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Oral dysplasia

D Sharathkumar Sanketh, Samuel Raj Srinivasan, Shankargouda Patil, Kannan Ranganathan
AIM: In the present study, we simulated clinical scenarios by explicitly describing the history and clinical and histological features of hypothetical patients presenting with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesion, and epithelial dysplasia in a self-designed questionnaire. By doing so, we aimed to elicit a diagnosis from oral pathologists and trainees, analyze their responses, appraise issues, and propose solutions regarding the diagnosis of OLP. METHODS: The questionnaire was distributed to 100 oral pathologists and trainees in South India...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Giancarlo Tirelli, Marco Piovesana, Annalisa Gatto, Lucio Torelli, Roberto Di Lenarda, Francesca Boscolo Nata
PURPOSE: Despite advances in the surgical management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the identification of synchronous lesions, precancerous lesions around the main tumor, or the unknown primary in the case of neck metastasis remains a problem, as these lesions may be invisible to the naked eye or with standard white light (WL) endoscopy. However, the advent of tools such as narrow-band imaging (NBI) could help the clinician. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of NBI during the pre-operative and intra-operative stages of management of oral and oropharyngeal cancers...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Sachin C Sarode, Gargi S Sarode, Rahul Anand, Shankargouda Patil, Hemant Unadkat
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to find out the efficacy of WhatsApp application for obtaining second opinion on histopathological diagnosis in oral pathology practice. METHODS: A total of 247 cases comprising of 34 different oral pathologies were photomicrographed using smartphone cameras through compound microscopes and sent for second opinion diagnosis (SOD) to 20 different oral pathologists using WhatsApp. RESULTS: Out of 4795 (97...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Masaki Matsushita, Kenichi Mishima, Ryusaku Esaki, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh
OBJECTIVE Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) is one of the serious neurological complications in ACH. Through comprehensive drug screening, the authors identified that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited activation of FGFR3 signaling. Oral administration of meclozine to the growing ACH mice promoted longitudinal bone growth, but it did not prevent FMS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
P Morbini, M Benazzo
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is a well-defined entity mostly affecting young to middle-aged male non-smokers. It is generally associated with a favourable outcome, and for this reason a less intensive therapeutic approach has been proposed for this subset of patients. The incidence of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers is rapidly increasing in most Western countries, but detailed epidemiological data are not available for the Italian population. Furthermore, among other head and neck regions, a smaller proportion of oral high-grade dysplasia and cancers seems to depend on HPV infection, whereas its role in laryngeal cancer is recognised as less relevant...
August 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Sarron Randall-Demllo, Ruchira Fernando, Terry Brain, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Anthony L Cook, Nuri Guven, Dale Kunde, Kevin Spring, Rajaraman Eri
AIM: To determine if exacerbation of pre-existing chronic colitis in Winnie (Muc2 mutant) mice induces colonic dysplasia. METHODS: Winnie mice and C57BL6 as a genotype control, were administered 1% w/v dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) orally, followed by drinking water alone in week-long cycles for a total of three cycles. After the third cycle, mice were killed and colonic tissue collected for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Inflammation and severity of dysplasia in the colonic mucosa were assessed in H&E sections of the colon...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Renu Tanwar, Asha R Iyengar, K S Nagesh, Seema Patil, B V Subhash
CONTEXT: Tobacco abuse is a well-known risk factor for potentially malignant disorders as well as oral squamous cell carcinoma. Factors that influence tobacco-exposed individuals developing a malignancy may include the combination of total tobacco exposure and genetic susceptibility. AIM: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null polymorphism in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients in South Indian population...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Narendra T Chaudhari, Jagdish V Tupkari, Tabita Joy, Manisha S Ahire
BACKGROUND: Mammalian mismatch repair system is responsible for maintaining genomic stability during repeated duplications, and human MutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) protein constitutes an important part of it. Various isolated studies have reported the altered expression of hMLH1 in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Research is lacking in the quantitative estimation and comparison of hMLH1 expression in OL and OSCC. AIMS: To evaluate, quantify and compare hMLH1 immunoexpression in normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Veeran Veeravarmal, Ravi David Austin, Nagini Siddavaram, Sambanthan Thiruneelakandan, Mohamed Hanifa Mohamed Nassar
CONTEXT: The epithelium atrophy, as the oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) progresses, is believed to be an after effect of stromal fibrosis, hyalinization, decrease in vascularity and cellularity and is considered as "ischemic atrophy." Due to hypoxia, caspase-3 get activation and subsequent decrease in viable cell count can occur. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine caspase-3 expression in various grades of OSMF and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to find out whether upregulation of apoptosis is responsible for the epithelial changes in OSMF...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Rashmi G S Phulari, Rajendrasinh S Rathore, Trupti Pramod Talegaon
BACKGROUND: Various clinical and histological factors have helped in predicting the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, there has been a need for more specialized diagnostic and prognostic factors to avoid subjective variation among opinion. Thus, fractal dimension (FD) can be used as an index of the morphological changes that the epithelial cells undergo during their transformation into neoplastic cell. In oral cancer study, nuclear FD (NFD) can be used as a quantitative index to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and neoplastic oral mucosa...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Soussan Irani, Alireza Monsef Esfahani, Anahita Ghorbani
