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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811610/antibiotic-induced-release-of-small-extracellular-vesicles-exosomes-with-surface-associated-dna
#1
Andrea Németh, Norbert Orgovan, Barbara W Sódar, Xabier Osteikoetxea, Krisztina Pálóczi, Katalin É Szabó-Taylor, Krisztina V Vukman, Ágnes Kittel, Lilla Turiák, Zoltán Wiener, Sára Tóth, László Drahos, Károly Vékey, Robert Horvath, Edit I Buzás
Recently, biological roles of extracellular vesicles (which include among others exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) have attracted substantial attention in various fields of biomedicine. Here we investigated the impact of sustained exposure of cells to the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin on the released extracellular vesicles. Ciprofloxacin is widely used in humans against bacterial infections as well as in cell cultures against Mycoplasma contamination. However, ciprofloxacin is an inducer of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction of mammalian cells...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807983/cancer-associated-pathways-and-biomarkers-of-venous-thrombosis
#2
Yohei Hisada, Nigel Mackman
Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this review, we will summarize common and cancer type-specific pathways of VTE in cancer patients. Increased levels of leukocytes, platelets and tissue factor-positive (TF+) microvesicles are all potential factors that alone or in combination increase cancer-associated thrombosis. Lung and colorectal cancer patients often exhibit leukocytosis. Neutrophils could increase VTE in cancer patients by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps whereas monocytes may express TF...
August 14, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804597/size-and-concentration-analyses-of-extracellular-vesicles-by-nanoparticle-tracking-analysis-a-variation-study
#3
Beate Vestad, Alicia Llorente, Axl Neurauter, Santosh Phuyal, Bente Kierulf, Peter Kierulf, Tore Skotland, Kirsten Sandvig, Kari Bente F Haug, Reidun Øvstebø
Current methods for characterisation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) need further standardisation in order to obtain an acceptable level of data comparability. Size and concentration of EVs can be determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). However, both the heterogeneity of EVs and the choice of instrument settings may cause an appreciable analytical variation. Intra-assay (within-day, n = 6) and inter-assay (day-to-day, n = 6) variations (coefficient of variation, % CV) of different preparations of EVs and artificial vesicles or beads were determined using two NanoSight NS500 instruments, located at different laboratories...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804596/characterisation-of-tumour-derived-microvesicles-in-cancer-patients-blood-and-correlation-with-clinical-outcome
#4
Kerstin Menck, Annalen Bleckmann, Astrid Wachter, Bianca Hennies, Lena Ries, Matthias Schulz, Marko Balkenhol, Tobias Pukrop, Bawarjan Schatlo, Ulrike Rost, Dirk Wenzel, Florian Klemm, Claudia Binder
To evaluate whether tumour-derived microvesicles (T-MV), originating from the plasma membrane, represent suitable cancer biomarkers, we isolated MV from peripheral blood samples of cancer patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic solid tumours (n = 330, including 79 head & neck cancers, 74 lung cancers, 41 breast cancers, 28 colorectal cancers and 108 with other cancer forms) and controls (n = 103). Whole MV preparations were characterised using flow cytometry. While MV carrying the tumour-associated proteins MUC1, EGFR and EpCAM were found to be enhanced in a tumour-subtype-specific way in patients' blood, expression of the matrix metalloproteinase inducer EMMPRIN was increased independent of tumour type...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799250/extracellular-vesicles-nature-s-nanoparticles-for-improving-gene-transfer-with-adeno-associated-virus-vectors
#5
REVIEW
Bence György, Casey A Maguire
Gene therapy, the ability to treat a disease at the level of nucleic acid, has journeyed from science fiction, to hard lessons learned from early clinical trials, to improved technologies with efficacy in patients for several diseases. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are currently a leader for direct in vivo gene therapy. To date, AAV is safe in patients, with clinical benefit in trials to treat blindness, hemophilia, and a lipid disorder, with many more trials underway. Despite this remarkable progress, barriers exist for AAV vectors to be effective gene transfer vehicles in all organ/cell targets, as well as patient subpopulations...
