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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195147/geosmin-producing-species-of-coelosphaerium-synechococcales-cyanobacteria-in-lake-shinji-japan
#1
T Godo, Y Saki, Y Nojiri, M Tsujitani, S Sugahara, S Hayashi, H Kamiya, S Ohtani, Y Seike
In Lake Shinji, Japan, periodic outbreaks of musty odour have occurred since mid-May 2007. Although the substance responsible for the odour was identified as geosmin, the odour-producing organism was unknown. We cultivated an axenic unialgal strain and determined that a species of Coelosphaerium (Synechococcales) was responsible for the production of geosmin in Lake Shinji. Our analysis was conducted using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the odorous compound. To determine the algae species, it was observed by optical microscopy to describe its morphological characteristics and the polymerase chain reaction was used to characterise the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140505/n-2-substituted-2-deoxyguanosine-triphosphate-derivatives-as-selective-substrates-for-human-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE%C2%BA
#2
A S Prakasha Gowda, Marietta Lee, Thomas E Spratt
N(2) -Alkyl-2'-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (N(2) -alkyl-dGTP) derivatives with methyl, butyl, benzyl, or 4-ethynylbenzyl substituents were prepared and tested as substrates for human DNA polymerases. N(2) -Benzyl-dGTP was equal to dGTP as a substrate for DNA polymerase κ (pol κ), but was a poor substrate for pols β, δ, η, ι, or ν. In vivo reactivity was evaluated through incubation of N(2) -4-ethynylbenzyl-dG with wild-type and pol κ deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. CuAAC reaction with 5(6)-FAM-azide demonstrated that only cells containing pol κ were able to incorporate N(2) -4-ethynylbenzyl-dG into the nucleus...
January 31, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104409/gigantol-from-dendrobium-chrysotoxum-lindl-binds-and-inhibits-aldose-reductase-gene-to-exert-its-anti-cataract-activity-an-in-vitro-mechanistic-study
#3
Jie Wu, Xue Li, Wencheng Wan, Qiaohong Yang, Weifeng Ma, Dan Chen, Jiangmiao Hu, C-Y Oliver Chen, Xiaoyong Wei
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dendrobium. chrysotoxum Lindl is a commonly used species of medicinal Dendrobium which belongs to the family of Orchidaceae, locally known as "Shihu" or "Huangcao". D. chrysotoxum Lindl is widely known for medicinal values in traditional Chinese medicine as it possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic induction, antitumor and antioxidant properties. STUDY AIM: To characterize the interaction between gigantol extracted from D...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098911/diagnosis-for-choroideremia-in-a-large-chinese-pedigree-by-next%C3%A2-generation-sequencing-ngs-and-non%C3%A2-invasive-prenatal-testing-nipt
#4
Li Zhu, Jingliang Cheng, Boxu Zhou, Chunli Wei, Weichan Yang, Dong Jiang, Iqra Ijaz, Xiaojun Tan, Rui Chen, Junjiang Fu
To develop an effective strategy to isolate and use cell‑free fetal DNA (cffDNA) for the combined use of next‑generation sequencing (NGS) for diagnosing choroideremia and non‑invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Y chromosome determination, a large Chinese family with an X‑linked recessive disease, choroideremia, was recruited. Cell‑free DNA was extracted from maternal plasma, and SRY polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using NIPT. Sanger sequencing was subsequently used for fetal amniotic fluid DNA verification...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092942/advances-in-structural-and-single-molecule-methods-for-investigating-dna-lesion-bypass-and-repair-polymerases
#5
Austin T Raper, Andrew J Reed, Varun V Gadkari, Zucai Suo
Innovative advances in X-ray crystallography and single-molecule biophysics have yielded unprecedented insight into the mechanisms of DNA lesion bypass and damage repair. Time-dependent X-ray crystallography has been successfully applied to view the bypass of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanine (8-oxoG), a major oxidative DNA lesion, and the incorporation of the triphosphate form, 8-oxo-dGTP, catalyzed by human DNA polymerase β. Significant findings of these studies are highlighted here, and their contributions to the current mechanistic understanding of mutagenic translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and base excision repair are discussed...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077248/alternative-splicing-at-exon-2-results-in-the-loss-of-the-catalytic-activity-of-mouse-dna-polymerase-iota-in-vitro
#6
Konstantin Y Kazachenko, Nataliya A Miropolskaya, Leonid V Gening, Vyacheslav Z Tarantul, Alena V Makarova
Y-family DNA polymerase iota (Pol ι) possesses both DNA polymerase and dRP lyase activities and was suggested to be involved in DNA translesion synthesis and base excision repair in mammals. The 129 strain of mice and its derivatives have a natural nonsense codon mutation in the second exon of the Pol ι gene resulting in truncation of the Pol ι protein. These mice were widely used as a Pol ι-null model for in vivo studies of the Pol ι function. However whether 129-derived strains of mice are fully deficient in the Pol ι functions was a subject of discussion since Pol ι mRNA undergoes alternative splicing at exon 2...
