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Julie Massart, Rasmus J O Sjögren, Leonidas S Lundell, Jonathan M Mudry, Niclas Franck, Donal J O'Gorman, Brendan Egan, Juleen R Zierath, Anna Krook
MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism in several tissues, however, their role in skeletal muscle remains poorly characterized. We determined the effects of the miR-29 family on glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle. We provide evidence that miR-29a and miR-29c are increased in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients and decreased following endurance training in healthy young men and in rats. In primary human skeletal muscle cells, inhibition and overexpression strategies demonstrate that miR-29a and miR-29c regulate glucose uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism...
April 12, 2017: Diabetes
Sumanta Ray, Ujjwal Maulik
Microarray analysis based on gene coexpression is widely used to investigate the coregulation pattern of a group (or cluster) of genes in a specific phenotype condition. Recent approaches go one step beyond and look for differential coexpression pattern, wherein there exists a significant difference in coexpression pattern between two phenotype conditions. These changes of coexpression patterns generally arise due to significant change in regulatory mechanism across different conditions governed by natural progression of diseases...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
Parisa Habibi, Alireza Alihemmati, Mohammadreza Nasirzadeh, Hadi Yousefi, Mohammadrasoul Habibi, Nasser Ahmadiasl
OBJECTIVES: Menopause and diabetes obviously increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in type 2 diabetes on the histology and expression of miRNA-29, miRNA-133, IGF-1 and Bcl-2 genes and Bcl-2 protein and caspase 3 activity in the hearts of female rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, sham, ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized with type 2 diabetes (OVX...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
N Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, K Apostolakis-Kyrus, R Krutilina, G Hubbard, M Kocak, Z Janjetovic, S Sathanandam, A T Slominski, G Mari, E Dick
BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnancy (MO) is a risk factor for maternal and/or fetal cardiovascular system disorders. This study evaluated maternal CVS expression of microRNA-29 family and its target molecules in MO to test the hypotheses: CVS miR-29 concentrations are increased in pregnancy and decreased in MO. METHODS: Non-pregnant (n=4), pregnant obese (POb, n=4), and pregnant non-obese (PnOb, n=4) baboons (Papio spp.) were studied. Maternal left ventricle (LV), left atrium (LA), and aortic arch (AA) were collected at the end of gestation...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Primatology
Yu Zhou, Xu Wang, Li Sun, Li Zhou, Tong-Cui Ma, Li Song, Jian-Guo Wu, Jie-Liang Li, Wen-Zhe Ho
Exosomes are a class of cell-released small vesicles that mediate intercellular communication by delivering functional factors to recipient cells. During hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the interaction between liver resident macrophages and hepatocytes is a key component in liver innate immunity. In this study, we explored the role of exosomes in the delivery of innate anti-HCV factors to hepatocytes from macrophages. We showed that supernatant from TLR3-activated macrophage cultures could efficiently inhibit HCV replication in Huh7 cells...
December 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
J L Chen, Y Su, F Wang
The pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is still unclear. The trabecular meshwork (TM) plays an important role for regulation of aqueous humor outflow. The alteration of morphology, structure of TM cells and expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components contribute to the abnormal increase of outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Recently, it has been confirmed that a variety of microRNA (miRNA) such as miRNA-29, 24, 200c and so on were expressed in TM tissue and different miRNA can affect the TM function and the synthesis of ECM in different ways...
June 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Erica E Marsh, Marissa L Steinberg, J Brandon Parker, Ju Wu, Debabrata Chakravarti, Serdar E Bulun
OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression and function of the microRNA-29 family (miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b, miRNA-29c) in human leiomyoma and myometrium. DESIGN: Basic science experimental design. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing surgery for symptomatic uterine fibroids. INTERVENTION(S): Overexpression and knockdown of miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b, and miRNA-29c in primary leiomyoma and myometrial cells...
September 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Bodo C Melnik
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within intron 1 of the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) gene are associated with enhanced FTO expression, increased body weight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The N (6) -methyladenosine (m(6)A) demethylase FTO plays a pivotal regulatory role for postnatal growth and energy expenditure. The purpose of this review is to provide translational evidence that links milk signaling with FTO-activated transcription of the milk recipient. FTO-dependent demethylation of m(6)A regulates mRNA splicing required for adipogenesis, increases the stability of mRNAs, and affects microRNA (miRNA) expression and miRNA biosynthesis...
December 21, 2015: Journal of Translational Medicine
Takeo Fukuzumi, Asako Murata, Haruo Aikawa, Yasue Harada, Kazuhiko Nakatani
The metabolic stream of microRNA (miRNA) production, the so-called maturation process of miRNAs, became one of important metabolic paths for drug-targeting to modulate the expression of genes related to a number of diseases. We carried out discovery studies on small molecules binding to the precursor of miR-29a (pre-miR-29a) from a chemical library containing 41,119 compounds (AQ library) by the fluorescent indicator displacement (FID) assay using the xanthone derivative X2SdiMe as a fluorescent indicator. The FID assay provided 1075 compounds, which showed an increase of fluorescence...
November 16, 2015: Chemistry: a European Journal
Takashi Tomiyama, Guo-Xiang Yang, Ming Zhao, Weici Zhang, Hajime Tanaka, Jing Wang, Patrick Sc Leung, Kazuichi Okazaki, Xiao-Song He, Qianjin Lu, Ross L Coppel, Christopher L Bowlus, M Eric Gershwin
Exosomes are nanoparticles of endocytic origin, secreted by a myriad of cell populations that are attracting increased attention by virtue of their ability to modulate cell-to-cell communications. They are also attracting attention in a variety of immunological issues, including autoimmunity and, in particular, their ability to regulate cytokine and chemokine activation. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease, which has a highly focused cytotoxic response against biliary epithelial cells...
