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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730105/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-hypoxia-induced-apoptosis-by-preventing-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#1
Shu-Wei Tian, Yuan Ren, Jin-Zhi Pei, Bai-Chao Ren, Yuan He
AIM: To investigate the potential of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) to protect the immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells-5 (RGC-5) exposed to CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia. METHODS: After being differentiated with staurosporine (SS), RGC-5 cells were cultured in four conditions: control group cells cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 µmol/mL streptomycin and penicillin (named as normal conditions); hypoxia group cells cultured in DMEM containing 300 µmol/mL CoCl2; cells in the group protected by PEDF were first pretreated with 100 ng/mL PEDF for 2h and then cultured in the same condition as hypoxia group cells; and PEDF group cells that were cultured in the presence of 100 ng/mL PEDF under normal conditions...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728160/structural-changes-of-the-macula-on-optical-coherence-tomography-after-vitrectomy-for-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
Jong Chan Im, Jong Ho Kim, Dong Ho Park, Jae Pil Shin
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between macular structural changes and visual prognosis after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: The study included 60 eyes that had undergone PPV. Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings were classified into 5 groups preoperatively and 10 groups postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were analyzed according to pre- and postoperative OCT. RESULTS: From the preoperative OCT, normal fovea with/without traction, normal fovea with preretinal hemorrhage, and tractional retinal detachment involving fovea showed an increase in BCVA after PPV (all p < 0...
July 21, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663874/automated-intraretinal-segmentation-of-sd-oct-images-in-normal-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-eyes
#3
Luis de Sisternes, Gowtham Jonna, Jason Moss, Michael F Marmor, Theodore Leng, Daniel L Rubin
This work introduces and evaluates an automated intra-retinal segmentation method for spectral-domain optical coherence (SD-OCT) retinal images. While quantitative assessment of retinal features in SD-OCT data is important, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming and subjective. We address challenges that have hindered prior automated methods, including poor performance with diseased retinas relative to healthy retinas, and data smoothing that obscures image features such as small retinal drusen. Our novel segmentation approach is based on the iterative adaptation of a weighted median process, wherein a three-dimensional weighting function is defined according to image intensity and gradient properties, and a set of smoothness constraints and pre-defined rules are considered...
March 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601586/evaluating-structural-progression-of-retinitis-pigmentosa-after-cataract-surgery
#4
Joaquin O De Rojas, Kaspar Schuerch, Priya M Mathews, Thiago Cabral, Albert Hazan, Janet Sparrow, Stephen H Tsang, Leejee H Suh
PURPOSE: To determine whether cataract surgery accelerates disease progression in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Seventy eyes of 40 patients with RP were categorized as having had phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation vs no cataract surgery at a single tertiary-level institution. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) was used to measure the ellipsoid zone (EZ) width, which has been demonstrated to be a reliable marker of RP severity, at baseline and throughout follow-up (median 768 days)...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489696/predictors-of-refractory-macular-edema-after-branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-following-intravitreal-bevacizumab
#5
Byung Gil Moon, Ah Ran Cho, You Na Kim, June-Gone Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the predictors of refractory macular edema (ME) that develops despite multiple bevacizumab injections in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS: A total of 107 patients who followed at least 2 years were assigned to 2 groups: a refractory group (n = 56) and a responsive group (n = 51). Baseline characteristics, treatment response at 3 months, and fluorescein angiographic findings at 6 months were compared. Then we tried to identify factors associated with refractory ME development...
May 9, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470646/vitrectomy-with-fovea-sparing-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-for-myopic-foveoschisis
#6
C Seppey, T J Wolfensberger
Background Myopic foveoschisis is a rare form of a tractional maculopathy, which occurs in patients with elevated axial length. The contraction of the posterior hyaloid exerts tangential traction on the retinal surface with a subsequent continuous splitting of the retinal layers. Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling has been advocated in foveoschisis, but it has been associated with post-operative macular hole formation. We report on a modified surgical technique, which spares the fovea and may reduce the risk for macular hole formation...
April 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419398/pre-existing-rpe-atrophy-and-defects-in-the-external-limiting-membrane-predict-early-poor-visual-response-to-ranibizumab-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Souska Zandi, Florian Weisskopf, Justus G Garweg, Isabel B Pfister, Christian Pruente, Florian Sutter, Katja Hatz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the rate of early visual acuity poor responders in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) after the first intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) and to determine potential predictors for early response. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD were evaluated before and 1 month after their first ranibizumab treatment...