February 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067843/maintenance-of-genome-integrity-how-mammalian-cells-orchestrate-genome-duplication-by-coordinating-replicative-and-specialized-dna-polymerases
#7
REVIEW
Ryan Barnes, Kristin Eckert
Precise duplication of the human genome is challenging due to both its size and sequence complexity. DNA polymerase errors made during replication, repair or recombination are central to creating mutations that drive cancer and aging. Here, we address the regulation of human DNA polymerases, specifically how human cells orchestrate DNA polymerases in the face of stress to complete replication and maintain genome stability. DNA polymerases of the B-family are uniquely adept at accurate genome replication, but there are numerous situations in which one or more additional DNA polymerases are required to complete genome replication...
January 6, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034630/defect-of-fe-s-cluster-binding-by-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-in-yeast-suppresses-uv-induced-mutagenesis-but-enhances-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-dependent-spontaneous-mutagenesis
#8
E I Stepchenkova, E R Tarakhovskaya, H M Siebler, Y I Pavlov
Eukaryotic genomes are duplicated by a complex machinery, utilizing high fidelity replicative B-family DNA polymerases (pols) α, δ and ε. Specialized error-prone pol ζ, the fourth B-family member, is recruited when DNA synthesis by the accurate trio is impeded by replication stress or DNA damage. The damage tolerance mechanism dependent on pol ζ prevents DNA/genome instability and cell death at the expense of increased mutation rates. The pol switches occurring during this specialized replication are not fully understood...
December 9, 2016: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011627/enhancing-nad-salvage-metabolism-is-neuroprotective-in-a-pink1-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Susann Lehmann, Samantha H Y Loh, L Miguel Martins
Familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) caused by mutations in PINK1 are linked to mitochondrial impairment. Defective mitochondria are also found in Drosophila models of PD with pink1 mutations. The co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is essential for both generating energy in mitochondria and nuclear DNA repair through NAD(+)-consuming poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). We found alterations in NAD(+) salvage metabolism in Drosophila pink1 mutants and showed that a diet supplemented with the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide rescued mitochondrial defects and protected neurons from degeneration...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009602/ewsr1-fusions-with-creb-family-transcription-factors-define-a-novel-myxoid-mesenchymal-tumor-with-predilection-for-intracranial-location
#10
Yu-Chien Kao, Yun-Shao Sung, Lei Zhang, Chun-Liang Chen, Sumathi Vaiyapuri, Marc K Rosenblum, Cristina R Antonescu
Recurrent gene fusions involving EWSR1 with members of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) family (ATF1 and CREB1) have been reported in a diverse group of tumors including angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH), soft tissue and gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma, primary pulmonary myxoid sarcoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland. We have recently encountered a group of 5 myxoid mesenchymal tumors positive for EWSR1 fusions with one of the CREB family member (ATF1, CREB1, and CREM), with histologic features distinct from any of the previously described pathologic entities...
December 22, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998428/-mutation-analysis-for-two-hypophosphatasia-families-with-targeted-next-generation-sequencing
#11
Y Bai, N Liu, J Yang, Y Guo, X D Kong
Objective: To detect the mutations in alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) gene of two Chinese families with perinatal hypophosphatasia (HPP), in order to explore the mechanism of this condition. Methods: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of osteology system panel was carried out for exome sequencing in the mothers of 2 HPP fetuses, who visited Prenatal Diagnosis Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing validation was performed in the parents, affected fetuses and 200 unrelated healthy individuals to verify the mutation sites...
December 13, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935598/the-gene-polymorphisms-of-il-8-251t-a-and-ip-10-1596c-t-are-associated-with-susceptibility-and-progression-of-type-2-diabetic-retinopathy-in-northern-chinese-population
#12
L Dong, J Bai, X Jiang, M-M Yang, Y Zheng, H Zhang, D Lin
PurposeThe aim of the present study is to investigate the association of the polymorphism of two genes in CXC chemokine family, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), with both susceptibility and progression of DR in T2D population of northern China.Patients and methodsA total of 1043 eligible type 2 diabetic patients from Heilongjiang of northern China were recruited for this study. They were grouped into: with diabetic retinopathy (DR, 528 cases) and without diabetic retinopathy (DNR, 515 cases)...
December 9, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914563/differential-effects-of-testosterone-and-estradiol-on-clitoral-function-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#13
Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Sandra Filippi, Chiara Corno, Francesca Corcetto, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Maneschi, Elisa Maseroli, Edoardo Mannucci, Massimiliano Fambrini, Mario Maggi, Linda Vignozzi
INTRODUCTION: Female sexual response is a complex phenomenon in which psychological, neurologic, and vascular mechanisms and hormonal factors interact. During the arousal phase, they cooperate to increase genital blood flow, thus inducing engorgement of the clitoris and lubrication of the vagina. Regulation of vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle tone is the crucial event in the erectile process. Preclinical studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) is the main vasodilator neurotransmitter modulating, through the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), clitoral flow vessels...
