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Background Long-term treatment with supplemental oxygen has unknown efficacy in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and resting or exercise-induced moderate desaturation. Methods We originally designed the trial to test whether long-term treatment with supplemental oxygen would result in a longer time to death than no use of supplemental oxygen among patients who had stable COPD with moderate resting desaturation (oxyhemoglobin saturation as measured by pulse oximetry [Spo2], 89 to 93%)...
October 27, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
May Garrett, Timothy Taylor, Diane R Mould, Michael A Amantea, Ying Chen, Antonella Ingrosso, Yazdi K Pithavala
PURPOSE: Axitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1-3, is approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Axitinib is partially metabolized by cytochrome P450 1A2, which is induced by chronic heavy smoking. The effect of smoking on axitinib pharmacokinetics was evaluated in a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient population with a large number of active and ex-smokers. METHODS: Data were pooled from six clinical studies-serial pharmacokinetics from two healthy volunteer studies (n = 58) and sparse pharmacokinetics from four NSCLC studies (n = 152)-for a nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM v7...
October 25, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Christina Schröder, Rita Engenhart-Cabillic, Hilke Vorwerk, Michael Schmidt, Winfried Huhnt, Eyck Blank, Dietrich Sidow, André Buchali
PURPOSE: Using prospectively collected patient-related, dose-related, and pulmonary function test (PFT) data before radiotherapy (RT) and at several follow-up visits after RT, the time course of PFT changes after high-dose radio(chemo)therapy and influencing factors were analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 2012 to October 2015, 81 patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), or esophageal carcinoma where treated with high-dose radio(chemo)therapy...
October 25, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Julio Jiménez, Jute Richter, Taro Nagatomo, Thomas Salaets, Rozenn Quarck, Allard Wagennar, Hongmei Wang, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Jan Deprest, Jaan Toelen
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is caused by preterm neonatal lung injury and results in oxygen dependency and pulmonary hypertension. Current clinical management fails to reduce the incidence of BPD, which calls for novel therapies. Fetal rabbits have a lung development that mimics humans and can be used as a translational model to test novel treatment options. In preterm rabbits, exposure to hyperoxia leads to parenchymal changes, yet vascular damage has not been studied in this model. In this study we document the early functional and structural changes of the lung vasculature in preterm rabbits that are induced by hyperoxia after birth...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jun Dang, Fang-Fang Yin, Tao You, Chunhua Dai, Deyu Chen, Jing Wang
PURPOSE: Current approaches using deformable vector field (DVF) for motion-compensated 4D-cone beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction typically utilize an isotropically smoothed DVF between different respiration phases. Such isotropically smoothed DVF does not work well if sliding motion exists between neighboring organs. This study investigated an anisotropic motion modeling scheme by extracting organ boundary local motions (e.g., sliding) and incorporated them into 4D-CBCT reconstruction to optimize the motion modeling and reconstruction methods...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Silin Sa, Mingxia Gu, James Chappell, Ning-Yi Shao, Mohamed Ameen, Kathryn A T Elliott, Dan Li, Fabian Grubert, Caiyun G Li, Shalina Taylor, Aiqin Cao, Yu Ma, Ryan Fong, Long Nguyen, Joseph C Wu, Michael P Snyder, Marlene Rabinovitch
RATIONALE: Idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by loss and obliteration of lung vasculature. Endothelial cell dysfunction is pivotal to the pathophysiology but different causal mechanisms may reflect a need for patient-tailored therapies. OBJECTIVES: Endothelial cells differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells were compared to pulmonary arterial endothelial cells from the same patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension, to determine whether they shared functional abnormalities and altered gene expression patterns, that differed from those in unused donor cells...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Kerry Anne Rambaran, Charles F Seifert
Drug-induced interstitial lung disease is a rare condition attributed to several medications, including antimicrobial agents such as amphotericin B, anti-inflammatory agents such as methotrexate, biologic agents such as bevacizumab, and cardiovascular agents and chemotherapeutic agents. We describe the case of a 73-year-old female who developed interstitial lung disease following chronic use of nitrofurantoin for a urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was taking nitrofurantoin 100 mg capsules twice daily for approximately 3 years...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
Hidetake Yabuuchi, Satoshi Kawanami, Takeshi Kamitani, Masato Yonezawa, Yuzo Yamasaki, Torahiko Yamanouchi, Michinobu Nagao, Tatsuro Okamoto, Hiroshi Honda
PURPOSE: To compare the predictabilities of postoperative pulmonary function after lobectomy for primary lung cancer among counting method, effective lobar volume, and lobar collapsibility. METHODS: Forty-nine patients who underwent lobectomy for primary lung cancer were enrolled. All patients underwent inspiratory/expiratory CT and pulmonary function tests 2 weeks before surgery and postoperative pulmonary function tests 6-7 months after surgery. Pulmonary function losses (ΔFEV1...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Jingjin Yang, Ting Wang, Yan Li, Wenxi Yao, Xiaoming Ji, Qiuyun Wu, Lei Han, Ruhui Han, Weiwen Yan, Jiali Yuan, Chunhui Ni
Silicosis is an occupational pulmonary fibrosis caused by inhalation of silica (SiO2) and there are no ideal drugs to treat this disease. Earthworm extract (EE), a natural nutrient, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptosis effects. The purpose of the current study was to test the protective effects of EE against SiO2-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to explore the underlying mechanisms using both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that treatment with EE significantly reduced lung inflammation and fibrosis and improved lung structure and function in SiO2-instilled mice...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Alexander J Sweidan, Navneet K Singh, Natasha Dang, Vinh Lam, Jyoti Datta
INTRODUCTION: Amiodarone is often used in the suppression of tachyarrhythmias. One of the more serious adverse effects includes amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT). Several pulmonary diseases can manifest including interstitial pneumonitis, organizing pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary nodules or masses, and pleural effusion. Incidence of APT varies from 5-15% and is correlated to dosage, age of the patient, and preexisting lung disease...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
Ana S Cravo, Jim Bush, Girish Sharma, Rebecca Savioz, Claire Martin, Simon Craige, Tanvir Walele
A randomised, parallel group clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety profile of an e-vapour product (EVP; 2.0% nicotine) in smokers of conventional cigarettes (CCs) switching to use the EVP for 12 weeks. During the study, no clinically significant product-related findings were observed in terms of vital signs, electrocardiogram, lung function tests and standard clinical laboratory parameters. Adverse events (AEs) reported by EVP subjects were more frequent during the first week after switching to the EVP...
