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Francesco Catapano, Joana Domingos, Mark Perry, Valeria Ricotti, Lauren Phillips, Laurent Servais, Andreea Seferian, Imelda de Groot, Yvonne D Krom, Erik H Niks, Jan Jgm Verschuuren, Volker Straub, Thomas Voit, Jennifer Morgan, Francesco Muntoni
AIM: To study the signature of 87 urinary miRNAs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, select the most dysregulated and determine statistically significant differences in their expression between controls, ambulant (A) and nonambulant (NA) DMD patients, and patients on different corticosteroid regimens. Patients/materials & methods: Urine was collected from control (n = 20), A (n = 31) and NA (n = 23) DMD patients. miRNA expression was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR...
March 22, 2018: Epigenomics
Phimon Atsawasuwan, Paul Lazari, Yinghua Chen, Xiaofeng Zhou, Grace Viana, Carla A Evans
Secretory microRNAs (miRNAs) have been used increasingly as biomarkers for cancers, autoimmune diseases and inflammatory diseases. They are reported as being freely circulated or encapsulated in microvesicles such as exosomes. This study was performed to elucidate the presence of miRNAs with exosomes in human gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and the expression profile of miRNA-29 during orthodontic tooth movement. Four healthy volunteer and fifteen orthodontic patients were enrolled in the study. Secretory miRNA in GCF was collected and analyzed using a bioanalyzer, realtime PCR and Western blot analysis...
2018: PloS One
Le Guo, Xi-Qiu Xu, Li Zhou, Run-Hong Zhou, Xu Wang, Jie-Liang Li, Jin-Biao Liu, Hang Liu, Biao Zhang, Wen-Zhe Ho
As a rich source of CD4+ T cells and macrophages, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a major target site for HIV infection. The interplay between GI-resident macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitutes an important element of GI innate immunity against pathogens. In this study, we investigated whether human IECs have the ability to produce antiviral factors that can inhibit HIV infection of macrophages. We demonstrated that IECs possess functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), the activation of which resulted in induction of key interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRF3 and IRF7), IFN-β, IFN-λ, and CC chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES), the ligands of HIV entry co-receptor CCR5...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Keiichi Koshizuka, Naoko Kikkawa, Toyoyuki Hanazawa, Yasutaka Yamada, Atsushi Okato, Takayuki Arai, Koji Katada, Yoshitaka Okamoto, Naohiko Seki
Due to their aggressive behavior, local recurrence and distant metastasis, survival rate of advanced stage of the patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is very poor. Currently available epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies are not considered curative for HNSCC. Therefore, novel approaches for identification of therapeutic targets in HNSCC are needed. All members of the miRNA-29 family (miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c) were downregulated in HNSCC tissues by analysis of RNA-sequencing based microRNA (miRNA) expression signature...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Dennis Dahlmans, Alexandre Houzelle, Johanna A Jörgensen, Esther Phielix, Lucas Lindeboom, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen, Joris Hoeks
In recent years, several microRNAs (miRNAs)-post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression-have been linked to the regulation of peripheral insulin sensitivity. Many of these studies, however, have been conducted in cell or animal models and the few human studies available lack adequate measurements of peripheral insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we examined the expression of 25 miRNAs, putatively involved in (peripheral) insulin sensitivity, in skeletal muscle biopsies from extensively phenotyped human individuals, widely ranging in insulin sensitivity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Mariangela Fratino, Carla Selvaggi, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Paolo Pavone, Giulia Passavanti, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Ivano Mezzaroma, Guido Antonelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Carolina Scagnolari, Gabriella d'Ettorre
INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of cognition, mood, anxiety, and pain, and can impact cognitive functions by producing neuroactive substances or releasing bacterial by-products and metabolites. No information is available on the effects of a probiotic supplementation on brain function of HIV+ subjects. In light of the above considerations, we performed a pilot study in cART-treated HIV-1-positive patients with long-term virologic suppression. The aims were to analyze the effect of high-concentration multistrain probiotic supplementation (Vivomixx®; Visbiome®) on several neurocognitive abilities and to evaluate the safety of this supplementation...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
Julie Massart, Rasmus J O Sjögren, Leonidas S Lundell, Jonathan M Mudry, Niclas Franck, Donal J O'Gorman, Brendan Egan, Juleen R Zierath, Anna Krook
MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism in several tissues; however, their role in skeletal muscle remains poorly characterized. We determined the effects of the miR-29 family on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle. We provide evidence that miR-29a and miR-29c are increased in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and are decreased following endurance training in healthy young men and in rats. In primary human skeletal muscle cells, inhibition and overexpression strategies demonstrate that miR-29a and miR-29c regulate glucose uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism...