December 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914036/prolactin-regulatory-element-binding-protein-is-involved-in-suppression-of-the-adiponectin-gene-in-vivo
#14
X Z Zhang, H Imachi, J Y Lyu, K Fukunaga, S Sato, T Ibata, T Kobayashi, T Yoshimoto, F Kikuchi, T Dong, K Murao
PURPOSE: Prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB), a member of the WD-repeat protein family, has been recognized as a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin promoter activity in the anterior pituitary of rats. PREB is expressed not only in the pituitary but also in various other tissues, including the adipose tissue. Previous studies have shown that PREB acts as a transcriptional regulator and suppresses the expression of the adiponectin gene in cultured 3T3L1 preadipocytes...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898817/genome-wide-identification-of-the-ap2-erf-gene-family-involved-in-active-constituent-biosynthesis-in
#15
A J Ji, H M Luo, Z C Xu, X Zhang, Y J Zhu, B S Liao, H Yao, J Y Song, S L Chen
Tanshinones and phenolic acids are the major bioactive constituents in the traditional medicinal crop ; however, transcription factors (TFs) are seldom investigated with regard to their regulation of the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here a complete overview of the APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor family in is provided, including phylogeny, gene structure, conserved motifs, and gene expression profiles of different organs (root, stem, leaf, flower) and root tissues (periderm, phloem, xylem)...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894903/structural-basis-of-accurate-replication-beyond-a-bulky-major-benzo-a-pyrene-adduct-by-human-dna-polymerase-kappa
#16
Vikash Jha, Hong Ling
Human Y-family DNA polymerase kappa (polκ) is specialized to bypass bulky lesions in DNA in an error-free way, thus protecting cells from carcinogenic bulky DNA adducts. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is one of the most ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and an environmental carcinogen. BP covalently modifies DNA and generates mutagenic, bulky adducts. The major BP adduct formed in cells is 10S (+)-trans-anti-BP-N(2)-dG adduct (BP-dG), which is associated with cancer. The molecular mechanism of how polκ replicates BP-dG accurately is not clear...
November 19, 2016: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871341/functional-analysis-of-a-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcription-factor-in-the-immune-defense-of-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel-diptera-tephritidae
#17
Z Shi, H Liang, Y Hou
Although some novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been successfully isolated from Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these peptides are still elusive. The homolog of NF-κB transcription factor Relish, designated as BdRelish, was cloned from B. dorsalis. The full length cDNA of BdRelish is 3954 bp with an open reading frame that encodes 1013 amino acids. Similar to Drosophila Relish and the mammalian p100, it is a compound protein containing a conserved Rel homology domain, an IPT (Ig-like, plexins, transcription factors) domain and an IκB-like domain (four ankyrin repeats), the nuclear localization signal RKRRR is also detected at the residues 449-453, suggesting that it has homology to Relish and it is a member of the Rel family of transcription activator proteins...
November 22, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862447/minor-groove-3-deaza-adenosine-analogues-synthesis-and-bypass-in-translesion-dna-synthesis
#18
Stefano Malvezzi, Todor Angelov, Shana J Sturla
Anticancer drugs that alkylate DNA in the minor groove may give rise to 3-alkyl-adenosine adducts that interfere with replication, inducing apoptosis in rapidly dividing cancer cells. However, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) by polymerase enzymes (Pols) with the capacity to bypass DNA adducts may contribute to damage tolerance and drug resistance. 3-Alkyl-adenosine adducts are unstable and depurinate, which is a barrier to addressing chemical and enzymatic aspects of how they impact the progress of DNA Pols...
November 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845261/ddit3-suppresses-the-differentiation-of-mouse-chondroprogenitor-cells
#19
Miao Yu, Si-Qi Yi, Yan-Ru Wu, Hua-Ling Sun, Fang-Fang Song, Jia-Wei Wang
Endochondral ossification is an essential skeletal development process which is strongly linked to chondrocyte differentiation. DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (Ddit3), a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family of transcription factors, is highly expressed in the cartilage plate. However, the role of DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 in chondrocyte differentiation remains to be investigated. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect Ddit3 expression in the mouse growth plate and in the mouse chondroprogenitor cell line ATDC5...
December 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829007/novel-gene-expression-profile-of-women-with-intrinsic-skin-youthfulness-by-whole-transcriptome-sequencing
#20
Jin Xu, Robert C Spitale, Linna Guan, Ryan A Flynn, Eduardo A Torre, Rui Li, Inbar Raber, Kun Qu, Dale Kern, Helen E Knaggs, Howard Y Chang, Anne Lynn S Chang
While much is known about genes that promote aging, little is known about genes that protect against or prevent aging, particularly in human skin. The main objective of this study was to perform an unbiased, whole transcriptome search for genes that associate with intrinsic skin youthfulness. To accomplish this, healthy women (n = 122) of European descent, ages 18-89 years with Fitzpatrick skin type I/II were examined for facial skin aging parameters and clinical covariates, including smoking and ultraviolet exposure...
2016: PloS One
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