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Microvesicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936950/-microvesicles-derived-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-new-hope-of-the-treatment-for-ards
#1
Qihong Chen, Ruiqiang Zheng, Hualing Wang
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious state threaten human health with a high mortality about 30%-40%. At present, there is no effective treatment for ARDS. Microvesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-MVs) have a heterogeneous subcellular structure secreted by MSCs. It plays an important role in the repair of tissue and organ damage. Recent studies have shown that MSC-MVs, played an important role in repairing lung injury, may replace MSC for cell therapy. Therefore MSC-MVs may bring new hope for ARDS treatment...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936743/therapeutic-potential-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Jana Radosinska, Monika Bartekova
As other stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are able to produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes and microvesicles. This chapter summarizes the knowledge about the production of EVs by the HSCs, their role in the intercellular communication, and will discuss the cargo of these EVs as well as protective effects of HSCs-derived exosomes and microvesicles in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Available data showed that cardioprotective action of injected HSCs could not be explained by direct transdifferentiationof injected cells into the cardiomyocytes, this effect is suggested to be mediated via paracrine communication (by EVs) between donor and recipient cells...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936738/vascular-calcification-regulation-by-exosomes-in-the-vascular-wall
#3
Marcel Liberman, Luciana Cavalheiro Marti
Vascular calcification is a tightly regulated process that increases during ageing and occurs mainly in patients with diabetes and chronic renal failure. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that are synthesized in a particular population of endosomes, also called multivesicular bodies, by inside budding into the lumen of the compartment. After fusion of exosome with the plasma membrane, these internal vesicles are secreted. Exosomes have a defined set of membrane and cytosolic proteins. The physiological function of exosomes is still a matter of debate...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936266/a-novel-method-for-the-isolation-of-extracellular-vesicles-and-rna-from-urine
#4
Anna Markowska, R Scott Pendergrast, J Stephen Pendergrast, P Shannon Pendergrast
The discovery of urinary extracellular biomarkers has been impeded by the lack of efficient methods for the isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs: exosomes and microvesicles) and extracellular nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) from urine. Ultracentrifugation (UC), considered the gold standard for vesicle isolation from many biofluids, is efficacious but laborious, and, like most commercially available methods, is unable to isolate enough material from small volumes for protein or RNA-based biomarker discovery. We have developed a novel precipitation method for the isolation of EVs and nucleic acids from urine...
January 2017: J Circ Biomark
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930915/microvesicle-subsets-in-sepsis-due-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-compared-to-faecal-peritonitis
#5
Hazem M S Lashin, Suchita Nadkarni, Silvia Oggero, Hefin R Jones, Julian C Knight, Charles J Hinds, Mauro Perretti
RATIONALE: Microvesicles (MV) act as a non-soluble means of inter-cellular communication, with effector roles in disease pathogenesis and potentially as biomarkers. Previously, we reported that neutrophil MV expressing alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2MG) are protective in experimental sepsis and associate with survival in a small cohort of patients with sepsis due to community acquired pneumonia (CAP). OBJECTIVES: To characterise MV profiles in sepsis due to CAP or faecal peritonitis (FP) and determine their relation to outcome...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919558/cellular-uptake-of-extracellular-vesicles-is-mediated-by-clathrin-independent-endocytosis-and-macropinocytosis
#6
Helena Costa Verdera, Jerney J Gitz-Francois, Raymond M Schiffelers, Pieter Vader
Recent evidence has established that extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, form an endogenous transport system through which biomolecules, including proteins and RNA, are exchanged between cells. This endows EVs with immense potential for drug delivery and regenerative medicine applications. Understanding the biology underlying EV-based intercellular transfer of cargo is of great importance for the development of EV-based therapeutics. Here, we sought to characterize the cellular mechanisms involved in EV uptake...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917821/circulatory-cell-mediated-nanotherapeutic-approaches-in-disease-targeting
#7
Thierry Burnouf, Pierre-Alain Burnouf, Yu-Wen Wu, Er-Yuan Chuang, Long-Sheng Lu, Hadi Goubran
Circulating blood cells, and cell-derived microvesicles, are emerging as pragmatic delivery systems that can smartly complement the already existing nanotherapeutic platforms evaluated to treat or diagnose diseases. The valuable distinctive features of circulatory cells over synthetic nanocarriers encompass their biological origin which confers immune transparence, known biodegradability, high drug loading, relatively long half-life and a targeting capacity associated with their physiological surface functionality...