August 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798307/baculovirus-infection-induces-disruption-of-the-nuclear-lamina
#6
Xiaomei Zhang, Kaiyan Xu, Denghui Wei, Wenbi Wu, Kai Yang, Meijin Yuan
Baculovirus nucleocapsids egress from the nucleus primarily via budding at the nuclear membrane. The nuclear lamina underlying the nuclear membrane represents a substantial barrier to nuclear egress. Whether the nuclear lamina undergoes disruption during baculovirus infection remains unknown. In this report, we generated a clonal cell line, Sf9-L, that stably expresses GFP-tagged Drosophila lamin B. GFP autofluorescence colocalized with immunofluorescent anti-lamin B at the nuclear rim of Sf9-L cells, indicating GFP-lamin B was incorporated into the nuclear lamina...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793796/platelet-enriched-micrornas-and-cardiovascular-homeostasis
#7
Amro Elgheznawy, Ingrid Fleming
SIGNIFICANCE: Platelets are anucleate blood cells involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. Although no longer able to generate RNA de novo, platelets contain mRNA, YRNA fragments and premature microRNAs (miRNAs) that inherit from megakaryocytes. Recent Advances. Novel sequencing techniques have helped identify the unexpectedly large number of RNA species present in platelets. Throughout their life time platelets can process the pre-existing pool of premature miRNA to give the fully functional miRNA that can regulated platelet protein expression and function...
August 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783104/exosomes-and-other-extracellular-vesicles-in-hpv-transmission-and-carcinogenesis
#8
REVIEW
David Guenat, François Hermetet, Jean-Luc Prétet, Christiane Mougin
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes (Exos), microvesicles (MVs) and apoptotic bodies (ABs) are released in biofluids by virtually all living cells. Tumor-derived Exos and MVs are garnering increasing attention because of their ability to participate in cellular communication or transfer of bioactive molecules (mRNAs, microRNAs, DNA and proteins) between neighboring cancerous or normal cells, and to contribute to human cancer progression. Malignant traits can also be transferred from apoptotic cancer cells to phagocytizing cells, either professional or non-professional...
August 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782124/supernatant-reduction-of-stored-gamma-irradiated-red-blood-cells-minimizes-potentially-harmful-substances-present-in-transfusion-aliquots-for-neonates
#9
Katherine Serrano, Chantale Pambrun, Elena Levin, Dana V Devine
BACKGROUND: In neonate transfusion, the use of a dedicated red blood cell (RBC) unit decreases donor exposure. A separate safety measure involves gamma irradiation of the RBCs to abrogate the possibility of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. However, in combination, storage of gamma-irradiated RBCs leads to accumulation of potentially harmful substances in the supernatant. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: For this study, RBCs were pooled and split into three study arms...
August 7, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776566/response-commentary-exosomes-vs-microvesicles-in-hematological-malignancies
#10
T L Whiteside, M Boyiadzis
Leukemia accepted article preview online, 04 August 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.248.
August 4, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775014/brain-heart-interaction-cardiac-complications-after-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Zhili Chen, Poornima Venkat, Don Seyfried, Michael Chopp, Tao Yan, Jieli Chen
Neurocardiology is an emerging specialty that addresses the interaction between the brain and the heart, that is, the effects of cardiac injury on the brain and the effects of brain injury on the heart. This review article focuses on cardiac dysfunction in the setting of stroke such as ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of post-stroke deaths are attributed to neurological damage, and cardiovascular complications are the second leading cause of post-stroke mortality...
August 4, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774835/current-and-emerging-biomarkers-in-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-possible-diagnostic-prognostic-and-therapeutic-applications
#12
REVIEW
Ishaq N Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Deema Hussein, Kulvinder S Saini
Recent investments in research associated with the discovery of specific tumor biomarkers important for efficient diagnosis and prognosis of the patients are beginning to bear fruit. Key biomarkers could potentially outweigh traditional radiological or pathological methods by enabling specificity of early detection, when coupled with tumor molecular profiling and clinical associations. Only few biomarkers are approved by regulatory authorities for Central Nervous System Tumors (CNSTs), despite the evaluation of a large number of CNST related markers during clinical trials...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774797/mesenchymal-stroma-role-in-osteosarcoma-progression
#13
Margherita Cortini, Sofia Avnet, Nicola Baldini
The initiation and progression of malignant tumors are supported by their microenvironment: cancer cells per se cannot explain growth and formation of the primary or metastasis, and a combination of proliferating tumor cells, cancer stem cells, immune cells mesenchymal stromal cells and/or cancer-associated fibroblasts all contribute to the tumor bulk. The interaction between these multiple players, under different microenvironmental conditions of biochemical and physical stimuli (i.e. oxygen tension, pH, matrix mechanics), regulates the production and biological activity of several soluble factors, extracellular matrix components, and extracellular vesicles that are needed for growth, maintenance, chemoresistance and metastatization of cancer...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764573/human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-secretome-from-multiple-sclerosis-patients-suppresses-nalp3-inflammasome-activation-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#14
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Sabrina Giacoppo, Francesca Diomede, Placido Bramanti, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon
Research in recent years has largely explored the immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their secretory products, called "secretome," in the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. Here, we examined whether such immunosuppressive effects might be elicited due to inflammasome inactivation. To this end, we treated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice model of multiple sclerosis (MS) with the conditioned medium or purified exosomes/microvesicles (EMVs) obtained from relapsing-remitting-MS patients human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and investigated the regulation of NALP3 inflammasome...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758755/inflammatory-monocytes-loading-protease-sensitive-nanoparticles-enable-lung-metastasis-targeting-and-intelligent-drug-release-for-anti-metastasis-therapy
#15
Xinyu He, Haiqiang Cao, Hong Wang, Tao Tan, Haijun Yu, Pengcheng Zhang, Qi Yin, Zhiwen Zhang, Yaping Li
Metastasis causes high mortality of breast cancer, and the inability of drug delivery to metastatic sites remains a crucial challenge for antimetastasis therapy. Herein, we report that inflammatory monocytes loading legumain-activated nanoparticles can actively target lung metastases and initiate metastasis-specific intelligent drug release for antimetastasis therapy. The cytotoxic mertansine is conjugated to poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with a legumain-sensitive peptide and self-assembled into nanoparticles (SMNs), and then loaded into inflammatory monocytes to prepare the SMNs-loaded monocytes delivery system (M-SMNs)...
