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Micropthalmia genetics

Frenny Sheth, Joris Andrieux, Stuti Tewari, Harsh Sheth, Manisha Desai, Pritti Kumari, Nidhish Nanavaty, Jayesh Sheth
Exact breakpoint determination by oligonucleotide array-CGH has improved the analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations in cases with chromosome aberrations allowing a more accurate definition of relevant genes, particularly their isolated or combined impact on the phenotype in an unbalanced state. Chromosomal imbalances have been identified as one of the major causes of mental retardation and/or malformation syndromes and they are observed in ~2-5% of the cases. Here we report a female child born to non-consanguineous parents and having multiple congenital anomalies such as atrial septal defect and multiple ventricular septal defects, convergent strabismus, micropthalmia, seizures and mental retardation, with her head circumference and stature normal for her age...
2013: Molecular Cytogenetics
Maggie S Brett, Ivy S L Ng, Eileen C P Lim, Min Hwee Yong, Zhihui Li, Angeline Lai, Ene-Choo Tan
We describe a boy with a de novo deletion of 15.67 Mb spanning 3q22.1q24. He has bilateral micropthalmia, ptosis, cleft palate, global developmental delay and brain, skeletal and cardiac abnormalities. In addition, he has bilateral inguinal hernia and his right kidney is absent. We compare his phenotype with seven other patients with overlapping and molecularly defined interstitial 3q deletions. This patient has some phenotypic features that are not shared by the other patients. More cases with smaller deletions defined by high resolution aCGH will enable better genotype-phenotype correlations and prioritizing of candidate genes for the identification of pathways and disease mechanisms...
March 15, 2013: Gene
Jung Min Ko, Jun Bum Kim, Ki Soo Pai, Jun-No Yun, Sang-Jin Park
The 22q11 region has been implicated in chromosomal rearrangements that result in altered gene dosage, leading to three different congenital malformation syndromes: DiGeorge syndrome, cat-eye syndrome (CES), and der(22) syndrome. Although DiGeorge syndrome is a common genomic disorder on 22q11, CES is quite rare, and there has been no report of Korean CES cases with molecular cytogenetic confirmation. In this study, we present the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of a 3-month-old boy with CES. Clinical findings included micropthalmia, multiple colobomata, and renal and genital anomalies...
December 2010: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Deborah J Morris-Rosendahl, Reeval Segel, A Peter Born, Christoph Conrad, Bart Loeys, Susan Sklower Brooks, Laura Müller, Christine Zeschnigk, Christina Botti, Ron Rabinowitz, Gökhan Uyanik, Marc-Antoine Crocq, Uwe Kraus, Ingrid Degen, Fran Faes
Warburg Micro Syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly, microphthalmia, microcornia, congenital cataracts, optic atrophy, cortical dysplasia, in particular corpus callosum hypoplasia, severe mental retardation, spastic diplegia, and hypogonadism. We have found five new mutations in the RAB3GAP1 gene in seven patients with suspected Micro Syndrome from families with Turkish, Palestinian, Danish, and Guatemalan backgrounds. A thorough clinical investigation of the patients has allowed the delineation of symptoms that are consistently present in the patients and may aid the differential diagnosis of Micro Syndrome for patients in the future...
October 2010: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Dominique Kobi, Anne-Lise Steunou, Doulaye Dembélé, Stéphanie Legras, Lionel Larue, Laurence Nieto, Irwin Davidson
POU3F2 is a POU-Homeodomain transcription factor expressed in neurons and melanoma cells. In melanoma lesions, cells expressing high levels of POU3F2 show enhanced invasive and metastatic capacity that can in part be explained by repression of Micropthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) expression via POU3F2 binding to its promoter. To identify other POU3F2 target genes that may be involved in modulating the properties of melanoma cells, we performed ChIP-chip experiments in 501Mel melanoma cells. 2108 binding loci located in the regulatory regions of 1700 potential target genes were identified...
June 2010: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Lynne T Bemis, Robert Chen, Carol M Amato, Elizabeth H Classen, Steven E Robinson, David G Coffey, Paul F Erickson, Yiqun G Shellman, William A Robinson
Micropthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is the master regulator of melanocyte development, survival, and function. Frequent alteration in the expression of MITF is detected in melanoma, but the mechanism(s) underlying the alteration in expression have not been completely determined. In these studies, we have identified microRNA-137 (miR-137) as a regulator of MITF expression. The genomic locus of miR-137 at chromosome 1p22 places it in a region of the human genome previously determined to harbor an allele for melanoma susceptibility...
