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Utrophin upregulation

Antoine Boulanger Piette, Dounia Hamoudi, Laetitia Marcadet, Frédérique Kyomi Labelle, Rares Ovidiu David, Sabrina Bossé, Anteneh Argaw, Jérôme Frenette
The lack of dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) compromises the integrity and function of muscle fibers. Skeletal muscles, except the diaphragm, do not undergo progressive degeneration in adult mdx mice due to compensatory mechanisms, including structural protein upregulation. New mouse models, including utrophin haploinsufficient mdx (mdx/utrn+/-) mice, may better recapitulate DMD. Our goal was to determine whether mdx/utrn+/- worsens the mdx phenotype and to characterize the course of the disease on muscle function and contractility at 1, 2, and 5 months of age, which encompass all stages of development relevant to DMD therapy...
2018: PloS One
Jeremiah Hadwen, Faraz Farooq Luke Witherspoon, Sarah Schock, Kevin Mongeon, Alex MacKenzie
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a recessive X-linked disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting; cardiac or respiratory failure causes death in most patients by the third decade.  The disease is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that lead to a loss of functional dystrophin protein. Although there are currently few treatments for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, previous reports have shown that upregulating the dystrophin paralog utrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models is a promising therapeutic strategy...
June 7, 2018: Clinical and Translational Science
Christine Péladeau, Nadine J Adam, Bernard J Jasmin
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic and progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations and deletions in the dystrophin gene. Although there is currently no cure, one promising treatment for DMD is aimed at increasing endogenous levels of utrophin A to compensate functionally for the lack of dystrophin. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that heparin treatment of mdx mice activates p38 MAPK, leading to an upregulation of utrophin A expression and improvements in the dystrophic phenotype...
May 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jose R Lopez, A Uryash, J Kolster, E Estève, R Zhang, J A Adams
We have previously shown that inadequate dystrophin in cortical neurons in mdx mice is associated with age-dependent dyshomeostasis of resting intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ) and Na+ ([Na+ ]i ), elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase in neuronal damage and cognitive deficit. In this study, we assessed the potential therapeutic properties of the whole body periodic acceleration (pGz) to ameliorate the pathology observed in cortical neurons from the mdx mouse. pGz adds small pulses to the circulation, thereby increasing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium, which in turn increases production of nitric oxide (NO)...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Justin R Fallon, Elizabeth M McNally
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays key roles in normal and diseased skeletal and cardiac muscle. In healthy muscle the ECM is essential for transmitting contractile force, maintaining myofiber integrity and orchestrating cellular signaling. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is caused by loss of dystrophin, a cytosolic protein that anchors a transmembrane complex and serves as a vital link between the actin cytoskeleton and the basal lamina. Loss of dystrophin leads to membrane fragility and impaired signaling, resulting in myofiber death and cycles of inflammation and regeneration...
February 23, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno
Endplate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) deficiency is a form of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) caused by mutations in COLQ, which encodes collagen Q (ColQ). ColQ is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that anchors AChE to the synaptic basal lamina. Biglycan, encoded by BGN, is another ECM protein that binds to the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) on skeletal muscle, which links the actin cytoskeleton and ECM proteins to stabilize the sarcolemma during repeated muscle contractions. Upregulation of biglycan stabilizes the DPAC...
February 20, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Tatianna Wai Ying Wong, Ronald D Cohn
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease caused by the lack of dystrophin due to mutations in the DMD gene. Since dystrophin is essential in maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemmal membrane, the absence of the protein leads to muscle damage and DMD disease manifestation. Currently, there is no cure with only symptomatic management available. OBJECTIVE: The most recent advancements in DMD therapies do not provide a permanent treatment for DMD...
2017: Current Gene Therapy
Manoj K Mishra, Emanuele Loro, Kasturi Sengupta, Steve D Wilton, Tejvir S Khurana
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal genetic disease caused by an absence of the 427kD muscle-specific dystrophin isoform. Utrophin is the autosomal homolog of dystrophin and when overexpressed, can compensate for the absence of dystrophin and rescue the dystrophic phenotype of the mdx mouse model of DMD. Utrophin is subject to miRNA mediated repression by several miRNAs including let-7c. Inhibition of utrophin: let-7c interaction is predicted to 'repress the repression' and increase utrophin expression...
