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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088330/genomic-insights-in-gynecologic-cancer
#1
Erika Roddy, Jocelyn Chapman
Recent technological advances in DNA sequencing have enabled a remarkably detailed understanding of the molecular changes that define gynecologic and other cancers. Several groups have carried out large-scale genomic analyses of ovarian, uterine, and most recently, cervical cancer. These analyses have led to new insights into the molecular changes characterizing these cancers, which provide insight into clinical outcomes. These molecular characterizations have similarly led to new genomic-based classification schemas, which may better stratify clinical outcomes, help prognosticate and guide treatments...
November 11, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088196/the-antibacterial-activity-and-mechanism-of-ginkgolic-acid-c15-1
#2
Zhebin Hua, Caie Wu, Gongjian Fan, Zhenxing Tang, Fuliang Cao
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the antibacterial activity and underlying mechanisms of ginkgolic acid (GA) C15:1 monomer using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled bacteria strains. RESULTS: GA presented significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria but generally did not affect the growth of Gram-negative bacteria. The studies of the antibacterial mechanism indicated that large amounts of GA (C15:1) could penetrate GFP-labeled Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in a short period of time, and as a result, led to the quenching of GFP in bacteria...
January 14, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088103/chemically-enzymatic-synthesis-of-photosensitive-dna
#3
Kinga Westphal, Magdalena Zdrowowicz, Agnieszka Zylicz-Stachula, Janusz Rak
The sensitizing propensity of radio-/photosensitizing nucleoside depends on DNA sequence surrounding a sensitizer. Therefore, in order to compare sensitizers with regard to their ability to induce a DNA damage one has to study the sequence dependence of damage yield. However, chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides labeled with sensitizing nucleosides is hindered due to the fact that a limited number of such nucleoside phosphoramidites are accessible. Here, we report on a chemically-enzymatic method, employing a DNA polymerase and ligase, that enables a modified nucleoside, in the form of its 5'-triphosphate, to be incorporated into DNA fragment in a pre-determined site...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087988/cpg-island-methylator-phenotype-is-an-independent-predictor-of-survival-after-curative-resection-for-colorectal-cancer-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Chang Hyun Kim, Jung Wook Huh, Hyeong Rok Kim, Young Jin Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is found in approximately 30% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. However, the role of CIMP status in predicting oncologic outcomes in curatively resected CRC is still unclear. STUDY: Between January 2006 and December 2006, we retrospectively reviewed 157 consecutive patients who underwent curative surgery for CRC. Prognostic significance of CIMP status was evaluated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087741/14-3-3sigma-contributes-to-radioresistance-by-regulating-dna-repair-and-cell-cycle-via-parp1-and-chk2
#5
Yifan Chen, Zhaomin Li, Zizheng Dong, Jenny Beebe, Ke Yang, Liwu Fu, Jian-Ting Zhang
: 14-3-3sigma has been implicated in the development of chemo and radiation resistance and in poor prognosis of multiple human cancers. While it has been postulated that 14-3-3sigma contributes to these resistances via inhibiting apoptosis and arresting cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle, the molecular basis of this regulation is currently unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 14-3-3sigma causes resistance to DNA-damaging treatments by enhancing DNA repair in cells arrested in G2/M phase following DNA-damaging treatments...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087320/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-activity-and-inhibition-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Caleb Dulaney, Samuel Marcrom, Jennifer Stanley, Eddy S Yang
Genomic instability resultant from defective DNA repair mechanisms is a fundamental hallmark of cancer. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins 1, 2 and 3 catalyze the polymerization of poly(ADP-ribose) and covalent attachment to proteins in a phylogenetically ancient form of protein modification. PARPs play a role in base excision repair, homologous recombination, and non-homologous end joining. The discovery that loss of PARP activity had cytotoxic effects in cells deficient in homologous recombination has sparked a decade of translational research efforts that culminated in the FDA approval of an oral PARP inhibitor for clinical use in patients with ovarian cancer and defective homologous recombination...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081574/gstp1-and-cyp2b6-genetic-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-neonates
#7
Sophia Zachaki, Aggeliki Daraki, Elena Polycarpou, Chrysa Stavropoulou, Kalliopi N Manola, Stavroula Gavrili
Objectives Antioxidant response plays a key role in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) pathogenesis. The glutathione-S-tranferases pi 1 (GSTP1) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) detoxification enzymes protect cells from oxidative damage. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the A(313)G GSTP1 and G(516)T CYP2B6 inactivating polymorphisms could be associated with BPD susceptibility. Study Design To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study enrolled 138 premature neonates ≤32 weeks of gestational age; of the 138, 46 developed BPD and 92 did not develop BPD...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081512/association-between-herpes-simplex-virus-types-1-and-2-with-cardiac-myxoma
#8
Maryam Sotoudeh Anvari, Moud Sabagh, Hamidreza Goodarzynejad, Shayan Ziaei, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Leyla Pourgholi, Yaser Jenab, Kyomars Abbasi
Most cases of atrial myxoma are sporadic, and the exact etiology is unknown. We examined if herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 antigens and/or DNA could be detected in a cohort of Iranian patients with cardiac myxomas. From July 2004 to June 2014, among a total of 36,703 patients undergoing open heart surgeries, consecutive patients with cardiac myxoma who were treated by surgical excision at our center included in this study. Of 73 patients studied, 56% were female with a mean age of 54 years (ranging from 23 to 77 years)...
