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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166654/therapeutic-efficacy-of-equine-botulism-antitoxin-in-rhesus-macaques
#1
Shantha Kodihalli, Andrew Emanuel, Teresa Takla, Yi Hua, Charles Hobbs, Ross LeClaire, Denise C O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: There are currently no licensed vaccines available for prevention of botulism in humans. The vaccination is not desirable due to expanding therapeutic indications of botulinum toxins. The only available specific treatment for botulism is antitoxin to remove circulating toxin, thus, preventing further neuronal damage. BAT® (Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G)-(Equine)) has been developed and its therapeutic efficacy evaluated against botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) in Rhesus macaques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166336/valganciclovir-prophylaxis-versus-preemptive-therapy-in-cytomegalovirus-positive-renal-allograft-recipients-long-term-results-after-7-years-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Oliver Witzke, Martin Nitschke, Michael Bartels, Heiner Wolters, Gunter Wolf, Petra Reinke, Ingeborg A Hauser, Ulrich Alshuth, Volker Kliem
BACKGROUND: The VIPP study compared valganciclovir prophylaxis with preemptive treatment regarding efficacy, safety and long-term graft outcome in CMV-positive (R+) renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical study with a 12-month study phase and a follow-up of up to 84 months. Patients in the prophylaxis group received 2x450 mg/day oral valganciclovir for 100 days adjusted to renal function. Preemptive treatment with 2x900 mg/day valganciclovir was initiated at a viral load of ≥400 CMV copies/mL (PCR) and maintained over ≥14 days, followed by secondary prophylaxis...
November 22, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166257/raoultella-planticola-a-rare-cause-of-wound-infection
#3
Shana S Kalaria, Kristina Elliott, Neal Combs, Linda G Phillips
Raoultella planticola is a gram-negative, aerobic, rod bacterium commonly found in the environment, particularly in water, soil, and fish. This organism has been found to cause a variety of infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, cystitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, hepatic disease, and soft tissue infections. The authors report the case of a 73-year-old-woman who presented with a R planticola wound infection of her left lower extremity after a dog scratch. She was treated successfully with local wound care using dehydrated human amnion/chorion and oral levofloxacin...
November 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166126/nutrient-sensing-biology-in-mammals-and-birds
#4
Eugeni Roura, Simon R Foster
Nutrient sensing mechanisms have emerged as the fringe articulating nutritional needs with dietary choices. Carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral, and water sensing receptors are highly conserved across mammals and birds, consisting of a repertoire of 22 genes known to date. In contrast, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. In addition, the expression of nutrient sensing genes outside the oral cavity seems to mediate the required decision-making dialogue between the gut and the brain by translating exogenous chemical stimuli into neuronal inputs, and vice versa, to translate the endogenous signals relevant to the nutritional status into specific appetites and the control of feed intake...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165844/oral-microbiomes-from-hunter-gatherers-and-traditional-farmers-reveal-shifts-in-commensal-balance-and-pathogen-load-linked-to-diet
#5
Florent Lassalle, Matteo Spagnoletti, Matteo Fumagalli, Liam Shaw, Mark Dyble, Catherine Walker, Mark G Thomas, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Francois Balloux
Maladaptation to modern diets has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Given the higher prevalence of disease such as dental caries and chronic gum diseases in industrialized societies, we sought to investigate the impact of different subsistence strategies on oral health and physiology, as documented by the oral microbiome. To control for confounding variables such as environment and host genetics, we sampled saliva from three pairs of populations of hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers living in close proximity in the Philippines...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165101/therapeutic-potentials-and-cytochrome-p450-mediated-interactions-involving-herbal-products-indicated-for-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Cyprian Ogbonna Onyeji, Sharon I Igbinoba, Gbola Olayiwola
There has been an increase in the use of herbal products to complement conventional drugs in the treatment of various diseases especially in developing countries. This may be attributable to the relatively cost-effectiveness and ease of accessibility of these products as well as the perception of their safety profiles. However, there are numerous literature reports on herbs altering the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of other co-administered drugs thereby modulating the therapeutic outcomes. The prevalence of diabetes is on a steady increase worldwide and it is now identified as one of the main threats to human health...
November 20, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165026/comparative-evaluation-of-oral-and-dento-maxillofacial-manifestation-of-patients-with-sickle-cell-diseases-and-beta-thalassemia-major
#7
Salmeh Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza Younesi, Vahid Asgary
BACKGROUND: Regarding the importance of oral and dental health in patients with hemoglobinopathies and also due to the different results of different studies in this background, in patients with beta thalassemia (BTM) and sickle cell disease (SCD), this study aimed to evaluate and compare the oral and dental manifestations of patients with BTM and SCD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study during the years 2014-2017, a total of 175 patients (with documented BTM or SCD attending to Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan, and Tabriz cities central hospitals) were randomly recruited...