2017: PloS One
Xiaodong Mu, Ying Tang, Koji Takayama, Wanqun Chen, Aiping Lu, Bing Wang, Kurt Weiss, Johnny Huard
Glucocorticoid treatment represents a standard palliative treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, but various adverse effects have limited this treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism(s) by which glucocorticoids impart their effects on the dystrophic muscle, and potentially reduce the adverse effects, we have studied the effect of prednisolone treatment in dystrophin/utrophin double knockout (dKO) mice, which exhibit a severe dystrophic phenotype due to rapid muscle stem cell depletion...
August 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
S Lecompte, M Abou-Samra, R Boursereau, L Noel, S M Brichard
BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation exacerbates the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The hormone, adiponectin (ApN), which is decreased in the metabolic syndrome, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties on skeletal muscle and alleviates the dystrophic phenotype of mdx mice. Here, we investigate whether ApN retains its anti-inflammatory action in myotubes obtained from DMD patients. We unravel the underlying mechanisms by studying the secretome and the early events of ApN...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Liang Wang, Yongyong Xi, Chengcao Sun, Feng Zhang, Heng Jiang, Qiqiang He, Dejia Li
MiR-150, a member of small non-coding RNAs, has been proven to dysregulate in different types of tumor and bear on carcinogenesis and cancer prognosis by regulating the expression of a series of gene including utrophin. Given that utrophin can compensate for dystrophin's absence and be regarded as a promising therapeutic target for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), we further detected the deep role of miR-150 in dystrophic muscle. Using a range of bioinformatic, molecular and cell biology techniques, we declared that miR-150 directly targets cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (CDK3) and leads to the regulation of CDK3 gene expression in both muscle-derived and non-muscle cells...
April 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
J Patrick Gonzalez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Viktoriia Kyrychenko, Joel S Schneider, Celine J Granier, Eric Himelman, Kevin C Lahey, Qingshi Zhao, Ghassan Yehia, Yuan-Xiang Tao, Mantu Bhaumik, Natalia Shirokova, Diego Fraidenraich
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the loss of the protein dystrophin, leading to muscle fragility, progressive weakening, and susceptibility to mechanical stress. Although dystrophin-negative mdx mouse models have classically been used to study DMD, phenotypes appear mild compared to patients. As a result, characterization of muscle pathology, especially in the heart, has proven difficult. We report that injection of mdx embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into Wild Type blastocysts produces adult mouse chimeras with severe DMD phenotypes in the heart and skeletal muscle...
March 2017: Stem Cells
Mikako Ito, Yuka Ehara, Jin Li, Kosuke Inada, Kinji Ohno
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating muscle disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in DMD encoding dystrophin. No rational therapy is currently available. Utrophin is a paralog of dystrophin and is highly expressed at the neuromuscular junction. In mdx mice, utrophin is naturally upregulated throughout the muscle fibers, which mitigates muscular dystrophy. Protein-anchoring therapy was previously reported, in which a recombinant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein is delivered to and anchored to a specific target using its proprietary binding domains...
May 2017: Human Gene Therapy
Elizabeth M van der Pijl, Maaike van Putten, Erik H Niks, Jan J G M Verschuuren, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Jaap J Plomp
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked myopathy caused by dystrophin deficiency. Dystrophin is present intracellularly at the sarcolemma, connecting actin to the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex. Interestingly, it is enriched postsynaptically at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), but its synaptic function is largely unknown. Utrophin, a dystrophin homologue, is also concentrated at the NMJ, and upregulated in DMD. It is possible that the absence of dystrophin at NMJs in DMD causes neuromuscular transmission defects that aggravate muscle weakness...
