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Contact force

Tiffany L Chen, Tapomayukh Bhattacharjee, Jenay M Beer, Lena H Ting, Madeleine E Hackney, Wendy A Rogers, Charles C Kemp
Partner dance has been shown to be beneficial for the health of older adults. Robots could potentially facilitate healthy aging by engaging older adults in partner dance-based exercise. However, partner dance involves physical contact between the dancers, and older adults would need to be accepting of partner dancing with a robot. Using methods from the technology acceptance literature, we conducted a study with 16 healthy older adults to investigate their acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise...
2017: PloS One
Torben Daeneke, Paul Atkin, Rebecca Orrell-Trigg, Ali Zavabeti, Taimur Ahmed, Sumeet Walia, Maning Liu, Yasuhiro Tachibana, Maria Javaid, Andrew D Greentree, Salvy P Russo, Richard B Kaner, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
Atomically thin semiconductors are one of the fastest growing categories in materials science due to their promise to enable high-performance electronic and optical devices. Furthermore, a host of intriguing phenomena have been reported to occur when a semiconductor is confined within two dimensions. However, the synthesis of large area atomically thin materials remains as a significant technological challenge. Here we report a method that allows harvesting monolayer of semiconducting stannous oxide nanosheets (SnO) from the interfacial oxide layer of liquid tin...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
Ruben Bartali, Andrea Lamberti, Stefano Bianco, Candido Fabrizio Pirri, Manoj Tripathi, Gloria Gottardi, Giorgio Speranza, Erica Iacob, Nicola M Pugno, Nadhira Laidani
The interaction of air bubbles with surfaces immersed in water is of fundamental importance in many fields of application ranging from energy to biology. However, many aspects of this topic such as the stability of surfaces in contact with bubbles remain unexplored. For this reason, in this work, we investigate the interaction of air bubbles with different kinds of dispersive surfaces immersed in water. The surfaces studied were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), graphite and single layer graphene/PDMS composite...
October 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Robert L Harniman, Daniela Plana, George H Carter, Kieren A Bradley, Mervyn J Miles, David J Fermín
The real-time visualization of stochastic nucleation events at electrode surfaces is one of the most complex challenges in electrochemical phase formation. The early stages of metal deposition on foreign substrates are characterized by a highly dynamic process in which nanoparticles nucleate and dissolve prior to reaching a critical size for deposition and growth. Here, high-speed non-contact lateral molecular force microscopy employing vertically oriented probes is utilized to explore the evolution of hydration layers at electrode surfaces with the unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution, and extremely low probe-surface interaction forces required to avoid disruption or shielding the critical nucleus formation...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Ran Drori, Miranda Holmes-Cerfon, Bart Kahr, Robert V Kohn, Michael D Ward
The growth dynamics of D2O ice in liquid H2O in a microfluidic device were investigated between the melting points of D2O ice (3.8 °C) and H2O ice (0 °C). As the temperature was decreased at rates between 0.002 °C/s and 0.1 °C/s, the ice front advanced but retreated immediately upon cessation of cooling, regardless of the temperature. This is a consequence of the competition between diffusion of H2O into the D2O ice, which favors melting of the interface, and the driving force for growth supplied by cooling...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nooshin Noshirvani, Wangyujue Hong, Babak Ghanbarzadeh, Hadi Fasihi, Reza Montazami
We prepared biodegradable nanocomposites from plasticized starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PS-PVA) composite incorporated with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The nanocomposite films were characterized by mechanical, thermal, and barrier analyses as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM). The geometrical characteristics of the CNC confirmed that the thickness of CNC was less than 100nm. The generated nanocomposites exhibited an improvement in mechanical and barrier properties. The films showed decrease in solubility, water absorption, water vapor permeability (WVP), and strain at break (SB)...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Z L Liu, Y X Liu, Y Tang, N Zhang, F P Wu, B Zhang
A double-tapered optical fiber tweezers (DOFTs) was fabricated by a chemical etching called interfacial layer etching. In this method, the second taper angle (STA) of DOFTs can be controlled easily by the interfacial layer etching time. Application of the DOFTs to the optical trapping of the yeast cells was presented. Effects of the STA on the axile trapping efficiency and the trapping position were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results are good agreement with the theoretical ones...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
Karsten Baumgarten, Brian P Tighe
When weakly jammed packings of soft, viscous, non-Brownian spheres are probed mechanically, they respond with a complex admixture of elastic and viscous effects. While many of these effects are understood for specific, approximate models of the particles' interactions, there are a number of proposed force laws in the literature, especially for viscous interactions. We numerically measure the complex shear modulus G* of jammed packings for various viscous force laws that damp relative velocities between pairs of contacting particles or between a particle and the continuous fluid phase...
