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Maternal mortality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792231/high-burden-of-birthweight-lowering-genetic-variants-in-africans-and-asians
#1
Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Azmeraw T Amare
BACKGROUND: Birthweight is an important predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes in childhood and adulthood. Birthweight and fetal growth show regional and population variations even under similar maternal conditions, and a large proportion of these differences are not explained by environmental factors. Whether and to what extent population genetic variations at key birthweight-associated loci account for the residual birthweight disparities not explained by environmental determinants is unknown...
May 24, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792103/prolonged-use-of-antibiotics-after-birth-is-associated-with-increased-morbidity-in-preterm-infants-with-negative-cultures
#2
C Fajardo, B Alshaikh, A Harabor
BACKGROUND: Most preterm infants are exposed to a variable duration of antibiotic therapy after birth despite negative cultures. Data is emerging about the risks of prolonged antibiotics. We sought to assess the association between length of initial antibiotic course and neonatal outcomes in a cohort from a single large perinatal centre. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data on all infants with a birth weight of less than 1250 g hospitalized in our NICU in a 4-year window and who had negative blood and CSF cultures in the first 2 days of life...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791441/the-impact-of-young-maternal-age-at-birth-on-neonatal-mortality-evidence-from-45-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Sarah Neal, Andrew Amos Channon, Jesman Chintsanya
OBJECTIVES: This study explores the impact of early motherhood on neonatal mortality, and how this differs between countries and regions. It assesses whether the risk of neonatal mortality is greater for younger adolescent mothers compared with mothers in later adolescence, and explores if differences reflect confounding socio-economic and health care utilisation factors. It also examines how the risks differ for first or subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: The analysis uses 64 Demographic and Health Surveys collected between 2005 and 2015 from 45 countries to explore the relationship between adolescent motherhood (disaggregated as <16 years, 16/17 years and 18/19 years) and neonatal mortality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790920/elucidating-the-role-of-the-maternal-embryonic-leucine-zipper-kinase-melk-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#4
Katja Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Yu Zhang, Adwitiya Kar, Raud Razzaghi, Mei Xu, Katherine Gowan, Christopher D Raeburn, Maria Albuja-Cruz, Kenneth L Jones, Hilary Somerset, Lauren Fishbein, Stephen Leong, Margaret E Wierman
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive cancer with a five-year survival less than 35%. Mortality remains high due to lack of targeted therapies. Using bioinformatic analyses, we identified Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase (MELK) as 4.1-fold overexpressed in ACC compared to normal adrenal samples. High MELK expression in human tumors correlated with shorter survival and with increased expression of genes involved in cell division and growth. We investigated the functional effects of MELK inhibition using newly developed ACC cell lines with variable MELK expression, CU-ACC1 and CU-ACC2, compared with H295R cells...
May 21, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789058/prevention-and-treatment-of-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-preterm-neonates
#5
Christopher McPherson, Jennifer A Wambach
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) impacts a high proportion of preterm neonates, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Advances in pharmacotherapy, specifically antenatal corticosteroids and postnatal surfactant therapy, have significantly reduced the incidence and impact of neonatal RDS. Antenatal corticosteroids accelerate fetal lung maturation by increasing the activity of enzymes responsible for surfactant biosynthesis, resulting in improved lung compliance. Maternal antenatal corticosteroid treatment has improved survival of preterm neonates and lowered the incidence of brain injury...
May 1, 2018: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786509/-targeted-screening-for-pre-eclampsia-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-at-toulouse-university-hospital
#6
A Genoux, P Guerby, M Morin, B Perret, C Vayssière, S M Hamdi
GOALS: Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Early treatment by aspirin has been shown to significantly reduce PE risk before 37weeks supporting the implementation of first-trimester screening. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A targeted screening was recently implemented at Toulouse University Hospital for women in their first pregnancy or those with personal or familial history of PE. It uses Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) algorithm that combines maternal characteristics, clinical, biophysical and biochemical (PAPP-A, Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A, and PlGF, Placental Growth Factor) data...
May 18, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786159/gestational-dyslipidaemia-and-adverse-birthweight-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
J Wang, D Moore, A Subramanian, K K Cheng, K A Toulis, X Qiu, P Saravanan, M J Price, K Nirantharakumar
BACKGROUND: Low and high birthweight is known to increase the risk of acute and longer-term adverse outcomes, such as stillbirth, infant mortality, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Gestational dyslipidaemia is associated with a numbers of adverse birth outcomes, but evidence regarding birthweight is still inconsistent to reliably inform clinical practice and treatment recommendations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between maternal gestational dyslipidaemia and neonatal health outcomes, namely, birthweight, metabolic factors and inflammatory parameters...
