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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174113/ghrelin-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-against-rotenone-via-inhibiting-apoptosis-restoring-mitochondrial-function-and-activating-akt-mtor-signaling
#1
Shenwen Liu, Sheng Chen, Jing Ren, Baijun Li, Bo Qin
Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, has protective effects on neuronal cells. The present study aimed to examine the neuroprotective effects of ghrelin on the rat retinal ganglion cells in the rotenone-induced in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cell viability and cell apoptosis were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial functions were detected by mitochondrial complex I activity assay and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively...
November 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132470/-effects-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-on-retinal-neovascularization-in-neonatal-rats-with-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#2
Qing-Jie Mu, Yue-Hua Zhao, Dan-Dan Cheng, Hai-Yu Wang, Lan-Fen Chen, Yan-Song Zhao, Xiao-Li Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of rat bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation on retinal neovascularization, and to observe the changes of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) in rats with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). METHODS: Seventy-two seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (CON), model (OIR) and BMSC transplantation. In the BMSC transplantation group, BMSCs were transplanted 5 days after oxygen conditioning...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039926/zebrafish-a-visual-model-to-evaluate-the-biofate-of-transferrin-receptor-targeted-7peptide-decorated-coumarin-6-micelles
#3
Ye Li, Xiaoning Song, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Xueqing Wang, Ying Zheng
In the present study, the zebrafish was explored as an in vivo model to assess the biofate of transferrin receptor (TfR)-targeted coumarin 6 (C6) micelles across various biological barriers. Three 7peptide (7pep)-decorated poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) micelles loaded with fluorescence coumarin 6 (7pep-M-C6) with different ligand densities were constructed with particle sizes between 30 and 40 nm. Whole-mount immunostaining revealed that the expression level of TfR in the retina, brain, and intestine increased along with development stage...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038978/panuveitis-like-reaction-following-encircling-laser-retinopexy-cerclage-in-a-21-year-old-male
#4
David Francis Fullon Chan, Milagros Herrera-Arroyo, Darby E Santiago, Teresita R Castillo, Ma Florentina Q Fajardo-Gomez
BACKGROUND: Severe vision-impairing ocular inflammation is rarely reported following extensive laser. Previous cases have involved retinal photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy resolving over days. This report documents a rare instance of this where encircling retinopexy/cerclage was done as fellow eye retinal detachment prophylaxis in a patient with no overt comorbidities. RESULTS: A panuveitis-like reaction with severe, near-total visual impairment was documented 1 day following single-sitting encircling laser retinopexy/cerclage done as fellow eye prophylaxis for a 21-year-old male presenting with total retinal detachment in the other eye...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023785/cns-synapses-are-stabilized-trans-synaptically-by-laminins-and-laminin-interacting-proteins
#5
Dale D Hunter, Mary K Manglapus, Galina Bachay, Thomas Claudepierre, Michael W Dolan, Kelly-Ann Gesuelli, William J Brunken
The retina expresses several laminins in the outer plexiform layer (OPL), where they may provide an extracellular scaffold for synapse stabilization. Mice with a targeted deletion of the laminin β2 gene (Lamb2) exhibit retinal disruptions: photoreceptor synapses in the OPL are disorganized and the retinal physiological response is attenuated. We hypothesize that laminins are required for proper trans-synaptic alignment. To test this, we compared the distribution, expression, association and modification of several pre- and post-synaptic elements in wild-type and Lamb2-null retinae...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975619/impaired-ampa-receptor-trafficking-by-a-double-knockout-of-zebrafish-olfactomedin1a-b
#6
Naoki Nakaya, Afia Sultana, Stanislav I Tomarev
The olfm1a and olfm1b genes in zebrafish encode conserved secreted glycoproteins. These genes are preferentially expressed in the brain and retina starting from 16 h post-fertilization until adulthood. Functions of the Olfm1 gene is still unclear. Here, we produced and analyzed a null zebrafish mutant of both olfm1a and olfm1b genes (olfm1 null). olfm1 null fish were born at a normal Mendelian ratio and showed normal body shape and fertility as well as no visible defects from larval stages to adult. Olfm1 proteins were preferentially localized in the synaptosomes of the adult brain...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913997/additive-effect-of-oral-steroid-with-topical-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-for-preventing-cystoid-macular-edema-after-cataract-surgery-in-patients-with-epiretinal-membrane
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Seonghwan Kim, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee
PURPOSE: To investigate the additive effect of oral steroid with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) on cystoid macular edema (CME) in patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM) after cataract surgery. METHODS: Medical records of subjects who underwent uneventful cataract surgery (n = 1,349) were retrospectively reviewed; among these patients, those with pre-existing ERM (n = 81) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: one group had postoperative administration of oral steroid for 1 week (n = 45) and the other group did not have oral steroid administration (n = 36)...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892569/serine-racemase-deficiency-attenuates-choroidal-neovascularization-and-reduces-nitric-oxide-and-vegf-levels-by-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#8
Haiyan Jiang, Mengjuan Wu, Yimei Liu, Liping Song, Shifeng Li, Xianwei Wang, Yun-Feng Zhang, Junxu Fang, Shengzhou Wu
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a leading cause of blindness in age-related macular degeneration. Production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and macrophage recruitment by retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) significantly contributes to the process of CNV in an experimental CNV model. Serine racemase (SR) is expressed in retinal neurons and glial cells, and its product, d-serine, is an endogenous co-agonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Activation of the receptor results in production of nitric oxide ((...