April 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219426/pseudophakic-cystoid-macular-edema-prevention-and-risk-factors-prospective-study-with-adjunctive-once-daily-topical-nepafenac-0-3-versus-placebo
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sean McCafferty, April Harris, Corin Kew, Tala Kassm, Lisa Lane, Jason Levine, Meisha Raven
BACKGROUND: Define the effectiveness of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) added to topical steroid use after uncomplicated phacoemulsification for the prevention of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) using a prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study. METHODS: Eyes (1000) were randomized to placebo (497) or nepafenac 0.3% (503) used once daily, post-operatively for 5 weeks at two ophthalmology clinics. Diagnosis of PCME was made by clinical, ocular coherence tomography (OCT), and with fluorescein angiography confirmation...
February 20, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994808/effects-of-benzo-e-pyrene-on-reactive-oxygen-nitrogen-species-and-inflammatory-cytokines-induction-in-human-rpe-cells-and-attenuation-by-mitochondrial-involved-mechanism
#9
M Fernanda Estrago-Franco, M Tarek Moustafa, Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani, Ashish U Sapkal, Rhina Piche-Lopez, A Jayaprakash Patil, Ashish Sharma, Payam Falatoonzadeh, Marilyn Chwa, Georgia Luczy-Bachman, Baruch D Kuppermann, M Cristina Kenney
PURPOSE: To identify inhibitors that could effectively lower reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), complement and inflammatory cytokine levels induced by Benzo(e)pyrene [B(e)p], an element of cigarette smoke, in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) in vitro. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were treated for 24 hours with 200 μM, 100 μM, and 50 μM B(e)p or DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide)-equivalent concentrations. Some cultures were pre-treated with ROS/RNS inhibitors (NG nitro-L-arginine, inhibits nitric oxide synthase; Apocynin, inhibits NADPH oxidase; Rotenone, inhibits mitochondrial complex I; Antimycin A, inhibits mitochondria complex III) and ROS/RNS levels were measured with a fluorescent H2 DCFDA assay...
October 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977075/a-reinterpretation-of-cell-transplantation-gfp-transfer-from-donor-to-host-photoreceptors
#10
Arturo Ortin-Martinez, En Leh Samuel Tsai, Philip E Nickerson, Miriam Bergeret, Yao Lu, Sheila Smiley, Lacrimioara Comanita, Valerie A Wallace
The utilization of fluorescent reporter transgenes to discriminate donor versus host cells has been a mainstay of photoreceptor transplantation research, the assumption being that the presence of reporter+ cells in outer nuclear layer (ONL) of transplant recipients represents the integration of donor photoreceptors. We previously reported that GFP(+) cells in the ONL of cone-GFP transplanted retinas exhibited rod-like characteristics, raising the possibility that GFP signal in recipient tissue may not be a consequence of donor cell integration...
April 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959269/how-lateral-inhibition-and-fast-retinogeniculo-cortical-oscillations-create-vision-a-new-hypothesis
#11
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M Cearley, Vernon A Barnes, Elizabeth Nixon-Shapiro
The role of the physiological processes involved in human vision escapes clarification in current literature. Many unanswered questions about vision include: 1) whether there is more to lateral inhibition than previously proposed, 2) the role of the discs in rods and cones, 3) how inverted images on the retina are converted to erect images for visual perception, 4) what portion of the image formed on the retina is actually processed in the brain, 5) the reason we have an after-image with antagonistic colors, and 6) how we remember space...
November 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911448/inverted-internal-limiting-membrane-flap-technique-as-a-useful-procedure-for-macular-hole-associated-retinal-detachment-in-highly-myopic-eyes
#12
H Sasaki, A Shiono, J Kogo, R Yomoda, Y Munemasa, M Syoda, H Otake, H Kurihara, Y Kitaoka, H Takagi
PurposeTo determine whether the inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique contributes to high reattachment and closure rates in patients with macular hole-associated retinal detachment (MHRD).Patients and methodsIn all, 15 eyes of 15 patients with MHRD undergoing 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with the inverted ILM flap technique or ILM peeling. The patients were divided into the inverted ILM flap technique group (6 eyes) and ILM peeling group (9 eyes). The logarithm of minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and retinal attachment and macular hole closure rates were compared between the two groups before and after surgery...
April 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793751/phospholipase-d1-modulates-protein-kinase-c-epsilon-in-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-during-inflammatory-response
#13
Paula E Tenconi, Norma M Giusto, Gabriela A Salvador, Melina V Mateos
Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of several retinal diseases. In view of the essential role of the retinal pigment epithelium in visual function, elucidating the molecular mechanisms elicited by inflammation in this tissue could provide new insights for the treatment of retinal diseases. The aim of the present work was to study protein kinase C signaling and its modulation by phospholipases D in ARPE-19 cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide. This bacterial endotoxin induced protein kinase C-α/βII phosphorylation and protein kinase-ε translocation to the plasma membrane in ARPE-19 cells...