October 17, 2017: Soft Matter
William R Taylor, Pascal Schütz, Georg Bergmann, Renate List, Barbara Postolka, Marco Hitz, Jörn Dymke, Philipp Damm, Georg Duda, Hans Gerber, Verena Schwachmeyer, Seyyed Hamed Hosseini Nasab, Adam Trepczynski, Ines Kutzner
Combined knowledge of the functional kinematics and kinetics of the human body is critical for understanding a wide range of biomechanical processes including musculoskeletal adaptation, injury mechanics, and orthopaedic treatment outcome, but also for validation of musculoskeletal models. Until now, however, no datasets that include internal loading conditions (kinetics), synchronized with advanced kinematic analyses in multiple subjects have been available. Our goal was to provide such datasets and thereby foster a new understanding of how in vivo knee joint movement and contact forces are interlinked - and thereby impact biomechanical interpretation of any new knee replacement design...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Jinjin Li, Jianbin Luo
Two-dimensional layered materials usually exhibit superlow friction properties when the shear occurs between incommensurate interface lattices. In this work, we propose a new method, which is different from the traditional structure superlubricity, to achieve superlow friction of graphite. This method involves attaching a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecular layers on the friction surfaces by self-assembly and sliding across aqueous medium. The friction coefficient between graphite and silica can be reduced to approximately 0...
October 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sung-Hwan Choi, Won-Seok Jeong, Jung-Yul Cha, Jae-Hoon Lee, Kee-Joon Lee, Hyung-Seog Yu, Eun-Ha Choi, Kwang-Mahn Kim, Chung-Ju Hwang
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether the biological activity of the surface of titanium, when stored in an aqueous solution, in low vacuum, and under ambient conditions after ultraviolet light (UV) treatment is comparable to that of the surface immediately after UV treatment for 15min and that after dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment for 15min. METHODS: Grade IV titanium discs with machined surfaces were irradiated with UV and their surface properties were evaluated immediately and after storage for 28days in distilled H2O (dH2O), a vacuum desiccator (31...
October 12, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Stefania Cometa, Maria A Bonifacio, Federico Baruzzi, Silvia de Candia, Maria M Giangregorio, Lorena C Giannossa, Manuela Dicarlo, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte, Luigia Sabbatini, Elvira De Giglio
The present work focuses on the idea to prevent and/or inhibit the colonization of implant surfaces by microbial pathogens responsible for post-operative infections, adjusting antimicrobial properties of the implant surface prior to its insertion. An antibacterial coating based on chitosan and silver was developed by electrodeposition techniques on poly(acrylic acid)-coated titanium substrates. When a silver salt was added during the chitosan deposition step, a stable and scalable silver incorporation was achieved...
October 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yiming Wang, David C Latshaw, Carol K Hall
Although some naturally-occurring polyphenols have been found to inhibit amyloid β fibril formation and reduce neuron cell toxicity in vitro, their exact inhibitory mechanism is unknown. In this work, discontinuous molecular dynamics (DMD) combined with the PRIME20 force field and a newly-built inhibitor model are performed to examine the effect of vanillin, resveratrol, curcumin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the aggregation of Aβ(17-36) peptides. Four sets of peptide/inhibitor simulations are performed in which inhibitors: (1) bind to Aβ(17-36) monomer; (2) interfere with Aβ(17-36) oligomerization; (3) disrupt a pre-formed Aβ(17-36) protofilament; (4) prevent the growth of Aβ(17-36) protofilament...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
V R Rodovalho, G R Araujo, E R Vaz, C Ueira-Vieira, L R Goulart, J M Madurro, A G Brito-Madurro
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a wide group of diseases, characterized by synovial inflammation and joint tissue damage. Due to the delay in the implementation of biomarkers into clinical practice and the association with severe sequels, there is an imperative need for new JIA diagnosis strategies. Electrochemical biosensors based on screen-printed electrodes and peptides are promising alternatives for molecular diagnosis. In this work, a novel biosensor for detecting juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) was developed based on the immobilization of the PRF+1 mimetic peptide, as recognition biological element, on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrode...
