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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#1
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330469/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-tex101-protein-elisa-test-for-the-differential-diagnosis-of-male-infertility
#2
Dimitrios Korbakis, Christina Schiza, Davor Brinc, Antoninus Soosaipillai, Theano D Karakosta, Christine Légaré, Robert Sullivan, Brendan Mullen, Keith Jarvi, Eleftherios P Diamandis, Andrei P Drabovich
BACKGROUND: TEX101 is a cell membrane protein exclusively expressed by testicular germ cells and shed into seminal plasma. We previously verified human TEX101 as a biomarker for the differential diagnosis of azoospermia, and developed a first-of-its-kind TEX101 ELISA. To demonstrate the clinical utility of TEX101, in this work we aimed at evaluating ELISA performance in a large population of fertile, subfertile, and infertile men. METHODS: Mass spectrometry, size-exclusion chromatography, ultracentrifugation, and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize TEX101 protein as an analyte in seminal plasma...
March 23, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324860/direct-detection-of-two-different-tumor-derived-extracellular-vesicles-by-sam-aunis-lspr-biosensor
#3
Abhimanyu Thakur, Guangyu Qiu, Siu-Pang Ng, Jintao Guan, Jianbo Yue, Youngjin Lee, Chi-Man Lawrence Wu
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are abundant in various biological fluids including blood, saliva, urine, as well as extracellular milieu. Accumulating evidence has indicated that EVs, which contain functional proteins and small RNAs, facilitate intercellular communication between neighbouring cells, and are critical to maintain various physiological processes. In contrast, EV-derived toxic signals can spread out over the tissues adjacent to the injured area in certain diseases, including brain tumors and neurodegenerative disorders...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314769/infrared-spectroscopic-characterization-of-monocytic-microvesicles-microparticles-released-upon-lipopolysaccharide-stimulation
#4
Joonsup Lee, Beryl Wen, Elizabeth A Carter, Valery Combes, Georges E R Grau, Peter A Lay
Microvesicles (MVs) are involved in cell-cell interactions, including disease pathogenesis. Nondestructive Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra from MVs were assessed as a technique to provide new biochemical insights into a LPS-induced monocyte model of septic shock. FTIR spectroscopy provided a quick method to investigate relative differences in biomolecular content of different MV populations that was complementary to traditional semiquantitative omics approaches, with which it is difficult to provide information on relative changes between classes (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates) or protein conformations...
March 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306336/fifty-years-of-research-in-ards-cell-based-therapy-for-ards-biology-and-potential-therapeutic-value
#5
John G Laffey, Michael A Matthay
Based on several pre-clinical studies, cell-based therapy has emerged as a potential new therapeutic for ARDS. Of the various cell-based therapy options, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord have the most experimental data to support their potential efficacy for lung injury from both infectious and non-infectious causes. Mechanistically, MSCs exert their beneficial effects by release of paracrine factors, microvesicles, and transfer of mitochondria, all of which have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects on injured lung endothelium and alveolar epithelium, including enhancing the resolution of pulmonary edema by upregulating sodium-dependent alveolar fluid clearance...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295628/pathophysiological-aspects-of-red-blood-cells-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-resistant-to-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-therapy
#6
Hara T Georgatzakou, Vassilis L Tzounakas, Anastasios G Kriebardis, Athanassios D Velentzas, Effie G Papageorgiou, Artemis I Voulgaridou, Apostolos C Kokkalis, Marianna H Antonelou, Issidora S Papassideri
OBJECTIVE: Modified, bio-reactive red blood cells (RBCs) and RBC-derived microvesicles likely contribute to the hematological and cardiovascular complications in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study assesses the physiological profile of red blood cells (RBCs) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving standard or high doses of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). METHOD: Blood samples from twenty-eight patients under sustained hemodialysis, responsive or not to standard rhEPO administration were examined for RBC morphology, fragility, hemolysis, redox status, removal signaling, membrane protein composition and microvesiculation before and after dialysis...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295502/assessment-of-renal-response-with-urinary-exosomes-in-patients-with-al-amyloidosis-a-proof-of-concept
#7
Marina Ramirez-Alvarado, David R Barnidge, David L Murray, Angela Dispenzieri, Marta Marin-Argany, Christopher J Dick, Shawna A Cooper, Samih H Nasr, Christopher J Ward, Surendra Dasari, Víctor H Jiménez-Zepeda, Nelson Leung
Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a fatal complication of B-cell proliferation secondary to deposition of amyloid fibrils in various organs. Urinary exosomes (UEX) are the smallest of the microvesicles excreted in the urine. Previously, we found UEX of patients with AL amyloidosis contained immunoglobulin light chain (LC) oligomers that patients with multiple myeloma did not have. To further explore the role of the LC oligomers, UEX was isolated from an AL amyloidosis patient with progressive renal disease despite achieving a complete response...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295230/microvesicles-released-by-apoptotic-human-neutrophils-suppress-proliferation-and-il-2-il-2-receptor-expression-of-resting-t-helper-cells
#8
Guifen Shen, Stefan Krienke, Petra Schiller, Anna Nießen, Susanne Neu, Volker Eckstein, Martin Schiller, Hanns-Martin Lorenz, Lars-Oliver Tykocinski
Membrane-coated microvesicles (MVs) have been identified as important mediators in intercellular communication. During the process of apoptosis, dying cells dynamically release MVs. Neutrophils are the most abundant type of leukocytes in the circulation. Due to their very short lifespan, it is likely that they are the source of large amounts of apoptotic cell-derived MVs. Here, we show that MVs released by apoptotic human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (apoPMN-MVs), but not the apoptotic neutrophils themselves, selectively suppress the proliferation of CD25 (IL-2Rα)(neg) CD127 (IL-7Rα)(pos) Th cells in a dose-dependent manner...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294454/concise-review-msc-derived-exosomes-for-cell-free-therapy
#9
Donald G Phinney, Mark F Pittenger
Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is undergoing extensive evaluation as a cellular therapy in human clinical trials. Because MSCs are easily isolated and amenable to culture expansion in vitro there is a natural desire to test MSCs in many diverse clinical indications. This is exemplified by the rapidly expanding literature base that includes many in vivo animal models. More recently, MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include exosomes and microvesicles (MV), are being examined for their role in MSC-based cellular therapy...
March 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289183/c1-inhibitor-decreases-the-release-of-vasculitis-like-chemotactic-endothelial-microvesicles
#10
Maria Mossberg, Anne-Lie Ståhl, Robin Kahn, Ann-Charlotte Kristoffersson, Ramesh Tati, Caroline Heijl, Mårten Segelmark, L M Fredrik Leeb-Lundberg, Diana Karpman
The kinin system is activated during vasculitis and may contribute to chronic inflammation. C1-inhibitor is the main inhibitor of the kinin system. In this study, we investigated the presence of the kinin B1 receptor on endothelial microvesicles and its contribution to the inflammatory process. Compared with controls (n=15), patients with acute vasculitis (n=12) had markedly higher levels of circulating endothelial microvesicles, identified by flow cytometry analysis, and significantly more microvesicles that were positive for the kinin B1 receptor (P<0...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288760/isolation-and-characterization-of-exosomes-derived-from-fertile-sheep-hydatid-cysts
#11
Mar Siles-Lucas, Carlos Sánchez-Ovejero, María González-Sánchez, Esperanza González, Juan Manuel Falcón-Pérez, Belgees Boufana, Federica Fratini, Adriano Casulli, Raúl Manzano-Román
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a chronic and complex zoonotic disease. Information on the mechanisms involved in parasite establishment, growth and persistence remain limited. These may be modulated by a crosstalk between extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs including exosomes and microvesicles are able to carry developmental signaling proteins which coordinate growth and establishment of several parasites. Here, an exosome enriched EV fraction was isolated from hydatid fluid (HF) of fertile sheep cysts. A proteomic analysis of this fraction identified a number of parasite-derived vesicle-membrane associated proteins as well as cytosolic proteins...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283886/protein-characterization-of-extracellular-microvesicles-exosomes-released-from-cytotoxin-challenged-rat-cerebrocortical-mixed-culture-and-mouse-n2a-cells
#12
Dhwani Kumar, Rachna Manek, Vijaya Raghavan, Kevin K Wang
A number of neuronal and glial proteins were previously found to be released in free-standing soluble form from cultured brain cells into cell-conditioned media. Here, we sought to examine if similar proteins are also contained in neural and astroglial cell-released extracellular microvesicles/exosomes (MV/E). In this study, MV/E were isolated from cell-conditioned media from control and cytotoxin-challenged rat cerebrocortical mixed culture (CTX) and mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells. Cytotoxin challenges included pro-necrosis calcium ionophore A23187, pro-apoptosis staurosporine (STS), and excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278131/microvesicles-from-the-plasma-of-elderly-subjects-and-from-senescent-endothelial-cells-promote-vascular-calcification
#13
Matilde Alique, María Piedad Ruíz-Torres, Guillermo Bodega, María Victoria Noci, Nuria Troyano, Lourdes Bohórquez, Carlos Luna, Rafael Luque, Andrés Carmona, Julia Carracedo, Rafael Ramírez
Vascular calcification is commonly seen in elderly people, though it can also appear in middle-aged subjects affected by premature vascular aging. The aim of this work is to test the involvement of microvesicles (MVs) produced by senescent endothelial cells (EC) and from plasma of elderly people in vascular calcification. The present work shows that MVs produced by senescent cultured ECs, plus those found in the plasma of elderly subjects, promote calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells. Only MVs from senescent ECs, and from elderly subjects' plasma, induced calcification...