March 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Jia Liu, Cheng Ye, Wei Liu, Wei Zhao, Ya-Jing Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hao Ying
As an activator of AMPK, the effect of AICAR on insulin signaling has not been investigated extensively. PI3K-Akt is a critical node involved in the insulin signaling pathway. We observed that concomitant with the activation of AMPK by AICAR, the protein level of PI3K p85α and the insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt were enhanced in mouse primary hepatocytes. Previously, we identified a group of AMPK-regulated miRNAs in hepatocytes. It is not clear whether miRNAs are related to the regulation of insulin signaling by AMPK...
August 12, 2015: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Leandra Linhares-Lacerda, Cintia Cristina Palu, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Bruno Diaz Paredes, Alexandre Morrot, Maria Rosa Garcia-Silva, Alfonso Cayota, Wilson Savino
A common feature seen in acute infections is a severe atrophy of the thymus. This occurs in the murine model of acute Chagas disease. Moreover, in thymuses from Trypanosoma cruzi acutely infected mice, thymocytes exhibit an increase in the density of fibronectin and laminin integrin-type receptors, with an increase in migratory response ex vivo. Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) play a major role in the intrathymic T cell differentiation. To date, the consequences of molecular changes promoted by parasite infection upon thymus have not been elucidated...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
J L Li, J Cui, D Y Cheng
Highly conserved endogenous non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plants and animals by silencing genes via destruction or blocking of translation of homologous mRNA. Sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, is one of the most important sugar crops in China, with properties that include wide adaptability and strong tolerance to salinity and impoverished soils. Seedlings of B. vulgaris can grow in soils containing up to 0.6% salt; it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance to enrich genetic resources for breeding salt-tolerant sugar beets...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Rongrong Jing, Wen Chen, Huimin Wang, Shaoqing Ju, Hui Cong, Baolan Sun, Qin Jin, Shaopeng Chu, Lili Xu, Ming Cui
The receptor for advanced-glycation end products (RAGE) is upregulated in various cancers and has been associated with tumor progression, but little is known about its expression and regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Here, we describe miR-185, which represses RAGE expression, and investigate the biological role of miR-185 in ESCC. In this study, we found that the high level of RAGE expression in 29 pairs of paraffin-embedded ESCC tissues was correlated positively with the depth of invasion by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that RAGE was involved in ESCC...
November 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
J A Deiuliis
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in developed and developing countries has greatly increased the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is evident from human and animal studies that obesity alters microRNA (miRNA) expression in metabolically important organs, and that miRNAs are involved in changes to normal physiology, acting as mediators of disease. miRNAs regulate multiple pathways including insulin signaling, immune-mediated inflammation, adipokine expression, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and food intake regulation...
January 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Xiaolu Wang, Danqing Yin, Peng Li, Shaowu Yin, Li Wang, Yihe Jia, Xinhua Shu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional repression of mRNAs. Recently, several miRNAs have been confirmed to execute directly or indirectly osmoregulatory functions in fish via translational control. In order to clarify whether miRNAs play relevant roles in the osmoregulation of Anguilla marmorata, three sRNA libraries of A. marmorata during adjusting to three various salinities were sequenced by Illumina sRNA deep sequencing methods...
2015: PloS One
Shaobo Zhang, Xiaoxi Ouyang, Xin Jiang, Dayong Gu, Yulong Lin, S K Kong, Weidong Xie
OBJECTIVES: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in pathogen-host interactions. Aberrant miRNA expression profiles might have specific characteristics for virus strains, and could serve as noninvasive biomarkers for screening and diagnosing infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed to find new potential miRNA biomarkers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Expression levels of broad-spectrum miRNAs in serum samples from 10 patients with HCV viremia and 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed using miRNA PCR arrays...
2015: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Toshihiro Nakao, Takashi Iwata, Masanori Hotchi, Kozo Yoshikawa, Jun Higashijima, Masaaki Nishi, Chie Takasu, Shohei Eto, Hiroki Teraoku, Mitsuo Shimada
Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, no specific biomarker has been identified to predict a response to preoperative CRT. The aim of the present study was to assess the gene expression patterns of patients with advanced rectal cancer to predict their responses to preoperative CRT. Fifty-nine rectal cancer patients were subjected to preoperative CRT. Patients were randomly assigned to receive CRT with tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (S-1 group, n=30) or tegafur-uracil (UFT group, n=29)...
October 2015: Oncology Reports
Guangde Zhang, Hongbo Shi, Lin Wang, Meng Zhou, Zhenzhen Wang, Xiaoxia Liu, Liang Cheng, Weimin Li, Xueqi Li
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe coronary artery disease and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of MI have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we compiled MI-related genes, MI-related microRNAs (miRNAs) and known human transcription factors (TFs), and we then identified 1,232 feed-forward loops (FFLs) among these miRNAs, TFs and their co-regulated target genes through integrating target prediction. By merging these FFLs, the first miRNA and TF mediated regulatory network for MI was constructed, from which four regulators (SP1, ESR1, miR-21-5p and miR-155-5p) and three regulatory modules that might play crucial roles in MI were then identified...
2015: PloS One
Yudong Zhang, Shenghua Zhou
Secreted Slit glycoproteins and their Roundabout (Robo) receptors have been identified as important axon guidance molecules. The pivotal role of Slit‑Robo signaling is in regulating cell proliferation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non‑coding RNAs, function as critical regulators of gene expression by binding to the 3'‑untranslated region of mRNAs and causing mRNA degradation or translational repression. The present study demonstrated that downregulation of Robo1 using small interfering RNA inhibited mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation...
October 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
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