July 2017: Diabetes
Sumanta Ray, Ujjwal Maulik
Microarray analysis based on gene coexpression is widely used to investigate the coregulation pattern of a group (or cluster) of genes in a specific phenotype condition. Recent approaches go one step beyond and look for differential coexpression pattern, wherein there exists a significant difference in coexpression pattern between two phenotype conditions. These changes of coexpression patterns generally arise due to significant change in regulatory mechanism across different conditions governed by natural progression of diseases...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
Parisa Habibi, Alireza Alihemmati, Mohammadreza Nasirzadeh, Hadi Yousefi, Mohammadrasoul Habibi, Nasser Ahmadiasl
OBJECTIVES: Menopause and diabetes obviously increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in type 2 diabetes on the histology and expression of miRNA-29, miRNA-133, IGF-1 and Bcl-2 genes and Bcl-2 protein and caspase 3 activity in the hearts of female rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, sham, ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized with type 2 diabetes (OVX...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
N Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, K Apostolakis-Kyrus, R Krutilina, G Hubbard, M Kocak, Z Janjetovic, S Sathanandam, A T Slominski, G Mari, E Dick
BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnancy (MO) is a risk factor for maternal and/or fetal cardiovascular system disorders. This study evaluated maternal CVS expression of microRNA-29 family and its target molecules in MO to test the hypotheses: CVS miR-29 concentrations are increased in pregnancy and decreased in MO. METHODS: Non-pregnant (n=4), pregnant obese (POb, n=4), and pregnant non-obese (PnOb, n=4) baboons (Papio spp.) were studied. Maternal left ventricle (LV), left atrium (LA), and aortic arch (AA) were collected at the end of gestation...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Primatology
Yu Zhou, Xu Wang, Li Sun, Li Zhou, Tong-Cui Ma, Li Song, Jian-Guo Wu, Jie-Liang Li, Wen-Zhe Ho
Exosomes are a class of cell-released small vesicles that mediate intercellular communication by delivering functional factors to recipient cells. During hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the interaction between liver resident macrophages and hepatocytes is a key component in liver innate immunity. In this study, we explored the role of exosomes in the delivery of innate anti-HCV factors to hepatocytes from macrophages. We showed that supernatant from TLR3-activated macrophage cultures could efficiently inhibit HCV replication in Huh7 cells...
December 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
J L Chen, Y Su, F Wang
The pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is still unclear. The trabecular meshwork (TM) plays an important role for regulation of aqueous humor outflow. The alteration of morphology, structure of TM cells and expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components contribute to the abnormal increase of outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Recently, it has been confirmed that a variety of microRNA (miRNA) such as miRNA-29, 24, 200c and so on were expressed in TM tissue and different miRNA can affect the TM function and the synthesis of ECM in different ways...
June 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Erica E Marsh, Marissa L Steinberg, J Brandon Parker, Ju Wu, Debabrata Chakravarti, Serdar E Bulun
OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression and function of the microRNA-29 family (miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b, miRNA-29c) in human leiomyoma and myometrium. DESIGN: Basic science experimental design. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing surgery for symptomatic uterine fibroids. INTERVENTION(S): Overexpression and knockdown of miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b, and miRNA-29c in primary leiomyoma and myometrial cells...