September 14, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914201/the-transport-mechanism-of-extracellular-vesicles-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#8
Junichi Matsumoto, Tessandra Stewart, William A Banks, Jing Zhang
Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs), like exosomes and microvesicles, have attracted attention as potent carriers of intercellular communication throughout the body, including the brain. They transmit biological signals from donor cells to recipient cells, and recent evidence suggests they may even carry such signals to distant destinations through peripheral circulation. In the central nervous system (CNS), EVs contribute to maintaining normal neuronal function, as well as to the pathological development of neurodegenerative diseases...
September 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912682/extracellular-vesicles-in-brain-tumors-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Federica Ciregia, Andrea Urbani, Giuseppe Palmisano
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be classified into apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs), and exosomes, based on their origin or size. Exosomes are the smallest and best characterized vesicles which derived from the endosomal system. These vesicles are released from many different cell types including neuronal cells and their functions in the nervous system are investigated. They have been proposed as novel means for intercellular communication, which takes part not only to the normal neuronal physiology but also to the transmission of pathogenic proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910348/the-effect-of-corn-trypsin-inhibitor-anti-tissue-factor-pathway-inhibitor-antibodies-and-phospholipids-on-microvesicle-associated-thrombin-generation-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-and-healthy-controls
#10
Marit Hellum, Isabel Franco-Lie, Reidun Øvstebø, Truls Hauge, Carola E Henriksson
Circulating microvesicles (MVs) are suggested to be important contributors to cancer-associated thrombosis due to the presence of surface-bound procoagulant molecules like tissue factor (TF) and phosphatidylserine (PS). Pancreatic cancer is considered to be one of the most prothrombotic malignancies. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of analytical variables on MV-associated thrombin generation in patients with pancreatic cancer and in healthy controls. MVs were isolated from citrated plasma and added to pooled normal plasma (PNP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903365/protective-effects-of-circulating-microvesicles-derived-from-myocardial-ischemic-rats-on-apoptosis-of-cardiomyocytes-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Yao Wang, Su Wei, Yi-Lu Wang, Miao Liu, Man Shang, Qi Zhang, Yan-Na Wu, Ming-Lin Liu, Jun-Qiu Song, Yan-Xia Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of circulating microvesicles derived from myocardial ischemia (I-MVs) on apoptosis in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: I-MVs from rats undergoing myocardial left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation were isolated by ultracentrifugation from circulating blood and characterized by flow cytometry. I-MVs were administered intravenously (4.8 mg/kg) at 5 min before reperfusion procedure in I/R injury model which was induced by 30-min of ischemia and 120-min of reperfusion of LAD in rats...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895353/-circulating-long-noncoding-rnas-as-biomarkers-in-tumor-diagnosis
#12
Nan Jiang, Haihua Tian, Jinchang Pan, Zhaohui Gong
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in vital life processes of gene expression, epigenetic regulation and X-chromosome inactivation. lncRNAs are also closely associated with tumor initiation and progression. Moreover, lncRNAs may enter human circulation system in the form of microvesicle or exosome, or in combination with RNA binding protein. Interestingly, the circulating lncRNAs are widely existed in body fluids, such as blood and urine. We review the origin of circulating lncRNAs, and the detection methods as potential biomarkers...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889977/novel-organelles-with-elements-of-bacterial-and-eukaryotic-secretion-systems-weaponize-parasites-of-drosophila
#13
Mary Ellen Heavner, Johnny Ramroop, Gwenaelle Gueguen, Girish Ramrattan, Georgia Dolios, Michael Scarpati, Jonathan Kwiat, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Rong Wang, Shaneen Singh, Shubha Govind
The evolutionary success of parasitoid wasps, a highly diverse group of insects widely used in biocontrol, depends on a variety of life history strategies in conflict with those of their hosts [1]. Drosophila melanogaster is a natural host of parasitic wasps of the genus Leptopilina. Attack by L. boulardi (Lb), a specialist wasp to flies of the melanogaster group, activates NF-κB-mediated humoral and cellular immunity. Inflammatory blood cells mobilize and encapsulate Lb eggs and embryos [2-5]. L. heterotoma (Lh), a generalist wasp, kills larval blood cells and actively suppresses immune responses...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886265/microvesicles-releasing-by-oral-cancer-cells-enhance-endothelial-cell-angiogenesis-via-shh-rhoa-signaling-pathway
#14
Xiao Huaitong, Feng Yuanyong, Tao Yueqin, Zhao Peng, Shang Wei, Song Kai
