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Microvesicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789665/existing-and-novel-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-systemic-sclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Peter J Wermuth, Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez, Joel Rosenbloom, Sergio A Jimenez
The discovery and validation of biomarkers resulting from technological advances in the analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, lipidomic and metabolomic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases have led to the development of personalized and rationally designed approaches for the clinical management of such disorders. Although some of these approaches have been applied to systemic sclerosis (SSc), an unmet need remains for validated, non-invasive biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis of SSc, as well as in the assessment of disease progression and response to therapeutic interventions...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789495/apolipoprotein-e-and-atherosclerosis-from-lipoprotein-metabolism-to-microrna-control-of-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Laura Bouchareychas, Robert L Raffai
Apolipoprotein (apo) E stands out among plasma apolipoproteins through its unprecedented ability to protect against atherosclerosis. Although best recognized for its ability to mediate plasma lipoprotein clearance in the liver and protect against macrophage foam cell formation, our recent understanding of the influence that apoE can exert to control atherosclerosis has significantly widened. Among apoE's newfound athero-protective properties include an ability to control exaggerated hematopoiesis, blood monocyte activation and aortic stiffening in mice with hyperlipidemia...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787758/tissue-factor-mediates-microvesicles-shedding-from-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Araci M da R Rondon, Vitor H de Almeida, Tainá Gomes, Bruno R F Verçoza, Renato S Carvalho, Sandra König, Juliany C F Rodrigues, Claudia Dos S Mermelstein, Henri H Versteeg, Robson Q Monteiro
Extracellular vesicles, such as microvesicles (MVs), were identified as important players in tumor progression and acquisition of an aggressive phenotype. Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane protein that initiates the blood coagulation cascade. In tumor cells, TF has been associated with aggressiveness and cancer progression. Previous studies demonstrate that TF is incorporated into MVs secreted by tumor cells; however, it is unknown whether TF is actively involved in the release of MVs. Here, we investigated the influence of TF expression on the release of MVs...
May 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780392/tumor-derived-apoptotic-vesicles-with-death-they-do-part
#4
REVIEW
Morad-Remy Muhsin-Sharafaldine, Alexander D McLellan
Tumor cells release lipid particles known as extracellular vesicles (EV) that contribute to cancer metastasis, to the immune response, and to thrombosis. When tumors are exposed to radiation or chemotherapy, apoptotic vesicles (ApoVs) are released in abundance as the plasma membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton. Recent studies have suggested that ApoVs are distinct from the EVs released from living cells, such as exosomes or microvesicles. Depending on their treatment conditions, tumor-released ApoV have been suggested to either enhance or suppress anti-cancer immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780325/proteomics-of-stored-red-blood-cell-membrane-and-storage-induced-microvesicles-reveals-the-association-of-flotillin-2-with-band-3-complexes
#5
Michel Prudent, Julien Delobel, Aurélie Hübner, Corinne Benay, Niels Lion, Jean-Daniel Tissot
The storage of erythrocyte concentrates (ECs) induces lesions that notably affect metabolism, protein activity, deformability of red blood cells (RBCs), as well as the release of oxygen. Band 3 is one of the proteins affected during the ex vivo aging of RBCs. This membrane protein is an anion transporter, an anchor site for the cytoskeleton and other membrane proteins as well as a binding site for glycolytic enzymes and bears blood group antigens. In the present study, band 3 complexes were isolated from RBCs stored for 7 and 42 days in average ( n = 3), as well as from microvesicles ( n = 3)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779478/exosomes-in-therapy-engineering-pharmacokinetic-and-future-applications
#6
Claudia Arenaccio, Chiara Chiozzini, Flavia Ferrantelli, Patrizia Leone, Eleonora Olivetta, Maurizio Federico
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic cells release vesicles of different sizes under both physiological and pathological conditions. On the basis of the respective biogenesis, extracellular vesicles are classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes. Among these, exosomes are considered tools for innovative therapeutic interventions, especially when engineered with effector molecules. The delivery functions of exosomes are favored by a number of typical features. These include their small size (i...