October 5, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Maryamossadat Kazemi, Mohsen Jahanshahi, Majid Peyravi
In this study, a novel photocatalytic thin film nanocomposite (TFC) membrane was prepared for removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution. In this regards, a TFC membrane was modified by a layer of chitosan as an adsorbent and then was coated with a layer of synthesized photocatalytic nanoscale zerovalent iron@titanium dioxide (nZVI@TiO2) nanoparticles via layer-by-layer (LBL) technology. Prepared membranes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle analysis...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Galen H Shi, Sharon L Shinkle, Ganapathy Gopalrathnam, Xia Dong, Jeffrey D Hofer, Eric C Jensen, Natarajan Rajagopalan
The interior surface of prefilled syringes is typically coated with silicone oil for lubrication to aid in free plunger movement. This article discusses the impact and interaction of formulation variables with silicone oil within the interior surface of the barrel. Characterization techniques including syringe glide force, break loose force, ZebraSci imaging, contact angle, ICP, and RapID were used in assessing the interactions. Data indicate formulation variables of pH, buffer and tonicity agent type and concentration and surfactant can impact silicone oil distribution of prefilled syringes leading to changes in functional properties of the syringe over time...
October 12, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Sergio Conti, Rukshen Weerasooriya, Paul Novak, Jean Champagne, Hong Euy Lim, Laurent Macle, Yaariv Khaykin, Alfredo Pantano, Atul Verma
BACKGROUND: Impact of contact force sensing (CFS) on ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The TOUCH AF randomized trial compared CFS guided ablation to a CFS blinded strategy. METHODS: Patients (n=128) undergoing first-time ablation for persistent AF were randomized to a CFS guided vs CFS blinded strategy. In the CFS guided procedure, operators visualized real-time force data; in the blinded procedure, force data was hidden...
October 10, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Shiwei Mo, Daniel H K Chow
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) have been extensively used to detect gait events. Various methods have been proposed for detecting initial contact (IC) and toe-off (TO) using IMUs affixed at various anatomical locations. However, the accuracy of such methods has yet to be compared. This study evaluated the accuracy of three common methods used for detecting gait events during jogging and running: (1) S-method, in which IC is identified as the instant of peak foot-resultant acceleration and TO is identified when the acceleration exceeds a threshold of 2g in the region of interest; (2) M-method, in which IC and TO are defined as the minimum before the positive peak shank vertical acceleration and the minimum in the region of interest, respectively; and (3) L-method, in which IC is indicated by the instant of peak pelvis anteroposterior acceleration and TO is identified by the maximum in the region of interest...
October 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
Lin Zhou, Zhaonan Lin, Jiamin Ding, Wenxiu Huang, Jiang Chen, Dong Wu
The inflammatory reaction around the implant after implant placement is important not only for osseointegration but also for long-term implant survivals. In our study, GL13K, an antimicrobial peptide, was immobilized onto titanium surfaces to improve its anti-inflammatory properties. The method of silanization was used to immobilize the GL13K, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, water contact angle measurement. DAPI fluorescence staining and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) were used to measure the cell attachment and cell viability of the RAW264...
October 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jelizaveta Konstantinova, Agostino Stilli, Kaspar Althoefer
Tactile perception is a feature benefiting reliable grasping and manipulation. This paper presents the design of an integrated fingertip force sensor employing an optical fiber based approach where applied forces modulate light intensity. The proposed sensor system is developed to support grasping of a broad range of objects, including those that are hard as well those that are soft. The sensor system is comprised of four sensing elements forming a tactile array integrated with the tip of a finger. We investigate the design configuration of a separate force sensing element with the aim to improve its measurement range...
October 13, 2017: Sensors
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