November 22, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164566/drug-related-oral-malodour-halitosis-a-literature-review
#8
M Torsten, G Gómez-Moreno, A Aguilar-Salvatierra
Dry mouth (xerostomia), is a fairly common, well-researched condition, which is an indirect cause of oral malodour. This systematic literature review looked into another cause of bad breath: adverse drug reactions in the orofacial region causing halitosis. The study focused on extraoral halitosis, and its subdivisions, particularly blood borne halitosis in which malodourous compounds in the blood stream are carried to the lungs, passively diffused across the pulmonary alveolar membrane to enter the breath. An electronic search was conducted in various databases...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164561/study-of-prevalence-and-influencing-factors-of-depression-in-tumor-patients-and-the-therapeutic-effects-of-fluoxetine
#9
J Dai, N Liao, J Shi, J-Q Tao
OBJECTIVE: To observe the depression in patients with malignant tumor and influencing factors of the disease, as well as to investigate the effects of fluoxetine on depressive symptoms in cancer patients and the immune function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 262 patients with malignant tumors, confirmed by pathological and radiological diagnosis as malignant tumor were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group with chemotherapy; the treatment group with chemotherapy and 20 mg/d fluoxetine for six weeks...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164519/atorvastatin-prevents-early-oxidative-events-and-modulates-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-striatum-following-intranasal-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-administration-in-rats
#10
Naiani F Marques, Adalberto A Castro, Gianni Mancini, Fernanda L Rocha, Adair R S Santos, Rui D Prediger, Andreza Fabro De Bem, Carla I Tasca
Atorvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor with cholesterol-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Increasing evidence show atorvastatin acts as a protective agent against insults in the central nervous system (CNS). The regular use of statins has been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) development. Here, we evaluated early events involved in the neurotoxicity induced by intranasal (i.n.) infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in rats and the potential of atorvastatin to prevent these early toxic events...
November 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164415/decrease-of-insoluble-glucan-formation-in-streptococcus-mutans-by-co-cultivation-with-enterococcus-faecium-t7-and-glucanase-addition
#11
Shin-Hye Yu, So-Hyung Kwak, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Ye-Seul Seo, Chaeri Song, Il Kyoon Mok, Doman Kim
OBJECTIVES: To develop preventive canine oral health bio-materials consisting of probiotics and glucanase to reduce insoluble glucan and volatile sulfur compound formation. RESULTS: Co-cultivation of Enterococcus faecium T7 with Streptococcus mutans at inoculation ratio of 3:1 (v/v) resulted in 25% reduction in the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Amounts of soluble and insoluble glucans produced by S. mutans were decreased to 70 and 55%, respectively. Insoluble glucan was decreased from 0...
November 21, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164142/pathogenesis-molecular-genetics-and-genomics-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-the-etiologic-agent-of-johne-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Govardhan Rathnaiah, Denise K Zinniel, John P Bannantine, Judith R Stabel, Yrjö T Gröhn, Michael T Collins, Raúl G Barletta
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in ruminants causing chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, and muscular wasting. Neonates and young animals are infected primarily by the fecal-oral route. MAP attaches to, translocates via the intestinal mucosa, and is phagocytosed by macrophages. The ensuing host cellular immune response leads to granulomatous enteritis characterized by a thick and corrugated intestinal wall. We review various tissue culture systems, ileal loops, and mice, goats, and cattle used to study MAP pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163785/tm5441-a-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-inhibitor-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Seon Myeong Lee, Debra Dorotea, Inji Jung, Tetsuo Nakabayashi, Toshio Miyata, Hunjoo Ha
Recent evidences showed that elevation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) was responsible in mediating obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of TM5441, an oral PAI-1 inhibitor that lacks of bleeding risk, on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD. HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice was daily treated with 20 mg/kg TM5441. To examine the preventive effect, 10-week-treatment was started along with initiation of HFD; alternatively, 4-week-treatment was started in mice with glucose intolerance in the interventional strategy...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163734/risk-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-assessment-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-taif-saudi-arabia
#14
Reem Mohammed Noor Kalakattawi, Afnan Mohammed Noor Kalakattawi, Faisal Adel Alsuqati, Sultanh Abdullah Alzhrani, Abdulmohsen Hamad Alhamyani, Abdulaziz Hamad Alhamyani, Abrar Abdullah Al-Ghamdi, Ibtesam Mohammad Alosaimi, Salwa Ibrahim Abbas, Lojain AbdulAziz Al-Shehri, Abdulrahman Ahmad Alzahrani