January 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081459/targeted-delivery-of-in-situ-pcr-amplified-sleeping-beauty-transposon-genes-to-cancer-cells-with-lipid-based-nanoparticle-like-protocells
#9
Kun Ma, Duo Fu, Dongli Yu, Changhao Cui, Li Wang, Zhaoming Guo, Chuanbin Mao
A Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is made of a transposon plasmid (containing gene encoding a desired functional or therapeutic protein) and a transposase plasmid (encoding an enzyme capable of cutting and pasting the gene into the host cell genome). It is a kind of natural, nonviral gene delivery vehicle, which can achieve efficient genomic insertion, providing long-term transgenic expression. However, before the SB transposon system could play a role in promoting gene expression, it has to be delivered efficiently first across cell membrane and then into cell nuclei...
January 2, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081275/role-of-xrcc1-gene-polymorphisms-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy-and-their-effect-on-clinical-and-pathological-characteristics
#10
H F Liu, J S Liu, J H Deng, R R Wu
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cancer globally. The XRCC1 protein interacts with ligase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase to repair cisplatin-induced DNA damage. The authors of previous studies have reported XRCC1 Arg399Gln, Arg280His, and Arg194Trp polymorphisms and advanced NSCLC prognosis, but the results are inconclusive. We investigated the association between clinical outcome and XRCC1 Arg399Gln, Arg280His, and Arg194Trp polymorphisms in advanced NSCLC patients treated with cisplatin...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081274/role-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-c677t-and-a1298c-polymorphisms-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-risk
#11
J B Wu, J F Zhai, J Yang
Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most frequently encountered endocrine malfunctions. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a vital role in folate metabolism, DNA methylation, and RNA synthesis. We carried out a study to investigate the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C genetic variations and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome in a Chinese population. We recruited 244 patients and 257 control subjects from an Inner Mongolian Medical University to this hospital-based, case-control study...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080920/phaeohyphomycosis-associated-with-ossification-of-the-skull-and-cervical-vertebrae-in-a-swell-shark-cephaloscyllium-ventriosum
#12
Claire D Erlacher-Reid, Hendrik H Nollens, Todd L Schmitt, Judy St Leger, Sarena Sunico
A female, captive bred, juvenile swell shark ( Cephaloscyllium ventriosum ) was observed swimming in tight circles and rolling. Radiographs and computed tomography of this individual revealed extensive cartilage mineralization of the skull and cranial cervical vertebrae compared with diagnostic images of clinically healthy conspecifics. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed ossification and fibrosis of the cartilaginous matrix of the skull and cervical vertebrae with deep invasion by a pigmented hyphal fungus...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079684/the-cif-virulence-factor-gene-is-present-in-isolates-from-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-keratitis
#13
Christopher D Bahl, Jessica D St Laurent, R Siva Ganesa Karthikeyan, J Lakshmi Priya, Lalitha Prajna, Michael E Zegans, Dean R Madden
PURPOSE: To determine whether the cif gene is present in pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with bacterial keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital, a referral eye care center in southern India, and from corresponding environmental isolates. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed on strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from ocular infections and environmental soil samples were collected from the area surrounding Aravind Eye Hospital...
January 11, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078645/parp-inhibitors-in-reproductive-system-cancers-current-use-and-developments
#14
REVIEW
Geraldine O'Sullivan Coyne, Alice P Chen, Robert Meehan, James H Doroshow
The repair of DNA damage is a critical cellular process governed by multiple biochemical pathways that are often found to be defective in cancer cells. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of proteins controls response to single-strand DNA breaks by detecting these damaged sites and recruiting the proper factors for repair. Blocking this pathway forces cells to utilize complementary mechanisms to repair DNA damage. While PARP inhibition may not, in itself, be sufficient to cause tumor cell death, inhibition of DNA repair with PARP inhibitors is an effective cytotoxic strategy when it is used in patients who carry other defective DNA-repair mechanisms, such as mutations in the genes BRCA 1 and 2...