BACKGROUNDS: Lichen planus is a chronic systemic disease and oral mucosa is commonly involved. Oral lichen planus (OLP) most commonly affects middle-aged women. The prevalence of the disease ranges between 0.5% and 2.6% in the general population and the range of malignant transformation varies between 0% and 10%. OBJECTIVES: To assess the rate of malignant transformation of OLP samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out on 112 medical records of patients with histological diagnosis of OLP who attended the Department of Pathology at the Educational Hospital from 2005 to 2012...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Sahana Srinath, Asha R Iyengar, Vijaya Mysorekar
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed the involvement of hedgehog (Hh) signaling component in proliferation and invasive behavior of many carcinomas. AIM: This study aims to identify the expression of sonic Hh (SHH) protein of SHH pathway in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using SHH (H-160) (Santa Cruz, sc-9042) which could have therapeutic implication in future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 250 cases comprising 50 normal oral mucosa, 50 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, 50 well, 50 moderate and 50 poorly differentiated OSCCs were included in the study...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Hayat Aynaou, Imane Skiker, Hanane Latrech
INTRODUCTION: Pycnodysostosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by osteosclerosis and bone fragility. The clinical aspects are varied including short stature, acro-osteolysis of distal phalanges, and dysplasia of the clavicles. Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of this disease are very clear. The head is usually large, a beaked nose, obtuse mandibular angle, and both maxilla and mandible are hypoplastic. Dental abnormalities are common. We report a case with the typical clinical and radiological characteristics of the Pycnodysostosis associated with a conductive hearing loss, an association rarely reported...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Bo Yang, Xiangyu Gao, Yi Ren, Yun Wang, Qinglin Zhang
The aim of the present study was to analyze the changes of plasma and urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in preterm infants with symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA) treated with oral ibuprofen and acetaminophen. A total of 87 preterm infants with sPDA admitted to the Neonatal Ward of the Affiliated Xuzhou Hospital of Medical College of Southeast University from October, 2012 to June, 2015 were selected and randomly divided into the ibuprofen group (n=43, 10 mg/kg ibuprofen administered orally as initial dose, followed by 5 mg/kg during the first 24 and 48 h later) and acetaminophen group (n=44, 15 mg/kg acetaminophen administered orally once every 6 h for three days)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Y Pu, Y Wang, X Huang, S Chen, Z Wang, G Sun, E Tang, S Zhao, Y Ni, Q Hu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance between different margin statuses and local recurrence rate in patients undergoing primary surgical treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Five hundred and thirty-nine patients with T1-4N0M0 OSCC, who underwent surgery alone at a stomatology hospital in Nanjing, China during the years 2005-2014, were included. Tumour and margin status were assessed. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method...
November 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Kei Sakamoto
Notch signaling is involved in cell-cell communication. It is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism and plays a fundamental role in development. The typical function of Notch signaling is the regulation of cell fate segregation at asymmetric division; however, a role in tumorigenesis has also been suggested. Inactivating mutations of NOTCH1 are present in about 10 % of cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, oral cavity, esophagus, and lung, rendering it one of the most frequently mutated genes in squamous cell carcinoma...
September 26, 2016: Pathology International
Ryszard Grenda, Wioletta Jarmużek, Joanna Latoszyńska, Sylwester Prokurat, Jacek Rubik
SIOD is rare disorder related to SMARCAL1 or SMARCAL2 gene mutation, including (among other comorbidities) T-cell immunodeficiency, nephrotic syndrome, and renal failure. Up to 22% of primary patients may develop various autoimmune disorders. We report the case of 11-year-old male with SIOD, who presented ITP at 2 years after renal transplantation with decrease in platelet count (from normal) to 56 000/μL and then (gradually) to 2000/μL. There was no effect of iv. methylprednisolone/dexamethasone. As the presence of antibodies against GPIIb/IIIa, GPIb, and GPIaIIa platelet glycoproteins was confirmed, patient was given 50 g of IVIG and then was put on plasmapheresis; however, both showed poor direct effect...
September 26, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Sascha Meyer, Ludwig Gortner
The aim of the NeoVitaA Trial is to assess the role of postnatal additional high-dose oral vitamin A supplementation for 28 days in reducing Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). All infants (both intervention and control group) will be provided with basic vitamin A (1000 IU/kg/day) in addition to trial intervention.In this short communication, we will give an up-date on obstacles, challenges as well as perspectives and potential solutions when putting into place a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial in this cohort of extremely susceptible infants...
September 26, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Xiaoming Yuan, Guangrong Zhou, Yan He, Aiwen Feng
BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysplasia and adenomatous polyps of colorectum are precancerous lesions. Surgical removal is still one of the important treatment approaches for colorectal polyps. CASE PRESENTATION: A male patient over 78 years was admitted due to bloody stool and abdominal pain. Colonoscopic biopsy showed a high-grade epithelial dysplasia in an adenomatous polyp of sigmoid colon. Anemia, COPD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), arrhythmias, and hypoproteinemia were comorbidities...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Farzaneh Agha-Hosseini, Nafiseh Sheykhbahaei, Maryam-Sadat SadrZadeh-Afshar
AIM: Many studies have suggested that a lesion originally diagnosed as oral lichen planus (OLP) has different possibilities of undergoing malignant transformation in time, although these findings remain a controversial issue; for example, some studies reported different values of potential malignancy of OLP. INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization (WHO) classifies OLP as a "potentially malignant disorder" with unspecified malignant transformation risk, and suggests that OLP patients should be closely monitored...
2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
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