May 21, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785960/reduction-in-regulatory-t-cells-in-early-pregnancy-causes-uterine-artery-dysfunction-in-mice
#8
Alison S Care, Stephane L Bourque, Jude S Morton, Emma P Hjartarson, Sarah A Robertson, Sandra T Davidge
Preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and miscarriage remain important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These complications are associated with reduced numbers of a specialized T lymphocyte subset called regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the maternal circulation, decidua, and placenta. Treg cells suppress inflammation and prevent maternal immunity toward the fetus, which expresses foreign paternal alloantigens. Treg cells are demonstrated to contribute to vascular homeostasis, but whether Treg cells influence the vascular adaptations essential for a healthy pregnancy is unknown...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785142/misoprostol-for-the-prevention-of-postpartum-hemorrhage-during-home-births-in-rural-lao-pdr-establishing-a-pilot-program-for-community-distribution
#9
Jo Durham, Alongkone Phengsavanh, Vanphanom Sychareun, Isaac Hose, Viengnakhone Vongxay, Douangphachanh Xaysomphou, Keith Rickart
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gather the necessary data to support the design and implementation of a pilot program for women who are unable to deliver in a healthcare facility in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), by using community distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). The study builds on an earlier research that demonstrated both support and need for community-based distribution of misoprostol in Lao PDR. Methods: This qualitative study identified acceptability of misoprostol and healthcare system needs at varying levels to effectively distribute misoprostol to women with limited access to facility-based birthing...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783963/he-tamariki-kokoti-tau-tackling-preterm-a-data-linkage-methodology-to-explore-the-clinical-care-pathway-in-preterm-deliveries
#10
Sara Filoche, Fiona Cram, Angela Beard, Dalice Sim, Stacie Geller, Liza Edmonds, Bridget Robson, Beverley Lawton
BACKGROUND: Significant health inequities exist around maternal and infant health for Māori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand - and in particular around a premature (preterm) delivery. Māori babies are more likely to be born preterm (8.1%, compared to an overall rate of 7.4%) and they are more likely to have a preterm death. An essential part of redressing these disparities is to examine the clinical care pathway and outcomes associated with preterm deliveries. This paper describes a protocol utilising national and local health collections to enable such a study...
May 21, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782696/routine-antenatal-ultrasound-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-first-look-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#11
Robert L Goldenberg, Robert O Nathan, David Swanson, Sarah Saleem, Waseem Mirza, Fabian Esamai, David Muyodi, Ana L Garces, Lester Figueroa, Elwyn Chomba, Melody Chiwala, Musaku Mwenechanya, Antoinette Tshefu, Adrien Lokangako, Victor Lokomba Bolamba, Janet L Moore, Holly Franklin, Jonathan Swanson, Edward A Liechty, Carl L Bose, Nancy F Krebs, K Michael Hambidge, Waldemar A Carlo, Nancy Kanaiza, Farnaz Naqvi, Irma Sayury Pineda, Walter López-Gomez, Dorothy Hamsumonde, Margo S Harrison, Marion Koso-Thomas, Menachem Miodovnik, Dennis D Wallace, Elizabeth M McClure
OBJECTIVE: Ultrasound is widely regarded as an important adjunct to antenatal care (ANC) to guide practice and reduce perinatal mortality. We assessed the impact of ANC ultrasound use at health centers in resource-limited countries. DESIGN: Cluster randomized trial. SETTING: Clusters within five countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia). METHODS: Clusters were randomized to standard ANC or standard care plus two ultrasounds and referral for complications...
May 21, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781684/husbands-participation-in-birth-preparedness-and-complication-readiness-and-associated-factors-in-wolaita-sodo-town-southern-ethiopia
#12
Minyahil Tadesse, Andualem T Boltena, Benedict O Asamoah
BACKGROUND:  The poor emphasis on the role of husbands in birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) is a major factor that should be addressed in tackling maternal mortality. AIM:  To assess the level of husbands' participation in BPCR and associated factors. SETTING:  Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS:  A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 608 husbands of pregnant women and nursing mothers...