May 20, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778527/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-release-microvesicles-with-procoagulant-activity
#7
Tomas Fiedler, Magdalena Rabe, Ralf G Mundkowski, Sonja Oehmcke-Hecht, Kirsten Peters
Extracellular vesicles are produced by a number of different cell types, among them mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) of different sources. It has been shown that extracellular vesicles of MSC exert similar therapeutic effects as the cells themselves. Here, we isolated and characterized extracellular vesicles produced by adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in vitro upon stimulation with the proinflammatory substances lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We found that the number of vesicles produced by adMSC does not change upon stimulation of the cells with LPS and TNF...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776835/the-combination-of-mannitol-and-temozolomide-increases-the-effectiveness-of-stem-cell-treatment-in-a-chronic-stroke-model
#8
Chunggab Choi, Hye Min Kim, Jeeheun Shon, Jiae Park, Hyeong-Taek Kim, Suk Ho Kang, Seung-Hun Oh, Nam Keun Kim, Ok Joon Kim
BACKGROUND: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a significant challenge to the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in chronic stroke. Various methods have been developed to increase BBB permeability, but these are associated with adverse effects and are, therefore, not clinically applicable. We recently identified that combination drug treatment of mannitol and temozolomide improved BBB permeability in vitro. Here, we investigated whether this combination could increase the effectiveness of stem cell treatment in an animal model of chronic ischemic stroke...
May 15, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774554/laboratory-assessment-of-the-quality-of-adult-and-neonatal-red-cell-concentrates-manufactured-from-whole-blood-exchange-transfusion-or-intrauterine-transfusion-red-cell-units
#9
A Meli, H New, M McAndrew, M Wiltshire, R Cardigan
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the quality of red cell components in additive solution over 42 days of storage when re-manufactured from neonatal exchange transfusion (ExTx) or intrauterine transfusion (IUT) units on day 7 for issue to adults, neonates or infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Red cell concentrates (RCC) manufactured from WB were compared to RCC re-manufactured from ExTx or IUT on day 7, and red cell splits (RCS) manufactured from WB were compared to RCS re-manufactured from ExTx or IUT on day 7...
May 17, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773101/-microvesicles-derived-from-lps-induced-microglia-aggravate-the-injury-of-tight-junction-in-rat-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-under-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#10
Yanni Lyu, Longsheng Fu, Yanming Li, Jinhua Wen, Xiaohua Wei, Yisong Qian
Objective To study the effect of the administration of the circulating microvesicles (MV) obtained from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia supernatant into rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) on the injury of tight junction in RBECs under the condition of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) as well as the underlying mechanism. Methods The circulating MV was isolated from the supernatant of microglia stimulated with LPS 1 mg/L for 24 hours and subjected to morphological identification. The expression of miR-27a in MV was detected by real-time PCR...
March 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765006/exosomes-and-extracellular-vesicles-the-path-forward
#11
REVIEW
Philip D Stahl, Graça Raposo
Over the course of the past several decades, the concept that extracellular vesicles, exosomes and microvesicles, operate as cellular "housekeepers" and as agents for communication between and among cells and tissues, has emerged into one of the most promising yet vexing problems facing the biomedical community. Already, extracellular vesicles from biological fluids are being used for diagnostic purposes and hopes abound for their use as therapeutic agents. However, the most basic mechanistic questions surrounding their biogenesis and function in cellular and tissue homeostasis remain largely unexplored...
May 15, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764923/extracellular-vesicles-lipids-as-key-components-of-their-biogenesis-and-functions
#12
Michel Record, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, Marc Poirot, Michael J O Wakelam
Intercellular communication has been known for decades to involve either direct contact between cells or to operate by spreading molecules such as cytokines, growth factors, or lipid mediators. Through the last decade we have begun to appreciate the increasing importance of intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles released by viable cells either from plasma membrane shedding microvesicles, also named microparticles), or from an intracellular compartment (exosomes). Exosomes and microvesicles circulate in all biological fluids and can trigger biological responses at distance...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764922/introduction-to-thematic-review-series-on-extracellular-vesicles-a-focus-on-the-role-of-lipids
#13
Michel Record
An additional mechanism of intercellular communication has been unveiled by the characterization of extracellular vesicles, namely exosomes and microvesicles, released from viable cells and concentrating selected molecules from the parental cells and able to be addressed far from the emitting cells. Exosomes are naturally engineered nanovesicles, while microvesicles scale up to micron size. Among the numerous and diverse molecules they carry, these extracellular vesicles also contain a variety of lipid mediators...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763932/microvesicles-from-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-new-protective-strategy-in-osteoarthritic-chondrocytes
#14
Miguel Tofiño-Vian, Maria Isabel Guillén, María Dolores Pérez Del Caz, Antonio Silvestre, María José Alcaraz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic inflammation contributes to cartilage degeneration during the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) show great potential to treat inflammatory and degradative processes in OA and have demonstrated paracrine effects in chondrocytes. In the present work, we have isolated and characterized the extracellular vesicles from human AD-MSC to investigate their role in the chondroprotective actions of these cells. METHODS: AD-MSC were isolated by collagenase treatment from adipose tissue from healthy individuals subjected to abdominal lipectomy surgery...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763891/endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-kidney-diseases
#15
Abdullah Ozkok, Alaattin Yildiz
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are bone marrow derived or tissue-resident cells that play major roles in the maintenance of vascular integrity and repair of endothelial damage. Although EPCs may be capable of directly engrafting and regenerating the endothelium, the most important effects of EPCs seem to be depended on paracrine effects. In recent studies, specific microvesicles and mRNAs have been found to mediate the pro-angiogenic and regenerative effects of EPCs on endothelium. EPC counts have important prognostic implications in cardiovascular diseases (CVD)...