The present study aimed to investigate the significance of hedgehog signaling pathway in association with clinicopathology parameters and its effect on angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The expression of Sonic Hh (Shh) and Gli1 were done on primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes in OSCC samples from 80 patients by immunohistochemical analysis. The western blot was used to examine the expression of Shh in OSCC cell lines and OSCC-derived microvesicles (MVs). The role of Shh carried by MVs to induce endothelial cell angiogenesis was further investigated by matrigel assay...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878732/multiple-sclerosis-treatments-affect-monocyte-derived-microvesicle-production
#15
Maria Blonda, Antonella Amoruso, Roberta Grasso, Valeria Di Francescantonio, Carlo Avolio
Microvesicles (MVs) are released by immune cells especially of the myeloid lineage upon stimulation with ATP on its cognate receptor P2X7, both in physiological and pathological conditions. In multiple sclerosis (MS) the role of MVs remains little investigated. We aimed to compare the release of MVs in peripheral blood monocytes from MS patients with healthy donors (HDs) and to see how current MS treatment may affect such a production. We also assessed the treatment effect on M1 and M2 monocyte polarization and on the inflammasome components...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871391/hemofiltration-induces-generation-of-leukocyte-derived-cd31-cd41-microvesicles-in-sepsis
#16
Georg Franz Lehner, Ulrich Harler, Clemens Feistritzer, Viktoria Maria Haller, Julia Hasslacher, Romuald Bellmann, Michael Joannidis
BACKGROUND: Microvesicles (MV) are extracellular vesicles known to be associated with cellular activation and inflammation. Hemofiltration is an effective blood purification technique for patients with renal failure and possibly also eliminates inflammatory mediators in the setting of sepsis. On the other hand, proinflammatory stimuli are induced by blood contacting the artificial membrane during extracorporeal blood purification. In chronic dialysis patients a systemic increase in MV has been described...
September 4, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870888/cell-secreted-vesicles-containing-micrornas-as-regulators-of-gamete-maturation
#17
Juliano C da Silveira, Ana Clara F C M de Avila, Hannah L Garrett, Jason Bruemmer, Quinton Winger, Gerrit Bouma
Mammalian gamete maturation requires extensive signaling between germ cells and their surrounding somatic cells. In the ovary, theca cells, mural granulosa cells, cumulus cells and the oocyte all secrete factors throughout follicle growth and maturation that are critical for ovulation of a high quality oocyte with the competence to develop into an embryo. Similarly, maturation of sperm occurs as it transits the epididymis during which epididymal epithelium and sperm exchange secretory factors that are required for sperm to gain motility and fertility...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859399/microvesicles-released-during-the-interaction-between-trypanosoma-cruzi-tci-and-tcii-strains-and-host-blood-cells-inhibit-complement-system-and-increase-the-infectivity-of-metacyclic-forms-of-host-cells-in-a-strain-independent-process
#18
M P Wyllie, M I Ramirez
Extracellular vesicles, whether microvesicles (MVs) or exosomes, shed by pathogens transfer virulence factors and biomolecules to host cells, thereby altering the host's susceptibility to infection. We have previously demonstrated that MV release is increased during the interaction between the infective forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and host cells. MVs confer parasite resistance to complement-mediated lysis and enhance parasite invasion. In this study, we show that differences exist in the levels of MVs released during the interaction between metacyclic trypomastigotes of different T...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859128/plasma-microvesicle-analysis-identifies-microrna-129-5p-as-a-biomarker-of-heart-failure-in-univentricular-heart-disease
#19
Sweta Ramachandran, Alexander Lowenthal, Carissa Ritner, Shiri Lowenthal, Harold S Bernstein
Biomarkers of heart failure in adults have been extensively studied. However, biomarkers to monitor the progression of heart failure in children with univentricular physiology are less well understood. We proposed that as mediators of diverse pathophysiology, miRNAs contained within circulating microvesicles could serve as biomarkers for the presence and progression of heart failure in univentricular patients. To test this, we studied the association of heart failure with elevations in specific miRNAs isolated from circulating microvesicles in a cohort of children with univentricular heart disease and heart failure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858295/versatile-effects-of-bacterium-released-membrane-vesicles-on-mammalian-cells-and-infectious-inflammatory-diseases
#20
REVIEW
You-Jiang Yu, Xiao-Hong Wang, Guo-Chang Fan
Gram-negative bacterium-released outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) and Gram-positive bacterium-released membrane vesicles (MVs) share significant similarities with mammalian cell-derived MVs (eg, microvesicles and exosomes) in terms of structure and their biological activities. Recent studies have revealed that bacterial OMVs/MVs could (1) interact with immune cells to regulate inflammatory responses, (2) transport virulence factors (eg, enzymes, DNA and small RNAs) to host cells and result in cell injury, (3) enhance barrier function by stimulating the expression of tight junction proteins in intestinal epithelial cells, (4) upregulate the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, and (5) serve as natural nanocarriers for immunogenic antigens, enzyme support and drug delivery...
August 31, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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