August 2, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758160/sphingomyelin-encrypts-tissue-factor-atp-induced-activation-of-a-smase-leads-to-tissue-factor-decryption-and-microvesicle-shedding
#16
Jue Wang, Usha R Pendurthi, L Vijaya Mohan Rao
A majority of tissue factor (TF) on cell surfaces exists in an encrypted state with minimal to no procoagulant activity. At present, it is unclear whether limited availability of phosphatidylserine (PS) and/or a specific membrane lipid in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane contributes to TF encryption. Sphingomyelin (SM) is a major phospholipid in the outer leaflet, and SM metabolism is shown to be altered in many disease settings that cause thrombotic disorders. The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of SM metabolism on TF activity and TF(+) microvesicles (MVs) release...
May 23, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753251/liraglutide-mitigates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-pro-atherogenic-changes-and-microvesicles-release-in-huvec-from-diabetic-women
#17
Pamela Di Tomo, Paola Lanuti, Natalia Di Pietro, Maria Pompea Antonia Baldassarre, Marco Marchisio, Assunta Pandolfi, Agostino Consoli, Gloria Formoso
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether exposure to GLP-1 receptor agonist Liraglutide could modulate pro-atherogenic alterations previously observed in endothelial cells obtained by women affected by gestational diabetes, thus exposed in vivo to hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammation and to evaluate endothelial microvesicles (EMV) release, a new reliable biomarker of vascular stress/damage. METHODS: we studied Liraglutide effects and its plausible molecular mechanisms on monocyte cells adhesion and adhesion molecules expression and membrane exposure in control (C-) Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) as well as in HUVEC of women affected by gestational diabetes (GD) exposed in vitro to TNF-α...
July 28, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741407/pericytes-secrete-pro-regenerative-molecules-in-response-to-platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb
#18
Abderahim Gaceb, Ilknur Özen, Thomas Padel, Marco Barbariga, Gesine Paul
Brain pericytes not only maintain the anatomical, biochemical and immune blood-brain barrier, but display features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. MSCs have pro-regenerative properties attributed to their secretome. However, whether also brain pericytes possess such pro-regenerative capacities is largely unknown. Here we characterize the secretome and microvesicle (MV) release of human brain pericytes mediated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)/PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signalling...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740388/role-of-tim-4-in-exosome-dependent-entry-of-hiv-1-into-human-immune-cells
#19
Brian Sims, Anitra L Farrow, Sparkle D Williams, Anju Bansal, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Linlin Gu, Qiana L Matthews
Exosomes, 30-200 nm nanostructures secreted from donor cells and internalized by recipient cells, can play an important role in the cellular entry of some viruses. These microvesicles are actively secreted into various body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and breast milk. We successfully isolated exosomes from human breast milk and plasma. The size and concentration of purified exosomes were measured by nanoparticle tracking, while Western blotting confirmed the presence of the exosomal-associated proteins CD9 and CD63, clathrin, and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin proteins (TIMs)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736767/activation-of-mosquito-complement-antiplasmodial-response-requires-cellular-immunity
#20
Julio César Castillo, Ana Beatriz Barletta Ferreira, Nathanie Trisnadi, Carolina Barillas-Mury
The mosquito complement-like system is a major defense mechanism that limits Plasmodium infection. Ookinete midgut invasion results in irreversible damage to invaded cells and triggers epithelial nitration and complement activation. Several lines of evidence suggest that hemocytes participate in early antiplasmodial responses that target ookinetes, but their role remains unclear. The fate of hemocytes in response to Plasmodium infection was investigated by labeling this cell population in vivo. We found that midgut nitration triggers the local release of hemocyte-derived microvesicles (HdMv) into the basal labyrinth of the midgut...
January 2017: Science Immunology
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