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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792945/cross-linking-by-epichlorohydrin-and-diepoxybutane-correlates-with-cytotoxicity-and-leads-to-apoptosis-in-human-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#1
Phuong M Le, Vanesa L Silvestri, Samuel C Redstone, Jordanne B Dunn, Julie T Millard
The bifunctional alkylating agents epichlorohydrin (ECH) and diepoxybutane (DEB) have been linked to increased cancer risks in industrial workers. These compounds react with DNA and proteins, leading to genotoxic effects. We used the comet assay to monitor formation of cross-links in HL-60 cells treated with ECH, DEB, and the structurally related anti-cancer drug mechlorethamine (HN2). We report a time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity that correlated with cross-linking activity, following the order HN2 > DEB > ECH...
May 21, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792819/distinct-mechanisms-of-transcription-initiation-by-rna-polymerases-i-and-ii
#2
Christoph Engel, Simon Neyer, Patrick Cramer
RNA polymerases I and II (Pol I and Pol II) are the eukaryotic enzymes that catalyze DNA-dependent synthesis of ribosomal RNA and messenger RNA, respectively. Recent work shows that the transcribing forms of both enzymes are similar and the fundamental mechanisms of RNA chain elongation are conserved. However, the mechanisms of transcription initiation and its regulation differ between Pol I and Pol II. Recent structural studies of Pol I complexes with transcription initiation factors provided insights into how the polymerase recognizes its specific promoter DNA, how it may open DNA, and how initiation may be regulated...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790604/synthesis-of-dihydroxyalkynyl-and-dihydroxyalkyl-nucleotides-as-building-blocks-or-precursors-for-introduction-of-diol-or-aldehyde-functions-to-dna-for-bioconjugations
#3
Matouš Krömer, Kateřina Bártová, Veronika Raindlová, Michal Hocek
(3,4-Dihydroxybut-1-ynyl)uracil, -cytosine and -7-deazaadenine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) were prepared by direct aqueous Sonogashira cross-coupling of halogenated dNTPs with dihydroxybut-1-yne and converted to 3,4-dihydroxybutyl dNTPs through catalytic hydrogenation. Sodium periodate oxidative cleavage of dihydroxybutyl-dUTP gave the desired aliphatic aldehyde-linked dUTP, whereas the oxidative cleavage of the corresponding deazaadenine dNTP gave a cyclic aminal. All dihydroxyalkyl or -alkynyl dNTPs and the formylethyl-dUTP were good substrates for DNA polymerases and were used for synthesis of diol- or aldehyde-linked DNA...
May 23, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790482/a-study-of-enterocyte-membranes-during-activation-of-apoptotic-processes-in-chronic-carrageenan-induced-gastroenterocolitis
#4
Anton Tkachenko, Dmytro Marakushyn, Iuliia Kalashnyk, Yevgen Korniyenko, Anatolii Onishchenko, Tatyana Gorbach, Oksana Nakonechna, Yevgen Posokhov, Alexander Tsygankov
Aim To investigate the lipid membranes of rat enterocytes in chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis accompanied by the activation of apoptotic processes. Methods Steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy: a study by fluorescent probes - by ortho-hydroxy derivatives of 2,5-diaryl-1,3- oxazole. Activity of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in small intestinal homogenates, blood serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and caspase-3 and the level of DNA fragmentation in small intestinal homogenates were determined...