October 18, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Francesca Guidotti, Gioia Piatti, Alessia Marcon, Elena Cassinerio, Marianna Giuditta, Alberto Roghi, Valter Fasano, Dario Consonni, Maria Domenica Cappellini
Although pulmonary function abnormalities in thalassaemia major (TM) were described in 1980, the pathogenetic mechanism is not clear and data are contradictory, probably because of study heterogeneity and the multifactorial nature of the pathogenesis. We retrospectively analysed 73 adult TM patients to evaluate the prevalence of pulmonary dysfunction in adult TM and investigate relationships with iron load. All patients underwent body plethysmography and carbon monoxide diffusion (DLCO) was assessed in 63, in addition to blood tests, echocardiogram and T2* myocardial and liver magnetic resonance imaging...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Jeffrey N Zeyl, Carol E Johnston
Early amphibious tetrapods may have detected aquatic sound pressure using sound-induced lung vibrations, but their lack of tympanic middle ears would have restricted aerial sensitivity. Sharing these characteristics, salamanders could be models for the carryover of auditory function across an aquatic-terrestrial boundary without tympanic middle ears. We measured amphibious auditory evoked potential audiograms in five phylogenetically and ecologically distinct salamanders (Amphiuma means, Notophthalmus viridescens, Ambystoma talpoideum, Eurycea spp...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Ming Yang, Haiyong Wang, Mo Zhou, Weilin Liu, Pengqun Kuang, Hao Liang, Qipeng Yuan
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables been shown to possess anticarcinogenic activities in lung malignances. We previously found sulforaphene (4-methylsufinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate, SFE), one new kind of isothiocyanates, existing in a relative high abundance in radish seeds. An efficient methodology based on macroporous resin and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was developed to isolate SFE in reasonably large quantities, high purity and low cost...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Marie-Charlotte Desseroit, Florent Tixier, Wolfgang Andreas Weber, Barry Alan Siegel, Catherine Cheze Le Rest, Dimitris Visvikis, Mathieu Hatt
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of shape and heterogeneity features in both PET and low-dose CT components of PET/CT. A secondary objective was to investigate the impact of image quantization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A HIPAA-compliant secondary analysis of deidentified prospectively acquired PET/CT test-retest datasets of 74 patients from multi-center Merck and ACRIN trials was performed. Metabolically active volumes were automatically delineated on PET with Fuzzy Locally Adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) algorithm...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Urszula K Komarnicka, Radosław Starosta, Agnieszka Kyzioł, Michał Płotek, Małgorzata Puchalska, Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk
In this paper we present lomefloxacin's (HLm, 2nd generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent) organic and inorganic derivatives: aminomethyl(diphenyl)phosphine (PLm), its oxide as well as new copper(I) iodide or copper(I) thiocyanate complexes with PLm and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,2'-biquinoline (bq) as the auxiliary ligands. The synthesized compounds were fully characterised by NMR, UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopies. Selected structures were analysed by theoretical DFT (density functional theory) methods...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Y Liang, J Wang, C Chang, T Amannisa, Y C Sun, B He, W Z Yao
Objective: To analysis the correlative factors that probably affect serum leptin levels in asthmatic patients. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with asthma and 29 health controls who were admitted into outpatient clinic of Peking University Third Hospital from April 2014 to December 2015 were consecutively enrolled in our study prospectively. Serum leptin level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sex, body mass index (BMI), onset age of asthma, allergen detection test, induced sputum cell count and classification, lung function test and asthma control level were recorded...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Nick Davis-Poynter, Joseph Yunis, Helen E Farrell
Virus homologues of seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMR) are encoded by all beta- and gammaherpesviruses, suggesting important functional roles. M78 of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is representative of a family of 7TMR conserved in all betaherpesviruses. M78 family members have been found to exhibit cell-type specific effects upon virus replication in tissue culture and to affect virus pathogenesis in vivo. We reported previously that M78, for which no ligands are known, undergoes rapid, constitutive endocytosis...
2016: PloS One
Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi, Fariba Jousheghany, Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Development of cancer vaccines targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is an alternative approach to chemotherapy with sustained anti-tumor effects. The success of active immunotherapy has been hampered by tumor-induced immune suppressors. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a population of immune suppressors with a proven role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Removing or subduing Tregs activity leads to more robust anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we used a cell-based vaccination strategy in the 4T1 murine mammary model to examine whether bulk removal of certain TAAs, using their glycan profile, can affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Stephen P Bird, William J Markwick
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Youth participation in basketball is on the rise, with basketball one of the top five participation sports in Australia. With increased participation there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of the pre-participation examination, including musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the risk for future injuries. As majority of all basketball injuries affect the lower extremities, pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing should assess fundamental movement qualities throughout the kinetic chain with an emphasis on lower extremity force characteristics, specifically eccentric loading tasks...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
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