November 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888911/photobiomodulation-with-670%C3%A2-nm-light-ameliorates-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-mediated-activation-of-microglia-and-macrophages-in-retinal-degeneration
#9
Yen-Zhen Lu, Riccardo Natoli, Michele Madigan, Nilisha Fernando, Kartik Saxena, Riemke Aggio-Bruce, Haihan Jiao, Jan Provis, Krisztina Valter
Müller cells, the supporting cells of the retina, play a key role in responding to retinal stress by releasing chemokines, including CCL2, to recruit microglia and macrophages (MG/MΦ) into the damaged retina. Photobiomodulation (PBM) with 670 nm light has been shown to reduce inflammation in models of retinal degeneration. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether 670 nm light had an effect on Müller cell-initiated inflammation under retinal photo-oxidative damage (PD) in vivo and in vitro. Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with 670 nm light (9J/cm(2)) once daily over 5 days prior to PD...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820183/technique-of-retinal-gene-therapy-delivery-of-viral-vector-into-the-subretinal-space
#10
K Xue, M Groppe, A P Salvetti, R E MacLaren
PurposeSafe and reproducible delivery of gene therapy vector into the subretinal space is essential for successful targeting of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors. The success of surgery is critical for the clinical efficacy of retinal gene therapy. Iatrogenic detachment of the degenerate (often adherent) retina in patients with hereditary retinal degenerations and small volume (eg, 0.1 ml) subretinal injections pose new surgical challenges.MethodsOur subretinal gene therapy technique involved pre-operative planning with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and autofluorescence (AF) imaging, 23 G pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane staining with Membrane Blue Dual (DORC BV, Zuidland, Netherlands), a two-step subretinal injection using a 41 G Teflon tipped cannula (DORC) first with normal saline to create a parafoveal bleb followed by slow infusion of viral vector via the same self-sealing retinotomy...
September 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767664/bruch%C3%A2-s-membrane-thickness-in-relationship-to-axial-length
#11
Hai Xia Bai, Ying Mao, Ling Shen, Xiao Lin Xu, Fei Gao, Zhi Bao Zhang, Bin Li, Jost B Jonas
PURPOSE: To assess a potential role of Bruch´s membrane (BM) in the biomechanics of the eye, we measured its thickness and the density of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in various ocular regions in eyes of varying axial length. METHODS: Human globes, enucleated because of an ocular tumor or end-stage glaucoma were prepared for histological examination. Using light microscopy, the histological slides were histomorphometrically examined applying a digitized image analysis system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764684/intraoperative-optical-coherence-tomography-assisted-analysis-of-pars-plana-vitrectomy-for-retinal-detachment-in-morning-glory-syndrome-a-case-report
#12
Lyubomyr M Lytvynchuk, Carl G Glittenberg, Siamak Ansari-Shahrezaei, Susanne Binder
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of non-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (non-RRD) associated with morning glory syndrome (MGS) is not established, as well as best surgical approach to treat RD. Our purpose was to analyse intraoperative optical coherence tomography data (iOCT) in all steps of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for non-RRD in MGS, in order to follow pathophysiological aspects of the disease and to understand the tissues behaviour during surgical workflow. CASE PRESENTATION: Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherent tomography (iSD-OCT) assisted PPV using Rescan 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditech, Jena, Germany) with epiretinal membrane (ERM) and internal retinal membrane (ILM) peeling, and air endotamponade was performed on the only eye of a 21 years old female with non-RRD associated with MGS...