May 10, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760734/dexamethasone-activated-mscs-release-mvs-for-stimulating-osteogenic-response
#16
Mingyan Zhao, Peng Li, Haijia Xu, Qunwen Pan, Rong Zeng, Xiaotang Ma, Zhanghua Li, Hao Lin
The extracellular microvesicles (MVs) are attracting much attention because they are found to be the key paracrine mediator participating in tissue regeneration. Dexamethasone (DXM) is widely accepted as an important regulator in tailoring the differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the effect of DXM on the paracrine signaling of MSCs remains unknown. To this point, we aimed to explore the role of DXM in regulating the paracrine activity of MSCs through evaluating the release and function of MSC-MVs, based on their physicochemical characteristics and support on osteogenic response...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760691/extracellular-vesicle-heterogeneity-subpopulations-isolation-techniques-and-diverse-functions-in-cancer-progression
#17
REVIEW
Eduard Willms, Carlos Cabañas, Imre Mäger, Matthew J A Wood, Pieter Vader
Cells release membrane enclosed nano-sized vesicles termed extracellular vesicles (EVs) that function as mediators of intercellular communication by transferring biological information between cells. Tumor-derived EVs have emerged as important mediators in cancer development and progression, mainly through transfer of their bioactive content which can include oncoproteins, oncogenes, chemokine receptors, as well as soluble factors, transcripts of proteins and miRNAs involved in angiogenesis or inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754178/ev-microvesicles-micrornas-and-stem-cells-in-cancer
#18
Jacob A Tickner, Derek J Richard, Kenneth J O'Byrne
The role of extracellular vesicles (EV) in carcinogenesis has become the focus of much research. These microscopic messengers have been found to regulate immune system function, particularly in tumorigenesis, as well as conditioning future metastatic sites for the attachment and growth of tumor tissue. Through an interaction with a range of host tissues, EVs are able to generate a pro-tumor environment that is essential for tumorigenesis. These small nanovesicles are an ideal candidate for a non-invasive indicator of pathogenesis and/or disease progression as they can display individualized nucleic acid, protein, and lipid expression profiles that are often reflective of disease state, and can be easily detected in bodily fluids, even after extended cryo-storage...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752284/analysis-of-the-thrombotic-and-fibrinolytic-activities-of-tumor-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#19
Ludovic Durrieu, Alamelu Bharadwaj, David M Waisman
Exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) are small extracellular vesicles secreted by tumor cells and are suggested to contribute to the thrombotic events that commonly occur in patients with advanced malignancies. Paradoxically, these vesicles have been reported to also possess fibrinolytic activity. To determine whether thrombotic or fibrinolytic activity is a predominant characteristic of these extracellular vesicles, we prepared exosomes and MVs from 2 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7), a lung cancer cell line (A549), and a leukemia cell line (NB4) and assayed their thrombotic and fibrinolytic activities...
May 22, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752040/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-microvesicles-alleviate-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-by-regulating-renin-angiotensin-system
#20
Zhenjun Liu, Jinghu Liu, Mengyuan Xiao, Junxian Wang, Feng Yao, Weikai Zeng, Liqin Yu, Yuejie Guan, Wenyan Wei, Zijian Peng, Kunpeng Zhu, Jin Wang, Zhongyuan Yang, Jixin Zhong, Jianying Chen
In recent years, microvesicles (MVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proved to be able to improve the outcome of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in many respects, but the underlying mechanisms of it still remain unclear. Because the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been found to be closely related to PAH, the present study was designed to investigate whether the effect of MSC-derived MVs on PAH was correlated with RAS. MVs were isolated and purified from bone marrow MSCs. PAH rat models were established by a single intraperitoneal injection of 1% monocrotaline (MCT, 50 mg/Kg)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
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