June 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mariz Vainzof, Leticia Feitosa, Marta Canovas, Danielle Ayub-Guerrieri, Rita de Cássia M Pavanello, Mayana Zatz
Utrophin expression was investigated in two phenotypically discordant Duchenne muscular dystrophy half-brothers. The youngest was wheelchair-bound at age 9, while his mildly affected older brother was able to walk without difficulties at age 15. DNA analysis revealed an out-of-frame exon 2 duplication in the DMD gene, associated with muscle dystrophin protein deficiency. Utrophin localization and quantity was analyzed and compared in both sibs to verify whether this could explain the milder phenotype of the older brother...
March 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Sara Chiappalupi, Giovanni Luca, Francesca Mancuso, Luca Madaro, Francesca Fallarino, Carmine Nicoletti, Mario Calvitti, Iva Arato, Giulia Falabella, Laura Salvadori, Antonio Di Meo, Antonello Bufalari, Stefano Giovagnoli, Riccardo Calafiore, Rosario Donato, Guglielmo Sorci
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease characterized by progressive muscle degeneration leading to impaired locomotion, respiratory failure and premature death. In DMD patients, inflammatory events secondary to dystrophin mutation play a major role in the progression of the pathology. Sertoli cells (SeC) have been largely used to protect xenogeneic engraftments or induce trophic effects thanks to their ability to secrete trophic, antiinflammatory, and immunomodulatory factors. Here we have purified SeC from specific pathogen-free (SPF)-certified neonatal pigs, and embedded them into clinical grade alginate microcapsules...
January 2016: Biomaterials
Christine Péladeau, Aatika Ahmed, Adel Amirouche, Tara E Crawford Parks, Lucas M Bronicki, Vladimir Ljubicic, Jean-Marc Renaud, Bernard J Jasmin
Upregulation of utrophin A is an attractive therapeutic strategy for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Over the years, several studies revealed that utrophin A is regulated by multiple transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms, and that pharmacological modulation of these pathways stimulates utrophin A expression in dystrophic muscle. In particular, we recently showed that activation of p38 signaling causes an increase in the levels of utrophin A mRNAs and protein by decreasing the functional availability of the destabilizing RNA-binding protein called K-homology splicing regulatory protein, thereby resulting in increases in the stability of existing mRNAs...
January 1, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Michel Abou-Samra, Sophie Lecompte, Olivier Schakman, Laurence Noel, Marie C Many, Philippe Gailly, Sonia M Brichard
BACKGROUND: The hormone adiponectin (ApN) is decreased in the metabolic syndrome, where it plays a key pathogenic role. ApN also exerts some anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscles in mice exposed to acute or chronic inflammation. Here, we investigate whether ApN could be sufficiently potent to counteract a severe degenerative muscle disease, with an inflammatory component such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHODS: Mdx mice (a DMD model caused by dystrophin mutation) were crossed with mice overexpressing ApN in order to generate mdx-ApN mice; only littermates were used...
2015: Skeletal Muscle
Trinath Ghosh, Utpal Basu
Utrophin, the autosomal homologue of dystrophin can functionally compensate for dystrophin deficiency. Utrophin upregulation could therefore be a therapeutic strategy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) that arises from mutation in dystrophin gene. In contrast to its transcriptional regulation, mechanisms operating at post-transcriptional level of utrophin expression have not been well documented. Although utrophin-A 5'-UTR has been reported with internal ribosome entry site (IRES), its inhibitory effect on translation is also evident...
2015: PloS One
Abby A McDonald, Sadie L Hebert, Matthew D Kunz, Steven J Ralles, Linda K McLoon
The mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is used to study disease mechanisms and potential treatments, but its pathology is less severe than DMD patients. Other mouse models were developed to more closely mimic the human disease based on knowledge that upregulation of utrophin has a protective effect in mdx muscle. An mdx:utrophin(-/-) (dko) mouse was created, which had a severe disease phenotype and a shortened life span. An mdx:utrophin(+/-) mouse was also created, which had an intermediate disease phenotype compared to the mdx and dko mice...
April 2015: Physiological Reports
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