March 1, 2008: Cancer Research
Bruce R Troen
Cathepsin K is essential for normal bone resorption. Osteoclasts synthesize and secrete cathepsin Kinto the extracellular compartment at the attachment site between osteoclasts and the bone surface, wherein the organic matrix is subsequently degraded by cathepsin K. RANKL, NFAT, Mitf, and various components of AP-1 enhance osteoclast formation and bone resorption, whereas IFN-gamma, calcitonin, estradiol, and calcium inhibit it. These agents appear to act correspondingly to alter cathepsin K mRNA and protein expression in order to stimulate and suppress the osteoclast's resorbing potential...
April 2006: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
V B Rao, L Kerketta, S Korgaonkar, K Ghosh, D Mohanty
Maternal origin of extra marker chromosome Iq31.l-qter and 13pter-q12.12 in a child with dysmorphic features: We describe a twenty-days-old female child with dysmorphic features and chromosomal analysis with GTG-banding revealed an extra marker chromosome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study of extra marker chromosome confirmed to be maternal der(13) chromosome, contained 1q31.1-qter and 13pter-q11 chromosomal material and resulted from a maternal balanced translocation t(1;13)(q31.1; q12.12). The child had the majority of trisomy 1q clinical features: dysmorphic features, micropthalmia, high arched palate, long philthrum, micrognathia, hypertelorism, low set ears, short sternum, overlapping fingers, valgus of wrists, right knee and ankle joints were in flexion contractures...
2005: Genetic Counseling
G A Partington, K Fuller, T J Chambers, M Pondel
It has been postulated that the transcription factors micropthalmia associated factor (Mitf) and PU.1 interact with the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) gene promoter and activate TRAP gene expression in osteoclasts. However, studies on the interaction of these factors with the TRAP promoter employing nuclear extracts from osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors have not been reported. We therefore treated murine mononuclear phagocyte cells with various cytokines to generate cultures of osteoclasts and macrophagic cells with high or low potential to form osteoclasts...
February 2004: Bone
D I Zafeiriou, F Thorel, A Andreou, W J Kleijer, A Raams, V H Garritsen, N Gombakis, N G Jaspers, S G Clarkson
We describe a premature, small for gestational age infant girl with micropthalmia, bilateral congenital cataracts, hearing impairment, progressive somatic and neurodevelopmental arrest, and infantile spasms. She presented a massive photosensitive reaction with erythema and blistering after minimal sun exposure, which slowly gave place to small skin cancers. Her skin fibroblasts were 10-fold more sensitive than normal to UV exposure due to a severe deficiency in nucleotide excision repair. By complementation analysis, the patient XPCS4RO was assigned to the very rare xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) group G (XP-G)...
March 2001: Pediatric Research
D M Giannola, W D Shlomchik, M Jegathesan, D Liebowitz, C S Abrams, T Kadesch, A Dancis, S G Emerson
The homeobox genes encode a family of transcription factors that regulate development and postnatal tissue homeostasis. Since HOXB4 plays a key role in regulating the balance between hematopoietic stem cell renewal and differentiation, we studied the molecular regulation of HOXB4 expression in human hematopoietic stem cells. HOXB4 expression in K562 cells is regulated at the level of transcription, and transient transfection defines primary HOXB4 regulatory sequences within a 99-bp 5' promoter. Culture of highly purified human CD34(+) bone marrow cells in thrombopoietin/Flt-3 ligand/stem cell factor induced HOXB4 3-10-fold, whereas culture in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, only increased HOXB4/luciferase expression 20-50%...
November 20, 2000: Journal of Experimental Medicine
S E Witta, S M Sato
XIPOU 2, a member of the class III POU-domain family, is expressed initially at mid-blastula transition (MBT) and during gastrulation in the entire marginal zone mesoderm, including Spemann's Organizer (the Organizer). To identify potential targets of XIPOU 2, the interaction of XIPOU 2 with other genes co-expressed in the Organizer was examined by microinjecting XIPOU 2's mRNA into the lineage of cells that contributes to the Organizer, head mesenchyme and prechordal plate. XIPOU 2 suppresses the expression of a number of dorsal mesoderm-specific genes, including gsc, Xlim-1, Xotx2, noggin and chordin, but not Xnot...
March 1997: Development
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