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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339798/shedding-light-on-the-cell-biology-of-extracellular-vesicles
#1
REVIEW
Guillaume van Niel, Gisela D'Angelo, Graça Raposo
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures comprising exosomes and microvesicles, which originate from the endosomal system or which are shed from the plasma membrane, respectively. They are present in biological fluids and are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are now considered as an additional mechanism for intercellular communication, allowing cells to exchange proteins, lipids and genetic material. Knowledge of the cellular processes that govern extracellular vesicle biology is essential to shed light on the physiological and pathological functions of these vesicles as well as on clinical applications involving their use and/or analysis...
January 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328436/role-of-exosomes-and-exosomal-micrornas-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-potential-in-diagnosis-and-antitumour-treatments-review
#2
Jing-Hua Pan, Hong Zhou, Xiao-Xu Zhao, Hui Ding, Wei Li, Li Qin, Yun-Long Pan
Communication between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and their environment is essential for the development and progression of HCC. Exosomes, which are microvesicles secreted by a number of cell types, are carriers of intercellular information and regulate the tumour microenvironment. Studies have demonstrated that exosomes are involved in the communication between HCC cells, endothelial cells and stem cells, and that they serve important roles in the metastasis and invasion, immune evasion and immunotherapy of HCC...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327597/endothelial-cell-derived-microvesicles-potential-mediators-and-biomarkers-of-pathologic-processes
#3
Veronika Vítková, Jan Živný, Jan Janota
This review focuses on the formation, composition and function of endothelial microvesicles (MV), often called microparticles (MP). MV release is a controlled event and is considered a hallmark of cellular activation or alteration. MV may affect the function of target cells through surface interaction and receptor activation, cellular fusion and the delivery of intravesicular cargo. Endothelial MV are released as a consequence of endothelial activation during inflammation and have been described to affect hemostasis, various aspects of inflammatory reaction, vessel formation, apoptosis and cell survival, endothelial cell differentiation and function...
January 12, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324234/sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediates-the-therapeutic-effects-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-microvesicles-on-articular-cartilage-defect
#4
Chuan Xiang, Kun Yang, Zhiyong Liang, Yulong Wan, Yanwei Cheng, Dong Ma, Heng Zhang, Weiyu Hou, Panfeng Fu
Microvesicles (MVs) are emerging as a new mechanism of intercellular communication by transferring cellular components to target cells, yet their function in disease is just being explored. However, the therapeutic effects of MVs in cartilage injury and degeneration remain unknown. We found MVs contained high levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) compared with the original bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The enrichment of S1P in MVs was mediated by sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), but not by sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2)...
December 15, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321591/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-changes-cargo-composition-of-exosome-released-from-airway-epithelial-cells
#5
Harendra Singh Chahar, Tiziana Corsello, Andrzej S Kudlicki, Narayana Komaravelli, Antonella Casola
Exosomes are microvesicles known to carry biologically active molecules, including RNA, DNA and proteins. Viral infections can induce profound changes in exosome composition, and exosomes have been implicated in viral transmission and pathogenesis. No information is current available regarding exosome composition and function during infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. In this study, we characterized exosomes released from RSV-infected lung carcinoma-derived A549 cells...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319164/microvesicles-intercellular-messengers-in-cutaneous-wound-healing
#6
REVIEW
Alexandra Laberge, Syrine Arif, Véronique J Moulin
Longtime considered as inert cellular debris, microvesicles (MVs) have gained tremendous attention in the past decade. MVs are 100-1000 nm vesicles released into the extracellular environment by the outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. They are now regarded as essential mediators of cell-to-cell interactions in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we discuss the increasingly recognized contribution of MVs to the biology of wound healing. We highlight current concepts relating to the biogenesis and mode of action of MVs...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317705/pneumolysin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-leads-to-release-of-mitochondrial-dna
#7
Andreas Nerlich, Maren Mieth, Eleftheria Letsiou, Diana Fatykhova, Katja Zscheppang, Aki Imai-Matsushima, Thomas F Meyer, Lisa Paasch, Timothy J Mitchell, Mario Tönnies, Torsten T Bauer, Paul Schneider, Jens Neudecker, Jens C Rückert, Stephan Eggeling, Maria Schimek, Martin Witzenrath, Norbert Suttorp, Stefan Hippenstiel, Andreas C Hocke
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pn.) is the most common bacterial pathogen causing community acquired pneumonia. The pore-forming toxin pneumolysin (PLY) is the major virulence factor of S.pn. and supposed to affect alveolar epithelial cells thereby activating the immune system by liberation of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP). To test this hypothesis, we established a novel live-cell imaging based assay to analyse mitochondrial function and associated release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as DAMP in real-time...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316665/towards-comprehension-of-the-abcb1-p-glycoprotein-role-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#8
REVIEW
Raquel C Maia, Flavia C Vasconcelos, Paloma S Souza, Vivian M Rumjanek
Abstract: The introduction of imatinib (IM), a BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has represented a significant advance in the first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, approximately 30% of patients need to discontinue IM due to resistance or intolerance to this drug. Both resistance and intolerance have also been observed in treatment with the second-generation TKIs-dasatinib, nilotinib, and bosutinib-and the third-generation TKI-ponatinib. The mechanisms of resistance to TKIs may be BCR-ABL1-dependent and/or BCR-ABL1-independent...