August 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789427/impact-of-tobacco-specific-nitrosamine-derived-dna-adducts-on-the-efficiency-and-fidelity-of-dna-replication-in-human-cells
#5
Hua Du, Jiapeng Leng, Pengcheng Wang, Lin Li, Yinsheng Wang
The tobacco-derived nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N '-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are known human carcinogens. Following metabolic activation, NNK and NNN can induce a number of DNA lesions, including several 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl (POB) adducts. However, it remains unclear to what extent these lesions affect the efficiency and accuracy of DNA replication and how their replicative bypass is influenced by translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases. In this study, we investigated the effects of three stable POB DNA adducts (i...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788963/cervical-small-cell-carcinoma-frequently-presented-in-multiple-high-risk-hpv-infection-and-often-associated-with-other-type-of-epithelial-tumors
#6
Peifeng Li, Jing Ma, Xiumin Zhang, Yong Guo, Yixiong Liu, Xia Li, Danhui Zhao, Zhe Wang
BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare and highly malignant tumor, and its etiopathogenesis is strongly related to high-risk HPV infections. METHODS: The clinicopathological data of 30 cases of cervical primary small cell carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. In situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction and reverse dot-blot hybridization were employed to detect HPV DNA in both small cell carcinoma and other coexisting epithelial tumors...
May 22, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788485/enzymatic-synthesis-of-random-sequences-of-rna-and-rna-analogues-by-dna-polymerase-theta-mutants-for-the-generation-of-aptamer-libraries
#7
Irina Randrianjatovo-Gbalou, Sandrine Rosario, Odile Sismeiro, Hugo Varet, Rachel Legendre, Jean-Yves Coppée, Valérie Huteau, Sylvie Pochet, Marc Delarue
Nucleic acid aptamers, especially RNA, exhibit valuable advantages compared to protein therapeutics in terms of size, affinity and specificity. However, the synthesis of libraries of large random RNAs is still difficult and expensive. The engineering of polymerases able to directly generate these libraries has the potential to replace the chemical synthesis approach. Here, we start with a DNA polymerase that already displays a significant template-free nucleotidyltransferase activity, human DNA polymerase theta, and we mutate it based on the knowledge of its three-dimensional structure as well as previous mutational studies on members of the same polA family...
May 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788478/a-minimal-threshold-of-fancj-helicase-activity-is-required-for-its-response-to-replication-stress-or-double-strand-break-repair
#8
Sanjay Kumar Bharti, Joshua A Sommers, Sanket Awate, Marina A Bellani, Irfan Khan, Lynda Bradley, Graeme A King, Yeonee Seol, Venkatasubramanian Vidhyasagar, Yuliang Wu, Takuye Abe, Koji Kobayashi, Kazuo Shin-Ya, Hiroyuki Kitao, Marc S Wold, Dana Branzei, Keir C Neuman, Robert M Brosh
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital abnormalities, and cancer. Of over 20 FA-linked genes, FANCJ uniquely encodes a DNA helicase and mutations are also associated with breast and ovarian cancer. fancj-/- cells are sensitive to DNA interstrand cross-linking (ICL) and replication fork stalling drugs. We delineated the molecular defects of two FA patient-derived FANCJ helicase domain mutations. FANCJ-R707C was compromised in dimerization and helicase processivity, whereas DNA unwinding by FANCJ-H396D was barely detectable...
May 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788335/detection-of-hepatozoon-canis-in-the-brown-dog-tick-and-domestic-dogs-in-peninsular-malaysia
#9
Batah Kunalan Prakash, Van Lun Low, Tiong Kai Tan, Wei Yin Vinnie-Siow, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Akhavan Rezaei Morvarid, Adzzie Shazleen Azman, Yze Shiuan Yeong, Sazaly AbuBakar, Mohd Sofian-Azirun
Hepatozoon canis has been widely reported in dogs. Its prevalence in ticks, however, has not been well-established. Here we determine the occurrence of Hepatozoon DNA in the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) sensu lato (s.l.) and domestic dogs from Peninsular Malaysia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA coding sequence. Our results revealed a relatively low prevalence of H. canis DNA in both R. sanguineus s.l. (0.7%) and dogs (3...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788264/mpk-1-erk-pathway-regulates-dna-damage-response-during-development-through-daf-16-foxo
#10
Julien N Bianco, Björn Schumacher
Ultraviolet (UV) induces distorting lesions to the DNA that can lead to stalling of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and that are removed by transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). In humans, mutations in the TC-NER genes CSA and CSB lead to severe postnatal developmental defects in Cockayne syndrome patients. In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutations in the TC-NER genes csa-1 and csb-1, lead to developmental growth arrest upon UV treatment. We conducted a genetic suppressor screen in the nematode to identify mutations that could suppress the developmental defects in csb-1 mutants...