April 11, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781540/clinical-significance-of-platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-women-with-preeclampsia
#13
Min-A Kim, Gwan Hee Han, Ja-Young Kwon, Young-Han Kim
PROBLEM: Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious pregnancy complication leading to high maternal, perinatal morbidity, and mortality. We aimed to investigate the clinical effectiveness of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in women with PE and compare this measurement to platelet indices as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of PE. METHOD OF STUDY: A total of 471 healthy pregnant women, 126 women diagnosed with mild PE, and 227 with severe PE were included in this retrospective study...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781078/prediction-of-preeclampsia-developing-at-term
#14
Iulia Huluta, Anca Maria Panaitescu
Preterm preeclampsia (PE), occurring at < 37 weeks' gestation, can be predicted from as early as 11-13 weeks and prevented with the use of aspirin. In contrast, term PE, which is more common than preterm-PE and it can be associated with important maternal morbidity and mortality, cannot be effectively predicted at 11-13 weeks and cannot be prevented by the prophy-lactic use of aspirin. This paper briefly reviews the pathogenesis of term PE and discusses strategies available for its prediction.
2018: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780812/characteristics-of-mobile-phone-access-and-usage-in-rural-and-urban-guatemala-assessing-feasibility-of-text-message-reminders-to-increase-childhood-immunizations
#15
Gretchen J Domek, Ingrid L Contreras-Roldan, Edwin J Asturias, Michael Bronsert, Guillermo Antonio Bolaños Ventura, Sean T O'Leary, Allison Kempe, Sheana Bull
Background: Despite efforts to promote vaccination in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), over 20 million infants remain under-immunized and at risk for unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Mobile health technologies, such as Short Message Service (SMS) texts, have tremendous and untapped potential for disease management. Patient reminder systems are an important mechanism for improving childhood vaccination coverage and can be easily adapted to SMS platforms. However, current research lacks an understanding of the barriers and facilitators to mHealth program design, implementation, and scale in LMICs...
2018: MHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780770/conceptualized-framework-for-levels-of-obstetric-care
#16
REVIEW
So Yeon Kweon, Seung Mi Lee
It has been demonstrated that risk-appropriate perinatal and obstetric care can improve perinatal morbidity and mortality. Recently, various studies focus on the importance of evaluation for maternal conditions and allocation of high risk pregnant women to highly qualified facilities. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the conceptualized framework for levels of obstetric care and establish the guidelines for the situations that should be cared in each level of facility. In this review article, we reviewed several classifications of obstetric care in eastern and western countries, and conditions in which transfer should be recommended depending on the risk and capacity of centers...
May 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778968/environmental-risk-factors-associated-with-low-birth-weight-the-case-study-of-the-haifa-bay-area-in-israel
#17
Alina Svechkina, Jonathan Dubnov, Boris A Portnov
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is known to be associated with infant mortality and postnatal health complications. Previous studies revealed strong relationships between LBW rate and several socio-demographic factors, including ethnicity, maternal age, and family income. However, studies of association between LBW rate and environmental risk factors remain infrequent. STUDY METHODS: We retrieved a geo-referenced data set, containing 7216 individual records of children born in 2015 in the Haifa Bay Area in Israel...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778808/maternal-treatment-with-a-placental-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-impacts-offspring-cardiovascular-function-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-hypoxia
#18
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Raven Kirschenman, Tom Phillips, C Patrick Case, Christy-Lynn M Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction, a common consequence of prenatal hypoxia, is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality with a significant impact on population health. Hypoxia may increase placental oxidative stress and lead to an abnormal release of placental-derived factors, which are emerging as potential contributors to developmental programming. Nanoparticle-linked drugs are emerging as a novel method to deliver therapeutics targeted to the placenta and avoid risking direct exposure to the fetus...
May 17, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777348/the-effect-of-labor-epidural-analgesia-on-maternal-fetal-outcomes-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Qian Wang, Sheng-Xing Zheng, Yu-Fei Ni, Yuan-Yuan Lu, Bing Zhang, Qing-Quan Lian, Ming-Pin Hu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of labor epidural analgesia on maternal-fetal safety outcomes in a signal Chinese academic medical center. METHODS: A single-intervention impact study was conducted at The Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University. The study period was divided into three phases: (1) baseline phase: from January 1 and June 30, 2009 when no analgesic method was routinely employed during labor; (2) phase-in period: the epidural analgesia was implemented 8 a...
May 18, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777093/estimating-child-mortality-rate-and-its-trend-in-hamadan-province-western-iran-from-1990-to-2016-implications-for-sustainable-development-goal
#20
Younes Mohammadi, Rashid Heidarimoghadam, Bistoon Hosseini, Mohammad Babamiri, Azita Nikravesh, Masoumeh Javaheri, Babak Moeini
BACKGROUND: Child mortality is one of the major health indices and the main targets in sustainable development goals. This study aimed to estimate child mortality rate and assess the progress toward sustainable development goals in Hamadan Province, western Iran and its districts from 1990 to 2016. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: We used two data sources including death registration system (DRS) and summary birth history data (SBH) of 2010 census for estimating child mortality rate...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
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