December 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572851/the-relationship-between-a-dissociated-optic-nerve-fibre-layer-appearance-after-macular-hole-surgery-and-muller-cell-debris-on-peeled-internal-limiting-membrane
#14
David H W Steel, Christiana Dinah, Kathryn White, Peter J Avery
PURPOSE: A dissociated optic nerve fibre layer (DONFL) is a characteristic change noted in inner retinal morphology after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. It is thought to be due to trauma to Muller cells as the ILM is peeled from their attached end plates. In this study, we aimed to determine the extent and size of Muller cell debris on the retinal side of excised ILM and assess whether this correlated with the extent of DONFL observed postoperatively. METHOD: Prospective single centre study of a consecutive series of patients undergoing macular hole surgery...
March 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545271/retinal-pigment-epithelium-cell-density-in-relationship-to-axial-length-in-human-eyes
#15
Jost B Jonas, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Leonard Holbach, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas
PURPOSE: To assess associations between axial length and density of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in various ocular regions. METHODS: The histomorphometric investigation included histological sections of enucleated eyes of Caucasian patients. Using a light microscope, we counted the number of RPE cells on Bruch's membrane at the ora serrata, in the pre-equatorial region, the equatorial and retro-equatorial region, at the midpoint equator/posterior pole, and at the posterior pole...
February 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496526/a-comparison-of-autologous-transplantation-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-rpe-monolayer-sheet-graft-with-rpe-bruch-s-membrane-complex-graft-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
Yao Lu, Liang Han, Changguan Wang, Hongliang Dou, Xuefeng Feng, Yuntao Hu, Kang Feng, Xin Wang, Zhizhong Ma
PURPOSE: To compare the outcome after choroidal neovascular (CNV) membrane excision and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplantation and make further evaluation of two types of RPE grafts on the visual function in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), complicated by massive subretinal haemorrhage. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 80 patients who underwent CNV membrane excision with or without RPE transplantation. Two types of RPE grafts were adopted, RPE-Bruch's membrane complex graft (subgroup 1) and RPE monolayer sheet graft (subgroup 2)...
August 6, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491043/metamorphopsia-and-tangential-retinal-displacement-after-epiretinal-membrane-surgery
#17
Yoshikazu Ichikawa, Yutaka Imamura, Masahiro Ishida
PURPOSE: To determine whether the degree of metamorphopsia significantly correlated with the distance of the tangenital retinal displacement after epiretinal membrane surgery. METHODS: The M-CHARTS were used to measure the vertical metamorphopsia score and the horizontal score. The distances between the intersections of two sets of retinal vessels situated vertically or horizontally were measured in the near-infrared Spectralis images. RESULTS: Fifty eyes of 50 patients (22 men; age, 69...
April 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462250/long-term-follow-up-case-of-multiple-retinal-arterial-macroaneurysms-developing-branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-following-ruptured-macroaneurysm
#18
Yuya Terubayashi, Teruyo Kida, Masanori Fukumoto, Jun Sugasawa, Seita Morishita, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Tsunehiko Ikeda
PURPOSE: Retinal arterial macroaneurysm (RAM) has been reported in association with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and usually BRVO precedes RAM. We present a long-term follow-up case report of unilateral multiple RAMs that developed BRVO following ruptured RAM in the same retinal quadrant. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old woman presented with floaters in her right eye in June 2012. Visual acuity (VA) was 20/25 in her right eye with posterior capsular opacity...
January 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367053/short-acting-gas-tamponade-with-strict-face-down-posturing-for-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-macular-hole
#19
Stratos Gotzaridis, Efstathios Liazos, Petros Petrou, Ilias Georgalas
PURPOSE: A retrospective consecutive case series to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 25 gauge pars plana vitrectomy, ILM peeling, 20% SF6 gas tamponade and strict posturing for the treatment of idiopathic full-thickness macular holes. METHODS: We report the results of 106 consecutive eyes that underwent standard 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant peel-assisted internal limiting membrane peel, fluid:gas exchange with 20% SF6 and strict posturing for one week...
July 1, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364637/-atrophy-of-the-macula-in-the-context-of-its-wet-age-related-degeneration-an-inescapable-consequence-of-anti-vegf-therapy
#20
REVIEW
J G Garweg
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the long-term consequences of anti-VEGF therapy in wet, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is poor. Here, the impact of this treatment on the development of macular atrophy (MA) is discussed based on our current pathophysiological understanding. METHODS: This review is based on a PubMed literature survey using the MeSH terms "wet AMD" and "macular atrophy" (151 hits) and limited to publications since 2013 (n = 90)...
December 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
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