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition in middle-aged persons worldwide. The major factor risk of this disease is obesity. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed at King Abdul-Aziz Specialist Hospital. A STOP-BANG questionnaire formed of eight questions was used to assess the risk of OSA among type 2 diabetic patients. The scoring scale is categorized into three groups: low (0 - 2), intermediate (3 - 4) and high (5 - 8), respectively...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163730/association-between-dental-caries-and-body-mass-index-in-schoolchildren-aged-between-14-and-16-years-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#15
Ahmed Abdullah Alghamdi, Ahmed Almahdy
Background: Dental caries and obesity are multifactorial diseases that have common risk factors. Studies worldwide reported varied outcomes about the association between dental caries and obesity. There is no published study that investigates this association among schoolchildren in Arabic countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dental caries (DMFT) and body mass index (BMI) for children aged between 14 and 16 years old in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The role of oral hygiene habits, parent's education, sugar consumption and physical activity in causing both diseases was also evaluated...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163699/comparison-of-adjuvant-folfox4-chemotherapy-and-oral-ufur-lv-following-adjuvant-folfox4-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-stage-iii-colon-cancer-subsequent-to-radical-resection
#16
Ming-Yii Huang, Chun-Ming Huang, Hsiang-Lin Tsai, Ching-Wen Huang, Hui-Min Hsieh, Yung-Sung Yeh, Jeng-Yih Wu, Wen-Ming Wang, Jaw-Yuan Wang
The present study aimed to demonstrate the potential advantage of oral uracil-tegafur (UFUR)/leucovorin (LV) as the subsequent therapy in patients with stage III colon cancer following adjuvant LV, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) chemotherapy. Of a total 143 patients, 62 patients received only FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy (FOLFOX4 biweekly × 12 cycles for 6 months), and 81 patients received FOLFOXU adjuvant treatment (which consisted of FOLFOX4 biweekly × 12 cycles for 6 months followed by oral UFUR/LV for an additional 6 months)...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163698/cytokeratin-17-mrna-as-a-prognostic-marker-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Ryoji Kitamura, Takeshi Toyoshima, Hideaki Tanaka, Shintaro Kawano, Ryota Matsubara, Yuichi Goto, Teppei Jinno, Yasuyuki Maruse, Kazunari Oobu, Seiji Nakamura
Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances, the 5-year survival rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains between 70-80% due to recurrences and secondary metastases to cervical lymph nodes. It is difficult to find these recurrences and metastases postoperatively, thus, careful follow-up is recommended. Cytokeratins (CKs) are intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton and candidate prognostic biomarkers for OSCC, as they are overexpressed in OSCC compared with normal mucosa. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative levels of occurrence of 3 CK mRNA (CK17, CK19, CK20) transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163553/ppargamma-deficiency-counteracts-thymic-senescence
#18
David Ernszt, Krisztina Banfai, Zoltan Kellermayer, Attila Pap, Janet M Lord, Judit E Pongracz, Krisztian Kvell
Thymic senescence contributes to increased incidence of infection, cancer and autoimmunity at senior ages. This process manifests as adipose involution. As with other adipose tissues, thymic adipose involution is also controlled by PPARgamma. This is supported by observations reporting that systemic PPARgamma activation accelerates thymic adipose involution. Therefore, we hypothesized that decreased PPARgamma activity could prevent thymic adipose involution, although it may trigger metabolic adverse effects...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163479/discriminating-between-interstitial-and-circulating-leukocytes-in-tissues-of-the-murine-oral-mucosa-avoiding-nasal-associated-lymphoid-tissue-contamination
#19
Peter D Bittner-Eddy, Lori A Fischer, Andy A Tu, Daniel A Allman, Massimo Costalonga
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory response to a microbial biofilm that destroys bone and soft tissues supporting the teeth. Murine models of periodontitis based on Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) colonization have shown that extravasation of leukocytes into oral tissue is critical to driving alveolar bone destruction. Identifying interstitial leukocytes is key to understanding the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis. Here, we describe a robust flow cytometry assay based on intravenous FITC-conjugated anti-mouse CD45 mAb that distinguishes interstitial leukocytes in the oral mucosa of mice from those circulating within the vasculature or in post-dissection contaminating blood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163418/pharmacodynamics-pharmacokinetics-and-antiviral-activity-of-bay-81-8781-a-novel-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibiting-anti-influenza-drug
#20
Karoline Droebner, Emanuel Haasbach, Sabine E Dudek, Gerhard Scheuch, Karlheinz Nocker, Sebastian Canisius, Christina Ehrhardt, Georges von Degenfeld, Stephan Ludwig, Oliver Planz
Influenza is a respiratory disease that causes annual epidemics. Antiviral treatment options targeting the virus exist, but their efficiency is limited and influenza virus strains easily develop resistance. Thus, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. In the present study, we investigated the anti-influenza virus properties of D,L-lysine acetylsalicylate ⋅ glycine (BAY 81-8781; LASAG) that is approved as Aspirin i.v. for intravenous application. Instead of targeting the virus directly BAY 81-8781 inhibits the activation of the NF-κB pathway, which is required for efficient influenza virus propagation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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