January 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316215/oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-in-inflammation-driven-thrombosis
#9
Georg Obermayer, Taras Afonyushkin, Christoph J Binder
Thrombosis is the defining feature of the most prevalent causes of cardiovascular mortality, such as myocardial infarction, stroke and pulmonary artery embolism. While platelet activation as well as activation of the plasmatic coagulation system are the hallmarks of thrombus formation, inflammatory processes and the cellular responses involved are increasingly recognized as critical modulators of thrombosis. In the context of many chronic inflammatory diseases that are associated with a high thrombotic risk, oxidized lipoproteins represent a prominent sterile trigger of inflammation...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306934/gliotransmitters-and-cytokines-in-the-control-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#10
REVIEW
Elena D Osipova, Oxana V Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Andrey V Morgun, Natalia V Pisareva, Natalia A Malinovskaya, Elizaveta B Boitsova, Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga A Belova, Vladimir V Salmin, Tatiana E Taranushenko, Mami Noda, Alla B Salmina
The contribution of astrocytes and microglia to the regulation of neuroplasticity or neurovascular unit (NVU) is based on the coordinated secretion of gliotransmitters and cytokines and the release and uptake of metabolites. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and angiogenesis are influenced by perivascular cells contacting with the abluminal side of brain microvessel endothelial cells (pericytes, astrocytes) or by immune cells existing (microglia) or invading the NVU (macrophages) under pathologic conditions...
January 8, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306575/mouse-models-of-cancer-associated-thrombosis
#11
Yohei Hisada, Nigel Mackman
Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with the general population. Mouse models are used to better understand the mechanisms of cancer-associated thrombosis. Several mouse models of cancer-associated thrombosis have been developed that use different mouse strains, tumors, tumor sites and thrombosis models. In this review, we summarize these different models. These models have been used to determine the role of different pathways in cancer-associated thrombosis. For instance, they have revealed roles for tumor-derived tissue factor-positive microvesicles and neutrophil extracellular traps in thrombosis in tumor-bearing mice...
December 29, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305855/microglia-derived-extracellular-vesicles-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-double-edged-sword
#12
REVIEW
Teresa Trotta, Maria Antonietta Panaro, Antonia Cianciulli, Giorgio Mori, Adriana Di Benedetto, Chiara Porro
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), based on their origin or size, can be classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs)/microparticles (MPs), and exosomes. EVs are one of the new emerging modes of communication between cells that are providing new insights into the pathophysiology of several diseases. EVs released from activated or apoptotic cells contain specific proteins (signaling molecules, receptors, integrins, cytokines), bioactive lipids, nucleic acids (mRNA, miRNA, small non coding RNAs, DNA) from their progenitor cells...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305843/circulating-microparticles-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-diabetic-kidney-disease-a-case-control-research
#13
Kathryna Fontana Rodrigues, Nathalia Teixeira Pietrani, Ana Paula Fernandes, Adriana Aparecida Bosco, Maira Cândida Rodrigues de Sousa, Ieda de Fátima Oliveira Silva, Josianne Nicácio Silveira, Fernanda Magalhães Freire Campos, Karina Braga Gomes
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with chronic lowgrade inflammation. Microparticles (MPs) are extracellular microvesicles released during apoptosis and cellular activation. The MP's pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory activities are involved in endothelial dysfunction observed in T2DM patients. This study aimed to evaluate the circulating MPs profile in T2DM patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and correlate it with clinical and laboratorial parameters. METHODS: MPs derived from platelets (PMPs), leukocytes (LMPs), endothelial cells (EMPs), and expressing tissue factor (TFMPs) were measured by flow cytometry, in plasma of 39 DKD patients and 30 non-diabetic controls...