January 11, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078444/mps-analysis-of-the-mtdna-hypervariable-regions-on-the-miseq-with-improved-enrichment
#15
Mitchell M Holland, Laura A Wilson, Sarah Copeland, Gloria Dimick, Charity A Holland, Robert Bever, Jennifer A McElhoe
The non-coding displacement (D) loop of the human mitochondrial (mt) genome contains two hypervariable regions known as HVR1 and HVR2 that are most often analyzed by forensic DNA laboratories. The massively parallel sequencing (MPS) protocol from Illumina (Human mtDNA D-Loop Hypervariable Region protocol) utilizes four sets of established PCR primer pairs for the initial amplification (enrichment) step that span the hypervariable regions. Transposase adapted (TA) sequences are attached to the 5'-end of each primer, allowing for effective library preparation prior to analysis on the MiSeq, and AmpliTaq Gold DNA polymerase is the enzyme recommended for amplification...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078123/diminished-expression-of-mgmt-rassf1a-genes-in-gastric-cancer-in-ethnic-population-of-kashmir
#16
Arif Akbar Bhat, Hilal Ahmad Wani, Ajaz Ahmad Waza, Rawoof Ahmad Malik, Akbar Masood, Showkat Jeelani, Showkat Kadla, Sabhiya Majid
BACKGROUND: Cancer initiation and progression are accompanied by profound changes in DNA. DNA methylation that was the first epigenetic alterations identified in cancer. DNA hypermethylation at promoter sites is closely associated with down regulation of protein and as major participant in the development and progression of series of human tumors. Therefore we hypothesized that promoter hypermethylation of RASSF1A & MGMT gene could influence susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC) as well, and we conducted this study to test the hypothesis in Kashmiri population...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077981/dna-polymerase-kappa-protects-human-cells-against-mmc-induced-genotoxicity-through-error-free-translesion-dna-synthesis
#17
Yuki Kanemaru, Tetsuya Suzuki, Akira Sassa, Kyomu Matsumoto, Noritaka Adachi, Masamitsu Honma, Satoshi Numazawa, Takehiko Nohmi
BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and environment are critical factors for causing cancer in humans. The genotoxicity of environmental chemicals can be enhanced via the modulation of susceptible genes in host human cells. DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) is a specialized DNA polymerase that plays an important role in DNA damage tolerance through translesion DNA synthesis. To better understand the protective roles of Pol κ, we previously engineered two human cell lines either deficient in expression of Pol κ (KO) or expressing catalytically dead Pol κ (CD) in Nalm-6-MSH+ cells and examined cytotoxic sensitivity against various genotoxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077747/first-molecular-identifications-of-necator-americanus-and-ancylostoma-ceylanicum-infecting-rural-communities-in-lower-myanmar
#18
Win Pa Pa Aung, Thi Thi Htoon, Htay Htay Tin, Oranuch Sanpool, Jurairat Jongthawin, Lakkhana Sadaow, Issarapong Phosuk, Rutchanee Ropai, Pewpan M Intapan, Wanchai Maleewong
Hookworms are enteric parasitic roundworms infecting an estimated 400 million persons worldwide. Herein, we provide the first molecular identifications of human hookworms from certain parts of rural Lower Myanmar. DNA was extracted from hookworm-positive stool samples, as determined by microscopy. DNA sequences of the partial internal transcribed spacer 1, full length 5.8S gene, and partial internal transcribed spacer 2 were determined and compared with available hookworm sequences from public databases. Of the 11 polymerase chain reaction-positive samples, eight (Bago Region, N = 4; Mon State, N = 4) yielded sequences with high similarity to those of Necator americanus A further three sequences (Mon State, N = 2; Bago Region, N = 1) showed high similarity with those of Ancylostoma ceylanicum The latter is primarily a parasite of dogs and represents a zoonosis...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077616/different-modes-of-enhancer-specific-regulation-by-runt-and-even-skipped-during-drosophila-segmentation
#19
Saiyu Hang, J Peter Gergen
The initial metameric expression of the Drosophila sloppy paired 1 (slp1) gene is controlled by two distinct cis-regulatory DNA elements that interact in a non-additive manner to integrate inputs from transcription factors encoded by the pair-rule segmentation genes. We performed Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation (ChIP) on reporter genes containing these elements in different embryonic genotypes to investigate the mechanism of their regulation. The Distal Early Stripe Element (DESE) mediates both activation and repression by Runt...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077379/effects-of-supplementation-with-nondigestible-carbohydrates-on-fecal-calprotectin-and-on-epigenetic-regulation-of-sfrp1-expression-in-the-large-bowel-mucosa-of-healthy-individuals
#20
Fiona C Malcomson, Naomi D Willis, Iain McCallum, Long Xie, Idoia Ibero-Baraibar, Wing C Leung, Seamus Kelly, D Michael Bradburn, Nigel J Belshaw, Ian T Johnson, John C Mathers
BACKGROUND: Hyperactive Wnt signaling is frequently observed in colorectal cancer. Higher intakes of dietary fiber [nondigestible carbohydrates (NDCs)] and the fermentation product butyrate are protective against colorectal cancer and may exert their preventative effects via modulation of the Wnt pathway. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of supplementing healthy individuals with 2 NDCs [resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose] on fecal calprotectin concentrations and Wnt pathway-related gene expression...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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