May 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788141/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-is-associated-with-decreased-levels-of-the-protein-and-a-penetrating-pattern-in-crohn-s-disease
#11
Laura Gisbert-Ferrándiz, Pedro Salvador, Dolores Ortiz-Masiá, Dulce Carolina Macías-Ceja, Samuel Orden, Juan Vicente Esplugues, Sara Calatayud, Joaquín Hinojosa, Maria Dolores Barrachina, Carlos Hernández
Background: Vitamin D signaling modulates inflammation through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs731236, located in the VDR gene, has been associated with a higher risk of Crohn's disease (CD). We analyzed differences in VDR expression levels among CD patients who were homozygous for allelic variants in this SNP and their relevance for disease course. Methods: DNA was extracted from blood samples of CD patients, and SNP genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788099/biomarkers-for-homologous-recombination-deficiency-in-cancer
#12
Michal M Hoppe, Raghav Sundar, David S P Tan, Anand D Jeyasekharan
Defective DNA repair is a common hallmark of cancer. Homologous recombination is a DNA repair pathway of clinical interest due to the sensitivity of homologous recombination-deficient cells to poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. The measurement of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in cancer is therefore vital to the appropriate design of clinical trials incorporating PARP inhibitors. However, methods to identify HRD in tumors are varied and controversial. Understanding existing and new methods to measure HRD is important to their appropriate use in clinical trials and practice...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786935/evaluation-of-pcr-primers-targeting-the-groel-gene-for-the-specific-detection-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-the-context-of-aquaculture
#13
W J Leigh, R N Zadoks, A Jaglarz, J Z Costa, G Foster, K D Thompson
AIMS: The aim of this study was to design a set of primers for specific detection and identification of Streptococcus agalactiae in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that can detect a diverse range of S. agalactiae isolates from different hosts and that it is capable of discriminating between S. agalactiae and other species that are closely related or potentially present in aquaculture environments, notably Streptococcus iniae. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primers, based on the groEL2 gene of S...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786166/a-label-free-fluorescence-method-for-detection-of-urec-gene-and-diagnosis-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#14
Leiyi Zhang, Ding Cao, Tenglong Tang, Zhongkun Zuo, Jiangsheng Huang, Lunxi Duan
The feasibility of using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based label-free DNA sensor for the detection of Helicobacter pylori is investigated. In particular, H. pylori ureC gene, a specific H. pylori nucleic acid sequence, was selected as the target sequence. In the presence of ureC gene, the target DNA could be amplified to dsDNA with much higher detectable levels. After added the SYBR green I (SGI), the sensing system could show high fluorescence. Thus, the target DNA can be detected by monitoring the change of fluorescence intensity of sensing system...
