) differ in women and men. Nine women and nine men between 20 to 30 years of age participated in the study. Tibial microvascular flow, head and tibial oxygenation and calf circumference were measured using photoplethysmography (PPG), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and strain gauge plethysmography (SGP), respectively, during sitting (control baseline), supine, 15° HDT, and 15° HDT with 25 mmHg LBNP Tibial microvascular flow with HDT increased by 57% from supine position (from 1...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241462/the-relationship-between-maternal-plasma-leptin-and-adiponectin-concentrations-and-newborn-adiposity
#16
Natália P Castro, Verônica V Euclydes, Fernanda A Simões, Lourdes R A Vaz-de-Lima, Cyro A De Brito, Liania A Luzia, Delan Devakumar, Patrícia H C Rondó
Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239482/aggressive-clinical-approach-to-obesity-improves-metabolic-and-clinical-outcomes-and-can-prevent-bariatric-surgery-a-single-center-experience
#17
Flavio A Cadegiani, Gustavo C Diniz, Gabriella Alves
BACKGROUND: The number of bariatric procedures has exponentially increased in the past decade, as a result of the lack of successful clinical weight-loss interventions. The main reasons for the failure of clinical obesity management are: (1) anti-obesity medications are administered as monotherapies (or pre-combined drugs); (2) lack of combination between pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacological modalities; (3) short duration of pharmacotherapy for obesity; (4) lack of weight-loss maintenance strategies; (5) misunderstanding of the complex pathophysiology of obesity; and (6) underprescription of anti-obesity medications...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230704/muscle-metaboreflex-control-of-sympathetic-activity-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#18
Linda M Ueno-Pardi, Renan S Guerra, Thiago T Goya, Rosyvaldo F Silva, Elisangela M Gara, Marta F Lima, Thais S Nobre, Maria J N N Alves, Ivani C Trombetta, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho
PURPOSE: Previous studies report abnormal muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in obesity, hypertension, and heart failure. We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with augmented metaboreflex control of MSNA. METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary individuals with no comorbidities (age = 52±1 y, body mass index = 28±1 kg/m) without (control, n = 14) and with OSA (n = 17) defined by polysomnography, underwent echocardiography...
February 22, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230307/cdkl5-deficiency-entails-sleep-apneas-in-mice
#19
Viviana Lo Martire, Sara Alvente, Stefano Bastianini, Chiara Berteotti, Alessandro Silvani, Alice Valli, Rocchina Viggiano, Elisabetta Ciani, Giovanna Zoccoli
A recently discovered neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the mutation of the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) entails complex autistic-like behaviours similar to Rett syndrome, but its impact upon physiological functions remains largely unexplored. Sleep-disordered breathing is common and potentially life-threatening in patients with Rett syndrome; however, evidence is limited in children with CDKL5 disorder, and is lacking altogether in adults. The aim of this study was to test whether the breathing pattern during sleep differs between adult Cdkl5 knockout (Cdkl5-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223466/short-term-effect-of-autogenic-drainage-on-ventilation-inhomogeneity-in-adult-subjects-with-stable-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#20
William Poncin, Grégory Reychler, Noémie Leeuwerck, Nathalie Bauwens, Anne-Sophie Aubriot, Candice Nader, Giuseppe Liistro, Sophie Gohy
BACKGROUND: Lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity derived from a multiple-breath washout test, is a promising tool for assessing airway function in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. However, it is unknown whether ventilation inhomogeneity could improve after successful elimination of excessive secretions within bronchiectasis. The objective of this work was to assess the short-term effects of lung secretion clearance using the autogenic drainage technique on standard lung function tests and LCI in subjects with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis...
February 21, 2017: Respiratory Care
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