September 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Bodo C Melnik
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within intron 1 of the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) gene are associated with enhanced FTO expression, increased body weight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The N (6) -methyladenosine (m(6)A) demethylase FTO plays a pivotal regulatory role for postnatal growth and energy expenditure. The purpose of this review is to provide translational evidence that links milk signaling with FTO-activated transcription of the milk recipient. FTO-dependent demethylation of m(6)A regulates mRNA splicing required for adipogenesis, increases the stability of mRNAs, and affects microRNA (miRNA) expression and miRNA biosynthesis...
December 21, 2015: Journal of Translational Medicine
Takeo Fukuzumi, Asako Murata, Haruo Aikawa, Yasue Harada, Kazuhiko Nakatani
The metabolic stream of microRNA (miRNA) production, the so-called maturation process of miRNAs, became one of important metabolic paths for drug-targeting to modulate the expression of genes related to a number of diseases. We carried out discovery studies on small molecules binding to the precursor of miR-29a (pre-miR-29a) from a chemical library containing 41,119 compounds (AQ library) by the fluorescent indicator displacement (FID) assay using the xanthone derivative X2SdiMe as a fluorescent indicator. The FID assay provided 1075 compounds, which showed an increase of fluorescence...
November 16, 2015: Chemistry: a European Journal
Takashi Tomiyama, Guo-Xiang Yang, Ming Zhao, Weici Zhang, Hajime Tanaka, Jing Wang, Patrick Sc Leung, Kazuichi Okazaki, Xiao-Song He, Qianjin Lu, Ross L Coppel, Christopher L Bowlus, M Eric Gershwin
Exosomes are nanoparticles of endocytic origin, secreted by a myriad of cell populations that are attracting increased attention by virtue of their ability to modulate cell-to-cell communications. They are also attracting attention in a variety of immunological issues, including autoimmunity and, in particular, their ability to regulate cytokine and chemokine activation. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease, which has a highly focused cytotoxic response against biliary epithelial cells...
March 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Jia Liu, Cheng Ye, Wei Liu, Wei Zhao, Ya-Jing Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hao Ying
As an activator of AMPK, the effect of AICAR on insulin signaling has not been investigated extensively. PI3K-Akt is a critical node involved in the insulin signaling pathway. We observed that concomitant with the activation of AMPK by AICAR, the protein level of PI3K p85α and the insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt were enhanced in mouse primary hepatocytes. Previously, we identified a group of AMPK-regulated miRNAs in hepatocytes. It is not clear whether miRNAs are related to the regulation of insulin signaling by AMPK...
August 12, 2015: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Leandra Linhares-Lacerda, Cintia Cristina Palu, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Bruno Diaz Paredes, Alexandre Morrot, Maria Rosa Garcia-Silva, Alfonso Cayota, Wilson Savino
A common feature seen in acute infections is a severe atrophy of the thymus. This occurs in the murine model of acute Chagas disease. Moreover, in thymuses from Trypanosoma cruzi acutely infected mice, thymocytes exhibit an increase in the density of fibronectin and laminin integrin-type receptors, with an increase in migratory response ex vivo. Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) play a major role in the intrathymic T cell differentiation. To date, the consequences of molecular changes promoted by parasite infection upon thymus have not been elucidated...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
J L Li, J Cui, D Y Cheng
Highly conserved endogenous non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plants and animals by silencing genes via destruction or blocking of translation of homologous mRNA. Sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, is one of the most important sugar crops in China, with properties that include wide adaptability and strong tolerance to salinity and impoverished soils. Seedlings of B. vulgaris can grow in soils containing up to 0.6% salt; it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance to enrich genetic resources for breeding salt-tolerant sugar beets...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Rongrong Jing, Wen Chen, Huimin Wang, Shaoqing Ju, Hui Cong, Baolan Sun, Qin Jin, Shaopeng Chu, Lili Xu, Ming Cui
The receptor for advanced-glycation end products (RAGE) is upregulated in various cancers and has been associated with tumor progression, but little is known about its expression and regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Here, we describe miR-185, which represses RAGE expression, and investigate the biological role of miR-185 in ESCC. In this study, we found that the high level of RAGE expression in 29 pairs of paraffin-embedded ESCC tissues was correlated positively with the depth of invasion by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that RAGE was involved in ESCC...
November 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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