May 21, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785130/human-herpesvirus-6-pneumonitis-in-a-patient-with-follicular-lymphoma-following-immunochemotherapy-with-rituximab
#15
Saeko Kuwahara-Ota, Yoshiaki Chinen, Yoshimi Mizuno, Tomoko Takimoto-Shimomura, Yayoi Matsumura-Kimoto, Kazuna Tanba, Taku Tsukamoto, Shinsuke Mizutani, Yuji Shimura, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Shigeo Horiike, Junya Kuroda
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) commonly occurs at an early age in children, most often at 3 years of age, and is associated with childhood diseases, such as exanthema subitum, hepatitis, febrile convulsions, or encephalitis. However, the virus occasionally reactivates from its latent state in immunosuppressed adults, especially post-transplant, resulting in serious disseminated, sometimes life-threatening end-organ complications. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man with relapsed follicular lymphoma who developed HHV-6 pneumonitis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785027/targeting-g-quadruplex-dna-as-cognitive-function-therapy-for-atr-x-syndrome
#16
Norifumi Shioda, Yasushi Yabuki, Kouya Yamaguchi, Misaki Onozato, Yue Li, Kenji Kurosawa, Hideyuki Tanabe, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Takumi Era, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Takahito Wada, Kohji Fukunaga
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is caused by mutations in ATRX, which encodes a chromatin-remodeling protein. Genome-wide analyses in mouse and human cells indicate that ATRX tends to bind to G-rich sequences with a high potential to form G-quadruplexes. Here, we report that Atrx mutation induces aberrant upregulation of Xlr3b expression in the mouse brain, an outcome associated with neuronal pathogenesis displayed by ATR-X model mice. We show that ATRX normally binds to G-quadruplexes in CpG islands of the imprinted Xlr3b gene, regulating its expression by recruiting DNA methyltransferases...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784602/molecular-methods-for-diversity-assessment-among-xanthomonads-of-bulgarian-and-macedonian-pepper
#17
Taca Vancheva, Mariya Stoyanova, Elena Tasheva-Terzieva, Nevena Bogatzevska, Penka Moncheva
Bacterial spot is an important disease of pepper in Bulgaria and Macedonia. For characterization of Xanthomonas species associated with bacterial spot, 161 strains were collected from various field pepper-growing regions. Among them, 131 strains were identified as Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and 30 as Xanthomonas vesicatoria using species-specific primers and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To assess the genetic diversity of the strains, two methods (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Repetitive Element Palindromic-Polymerase Chain Reaction) were applied...
May 3, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784342/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-assisted-by-polydopamine-modified-magnetic-nanoparticles
#18
Xiaomei Gao, Xin Yao, Zitao Zhong, Li Jia
Pathogens cause significant morbidity and mortality to humans. Thus, development of fast and reliable methods for detection and identification of pathogens is urgently needed to increase protection level of public health and ensure the safety of consumers. Herein, a rapid and sensitive method has been developed for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) detection based on the dual role of polydopamine modified magnetic nanoparticles (PDA@Fe3 O4 NPs) combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE)...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782545/rosmarinic-acid-is-a-novel-inhibitor-for-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-targeting-viral-epsilon-rna-polymerase-interaction
#19
Yuta Tsukamoto, Sotaro Ikeda, Koji Uwai, Riho Taguchi, Kazuaki Chayama, Takemasa Sakaguchi, Ryo Narita, Wan-Ling Yao, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yukie Otakaki, Koichi Watashi, Takaji Wakita, Hiroki Kato, Takashi Fujita
Current therapeutics for hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients such as nucleoside analogs (NAs) are effective; however, new antiviral drugs against HBV are still desired. Since the interaction between the epsilon (ε) sequence of HBV pregenomic RNA and viral polymerase (Pol) is a key step in the HBV replication cycle, we aimed to identify small compounds for its inhibition, and established a pull-down assay system for the detection of ε-RNA-binding-Pol. Screening showed that 5 out of 3,965 compounds inhibited ε-Pol binding, and we identified rosmarinic acid, which exhibited specificity, as a potential antiviral agent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782468/potential-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-als-pathogenesis-and-possible-novel-therapeutic-strategies
#20
Letizia Mazzini, Luca Mogna, Fabiola De Marchi, Angela Amoruso, Marco Pane, Irene Aloisio, Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Francesca Gaggìa, Ausiliatrice Lucenti, Enrica Bersano, Roberto Cantello, Diana Di Gioia, Giovanni Mogna
BACKGROUND: Recent preclinical studies suggest that dysfunction of gastrointestinal tract may play a role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis through a modification of the gut microbiota brain axis. Our study is the first focused on microbiota analysis in ALS patients. AIM: Our aim was to study the main human gut microbial groups and the overall microbial diversity in ALS and healthy subjects. Moreover we have examined the influence of a treatment with a specific bacteriotherapy composed of Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius) acting on the gastrointestinal barrier...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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