August 1, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730105/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-hypoxia-induced-apoptosis-by-preventing-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#13
Shu-Wei Tian, Yuan Ren, Jin-Zhi Pei, Bai-Chao Ren, Yuan He
AIM: To investigate the potential of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) to protect the immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells-5 (RGC-5) exposed to CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia. METHODS: After being differentiated with staurosporine (SS), RGC-5 cells were cultured in four conditions: control group cells cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 µmol/mL streptomycin and penicillin (named as normal conditions); hypoxia group cells cultured in DMEM containing 300 µmol/mL CoCl2; cells in the group protected by PEDF were first pretreated with 100 ng/mL PEDF for 2h and then cultured in the same condition as hypoxia group cells; and PEDF group cells that were cultured in the presence of 100 ng/mL PEDF under normal conditions...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728160/structural-changes-of-the-macula-on-optical-coherence-tomography-after-vitrectomy-for-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#14
Jong Chan Im, Jong Ho Kim, Dong Ho Park, Jae Pil Shin
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between macular structural changes and visual prognosis after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: The study included 60 eyes that had undergone PPV. Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings were classified into 5 groups preoperatively and 10 groups postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were analyzed according to pre- and postoperative OCT. RESULTS: From the preoperative OCT, normal fovea with/without traction, normal fovea with preretinal hemorrhage, and tractional retinal detachment involving fovea showed an increase in BCVA after PPV (all p < 0...
2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663874/automated-intraretinal-segmentation-of-sd-oct-images-in-normal-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-eyes
#15
Luis de Sisternes, Gowtham Jonna, Jason Moss, Michael F Marmor, Theodore Leng, Daniel L Rubin
This work introduces and evaluates an automated intra-retinal segmentation method for spectral-domain optical coherence (SD-OCT) retinal images. While quantitative assessment of retinal features in SD-OCT data is important, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming and subjective. We address challenges that have hindered prior automated methods, including poor performance with diseased retinas relative to healthy retinas, and data smoothing that obscures image features such as small retinal drusen. Our novel segmentation approach is based on the iterative adaptation of a weighted median process, wherein a three-dimensional weighting function is defined according to image intensity and gradient properties, and a set of smoothness constraints and pre-defined rules are considered...
March 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601586/evaluating-structural-progression-of-retinitis-pigmentosa-after-cataract-surgery
#16
Joaquin O De Rojas, Kaspar Schuerch, Priya M Mathews, Thiago Cabral, Albert Hazan, Janet Sparrow, Stephen H Tsang, Leejee H Suh
PURPOSE: To determine whether cataract surgery accelerates disease progression in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Seventy eyes of 40 patients with RP were categorized as having had phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation vs no cataract surgery at a single tertiary-level institution. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) was used to measure the ellipsoid zone (EZ) width, which has been demonstrated to be a reliable marker of RP severity, at baseline and throughout follow-up (median 768 days)...
August 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489696/predictors-of-refractory-macular-edema-after-branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-following-intravitreal-bevacizumab
#17
Byung Gil Moon, Ah Ran Cho, You Na Kim, June-Gone Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the predictors of refractory macular edema (ME) that develops despite multiple bevacizumab injections in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS: A total of 107 patients who followed at least 2 years were assigned to 2 groups: a refractory group (n = 56) and a responsive group (n = 51). Baseline characteristics, treatment response at 3 months, and fluorescein angiographic findings at 6 months were compared. Then we tried to identify factors associated with refractory ME development...
May 9, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470646/vitrectomy-with-fovea-sparing-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-for-myopic-foveoschisis
#18
C Seppey, T J Wolfensberger
Background Myopic foveoschisis is a rare form of a tractional maculopathy, which occurs in patients with elevated axial length. The contraction of the posterior hyaloid exerts tangential traction on the retinal surface with a subsequent continuous splitting of the retinal layers. Internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling has been advocated in foveoschisis, but it has been associated with post-operative macular hole formation. We report on a modified surgical technique, which spares the fovea and may reduce the risk for macular hole formation...
April 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419398/pre-existing-rpe-atrophy-and-defects-in-the-external-limiting-membrane-predict-early-poor-visual-response-to-ranibizumab-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Souska Zandi, Florian Weisskopf, Justus G Garweg, Isabel B Pfister, Christian Pruente, Florian Sutter, Katja Hatz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the rate of early visual acuity poor responders in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) after the first intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) and to determine potential predictors for early response. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD were evaluated before and 1 month after their first ranibizumab treatment...
April 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219426/pseudophakic-cystoid-macular-edema-prevention-and-risk-factors-prospective-study-with-adjunctive-once-daily-topical-nepafenac-0-3-versus-placebo
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sean McCafferty, April Harris, Corin Kew, Tala Kassm, Lisa Lane, Jason Levine, Meisha Raven
BACKGROUND: Define the effectiveness of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) added to topical steroid use after uncomplicated phacoemulsification for the prevention of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) using a prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study. METHODS: Eyes (1000) were randomized to placebo (497) or nepafenac 0.3% (503) used once daily, post-operatively for 5 weeks at two ophthalmology clinics. Diagnosis of PCME was made by clinical, ocular coherence tomography (OCT), and with fluorescein angiography confirmation...
February 20, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
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