January 3, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304816/extracellular-vesicles-as-mediators-of-the-progression-and-chemoresistance-of-pancreatic-cancer-and-their-potential-clinical-applications
#14
REVIEW
Jiangdong Qiu, Gang Yang, Mengyu Feng, Suli Zheng, Zhe Cao, Lei You, Lianfang Zheng, Taiping Zhang, Yupei Zhao
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide due to its insidious symptoms, early metastasis, and chemoresistance. Hence, the underlying mechanisms contributing to pancreatic cancer progression require further exploration. Based on accumulating evidence, extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer progression and chemoresistance. Furthermore, they also possess the potential to be promising biomarkers, therapy targets and tools for treating pancreatic cancer...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298690/ambient-air-pollution-and-thrombosis
#15
REVIEW
Sarah Robertson, Mark R Miller
Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity...
January 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258963/secretory-micrornas-as-biomarkers-of-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Kazuharu Kai, Rachel L Dittmar, Subrata Sen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression predominantly by inhibiting transcription and/or promoting degradation of target mRNAs also in addition to being involved in non-canonical mechanisms regulating transcription, translation and cell signaling processes. Extracellular secretory miRNAs, either in complex with specific proteins or encapsulated in microvesicles called exosomes, are transported between cells as means of intercellular communication. Secretory miRNAs in circulation remain functional after delivery to recipient cells, regulating target genes and their corresponding signaling pathways...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234666/technical-advances-to-study-extracellular-vesicles
#17
REVIEW
Paula Carpintero-Fernández, Juan Fafián-Labora, Ana O'Loghlen
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous and dynamic group of lipid bilayer membrane nanoparticles that can be classified into three different groups depending on their cellular origin: exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. They are produced by different cell types and can be isolated from almost all body fluids. EVs contain a variety of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and metabolites which regulate a number of biological and pathological scenarios both locally and systemically. Different techniques have been described in order to determine EV isolation, release, uptake, and cargo...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230885/intercellular-transfer-of-microvesicles-from-young-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-rejuvenates-aged-murine-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#18
Rohan Kulkarni, Manmohan Bajaj, Suprita Ghode, Sapana Jalnapurkar, Lalita Limaye, Vaijayanti Kale
Donor age is one of the major concerns in Bone Marrow Transplantation, as the aged hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) fail to engraft efficiently. Here, using murine system we show that a brief interaction of aged HSCs with young mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) rejuvenates them and restores their functionality via inter-cellular transfer of microvesicles (MVs) containing autophagy-related mRNAs. Importantly, we show that MSCs gain activated AKT signaling as a function of aging. Activated AKT reduces the levels of autophagy-related mRNAs in their MVs, and partitions miR-17 and miR-34a into their exosomes, which upon transfer into HSCs down-regulate their autophagy-inducing mRNAs...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230269/extracellular-vesicles-from-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-downregulate-senescence-features-in-osteoarthritic-osteoblasts
#19
Miguel Tofiño-Vian, Maria Isabel Guillén, María Dolores Pérez Del Caz, Miguel Angel Castejón, Maria José Alcaraz
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects all articular tissues leading to pain and disability. The dysregulation of bone metabolism may contribute to the progression of this condition. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) are attractive candidates in the search of novel strategies for OA treatment and exert anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects on cartilage. Chronic inflammation in OA is a relevant factor in the development of cellular senescence and joint degradation. In this study, we extend our previous observations of ASC paracrine effects to study the influence of conditioned medium and extracellular vesicles from ASC on senescence induced by inflammatory stress in OA osteoblasts...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228388/caspase-inhibition-reduces-hepatic-tissue-factor-driven-coagulation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Anna K Kopec, Alfred P Spada, Patricia C Contreras, Nigel Mackman, James P Luyendyk
Tissue factor (TF) is the primary activator of the blood coagulation cascade. Liver parenchymal cells (i.e., hepatocytes) express TF in a molecular state that lacks procoagulant activity. Hepatocyte apoptosis is an important feature of acute and chronic liver diseases, and Fas-induced apoptosis increases hepatocyte TF procoagulant activity in vitro. We determined the impact of a pan-caspase inhibitor, IDN-7314, on hepatocyte TF activity in vitro and TF-mediated coagulation in vivo. Treatment of primary mouse hepatocytes with the Fas death receptor ligand (Jo2, 0...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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