March 8, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274991/macrophage-derived-apoptotic-bodies-promote-the-proliferation-of-the-recipient-cells-via-shuttling-microrna-221-222
#14
Ziwen Zhu, Duo Zhang, Heedoo Lee, Aravind Ajakumar Menon, Jingxuan Wu, Kebin Hu, Yang Jin
Bacterial pneumonia is a common and serious clinical entity. Alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense in the innate immunity against bacterial pathogens. Epithelial cells are known to release chemokines/cytokines that recruit and activate phagocytic cells. However, the signals sent from alveolar macrophages back to the lung epithelial cells remain largely unexplored. We found that LPS, a well-recognized stimulator derived from gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria, rapidly and robustly induces the secretion of macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272605/thermo-acoustofluidic-separation-of-vesicles-based-on-cholesterol-content
#15
Ata Dolatmoradi, Elnaz Mirtaheri, Bilal El-Zahab
Biomechanical properties of cells such as cellular stiffness have been increasingly considered as biomarkers for diseases. For instance, stiffness of cancer cells has been correlated to the malignant potential in certain cell lines. In cells, the cholesterol content plays a crucial role in determining stiffness. Changes in the cholesterol content in cellular membranes can be an indication of pathological disorders. Acoustophoresis as a separation and diagnostic tool is well positioned to help in the separation and diagnosis of cells taking advantage of its unique separation criteria of density and compressibility...
March 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271951/microvesicles-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-ready-for-prime-time-in-the-clinic
#16
Sasanka M Handunnetti, Aaron Polliack, Constantine S Tam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267596/extracellular-vesicles-in-lung-cancer-from-bench-to-bedside
#17
REVIEW
Tsukasa Kadota, Yusuke Yoshioka, Yu Fujita, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Takahiro Ochiya
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite significant advances in lung cancer research and novel therapies, a better understanding of the disease is crucially needed to facilitate early detection and appropriate diagnoses and to improve treatment outcomes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, are released from all tested cell types and modulate cell-cell communication. EVs transfer a wide variety of molecules, such as proteins, messenger RNAs and microRNAs...
March 4, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264449/tumor-cell-derived-microvesicles-induced-not-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-but-apoptosis-in-human-proximal-tubular-hk-2-cells-implications-for-renal-impairment-in-multiple-myeloma
#18
Aiqi Zhao, Fancong Kong, Chun-Jie Liu, Guoxin Yan, Fei Gao, Hao Guo, An-Yuan Guo, Zhichao Chen, Qiubai Li
Renal impairment (RI) is one of the hallmarks of multiple myeloma (MM) and carries a poor prognosis. Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane vesicles and play an important role in disease progression. Here, we investigated the role of MVs derived from MM cells (MM-MVs) in RI of MM. We found that MM-MVs significantly inhibited viability and induced apoptosis, but not epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human kidney-2 (HK-2), a human renal tubular epithelial cell line. The protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, 8, and 9, and E-cadherin, were increased, but vementin levels were decreased in the HK-2 cells treated with MM-MVs...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253991/micrornas-as-peripheral-biomarkers-in-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#19
S Kumar, M Vijayan, J S Bhatti, P H Reddy
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are found in the circulatory biofluids considering the important molecules for biomarker study in aging and age-related diseases. Blood or blood components (serum/plasma) are primary sources of circulatory miRNAs and can release these in cell-free form either bound with some protein components or encapsulated with microvesicle particles, called exosomes. miRNAs are quite stable in the peripheral circulation and can be detected by high-throughput techniques like qRT-PCR, microarray, and sequencing...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249038/microvesicles-released-from-fat-laden-cells-promote-activation-of-hepatocellular-nlrp3-inflammasome-a-pro-inflammatory-link-between-lipotoxicity-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
Stefania Cannito, Elisabetta Morello, Claudia Bocca, Beatrice Foglia, Elisa Benetti, Erica Novo, Fausto Chiazza, Mara Rogazzo, Roberto Fantozzi, Davide Povero, Salvatore Sutti, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Ariel E Feldstein, Emanuele Albano, Massimo Collino, Maurizio Parola
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is a major form of chronic liver disease in the general population in relation to its high prevalence among overweight/obese individuals and patients with diabetes type II or metabolic syndrome. NAFLD can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis and end-stage of liver disease but mechanisms involved are still incompletely characterized. Within the mechanisms proposed to mediate the progression of NAFLD, lipotoxicity is believed to play a major role...
2017: PloS One
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