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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632874/screening-for-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#1
David C Grossman, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Susan J Curry, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance)...
June 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632873/screening-for-obesity-and-intervention-for-weight-management-in-children-and-adolescents-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#2
Elizabeth A O'Connor, Corinne V Evans, Brittany U Burda, Emily S Walsh, Michelle Eder, Paula Lozano
Importance: Obesity is common in children and adolescents in the United States, is associated with negative health effects, and increases the likelihood of obesity in adulthood. Objective: To systematically review the benefits and harms of screening and treatment for obesity and overweight in children and adolescents to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Collaboration Registry of Controlled Trials, and the Education Resources Information Center through January 22, 2016; references of relevant publications; government websites...
June 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632776/dynamic-knee-valgus-alignment-influences-impact-attenuation-in-the-lower-extremity-during-the-deceleration-phase-of-a-single-leg-landing
#3
Akihiro Tamura, Kiyokazu Akasaka, Takahiro Otsudo, Jyunya Shiozawa, Yuka Toda, Kaori Yamada
Dynamic knee valgus during landings is associated with an increased risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. In addition, the impact on the body during landings must be attenuated in the lower extremity joints. The purpose of this study was to investigate landing biomechanics during landing with dynamic knee valgus by measuring the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and angular impulses in the lower extremity during a single-leg landing. The study included 34 female college students, who performed the single-leg drop vertical jump...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632053/the-effect-of-a-secondary-cognitive-task-on-landing-mechanics-and-jump-performance
#4
Boyi Dai, Ross F Cook, Elizabeth A Meyer, Yvonne Sciascia, Taylour J Hinshaw, Chaoyi Wang, Qin Zhu
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur during jump-landing tasks when individuals' attention is simultaneously allocated to other objects and tasks. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of allocation of attention imposed by a secondary cognitive task on landing mechanics and jump performance. Thirty-eight recreational athletes performed a jump-landing task in three conditions: no counting, counting backward by 1 s from a randomly given number, and counting backward by 7 s from a randomly given number...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630564/cathrob-a-highly-compact-and-versatile-remote-catheter-navigation-system
#5
Laura Cercenelli, Barbara Bortolani, Emanuela Marcelli
Several remote catheter navigation systems have been developed and are now commercially available. However, these systems typically require specialized catheters or equipment, as well as time-consuming operations for the system set-up. In this paper, we present CathROB, a highly compact and versatile robotic system for remote navigation of standard tip-steerable electrophysiology (EP) catheters. Key features of CathROB include an extremely compact design that minimizes encumbrance and time for system set-up in a standard cath lab, a force-sensing mechanism, an intuitive command interface, and functions for automatic catheter navigation and repositioning...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628994/tio2-surfaces-support-neuron-growth-during-electric-field-stimulation
#6
M Canillas, B Moreno, E Chinarro, A M Rajnicek
TiO2 is proposed here for the first time as a substrate for neural prostheses that involve electrical stimulation. Several characteristics make TiO2 an attractive material: Its electrochemical behaviour as an insulator prevents surface changes during stimulation. Hydration creates -OH groups at the surface, which aid cell adhesion by interaction with inorganic ions and macromolecules in cell membranes. Its ability to neutralize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that trigger inflammatory processes confers biocompatibility properties in dark conditions...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628801/evaluation-of-midcarpal-capitate-contact-mechanics-in-normal-injured-and-post-operative-wrists
#7
Saman Modaresi, Madhan S Kallem, Phil Lee, Terence E McIff, E Bruce Toby, Kenneth J Fischer
BACKGROUND: Scapholunate ligament injury is a commonly occurring carpal ligament injury. Pathology associated with scapholunate ligament injury depends on several factors such as the time after injury, type of injury (instability) and the development of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare contact mechanics in the lunocapitate and scaphocapitate joints in the normal, injured (scapholunate dissociation) and repaired (postoperative) wrist. METHODS: Four human subjects with scapholunate ligament dissociation participated in this study...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628348/relation-between-peak-knee-flexion-angle-and-knee-ankle-kinetics-in-single-leg-jump-landing-from-running-a-pilot-study-on-male-handball-players-to-prevent-acl-injury
#8
Mariam A Ameer, Qassim I Muaidi
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between knee kinematics and knee-ankle kinetics during the landing phase of single leg jumping has been widely studied to identify proper strategies for preventing non-contact ACL injury. However, there is a lack of study on knee-ankle kinetics at peak knee flexion angle during jumping from running. Hence, the purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, ankle plantar flexion moment and ground reaction force in handball players in order to protect ACL from excessive stress during single leg jumping...
June 19, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628316/soft-sphere-continuum-solvation-in-electronic-structure-calculations
#9
Giuseppe Fisicaro, Luigi Genovese, Oliviero Andreussi, Sagarmoy Mandal, Nisanth N Nair, Nicola Marzari, Stefan Goedecker
We present an implicit solvation approach where the interface between the quantum-mechanical solute and the surrounding environment is described by a fully continuous permittivity built up with atomic-centered ``soft'' spheres. This approach combines many of the advantages of the self-consistent continuum solvation model in handling solutes and surfaces in contact with complex dielectric environments or electrolytes in electronic-structure calculations. In addition it is able to describe accurately both neutral and charged systems...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628313/tunneling-kinetics-and-non-adiabatic-proton-coupled-electron-transfer-in-proteins-the-effect-of-electric-fields-and-anharmonic-donor-acceptor-interactions
#10
Bridget Salna, Abdelkrim Benabbas, Douglas Russo, Paul M Champion
A proper description of proton donor-acceptor (D-A) distance fluctuations is crucial for understanding tunneling in proton-coupled electron transport (PCET). The typical harmonic approximation for the D-A potential results in a Gaussian probability distribution, which does not appropriately reflect the electronic repulsion forces that increase the energetic cost of sampling shorter D-A distances. Because these shorter distances are the primary channel for thermally activated tunneling, the analysis of tunneling kinetics depends sensitively on the inherently anharmonic nature of the D-A interaction...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627317/the-european-system-for-the-control-of-the-safety-of-food-contact-materials-needs-restructuring-a-review-and-outlook-for-discussion
#11
Koni Grob
The present European system to assure the safety of migrates from food-contact materials (FCMs) needs improvement. It is proposed to implement better the self-control by the producers through improved official control and more attractive listing of approved substances and materials (the latter being subject of another discussion paper). The initial concept of a positive list for the substances used, a limit for the overall migration and regulation of compliance testing was recognised as insufficient long ago, as it does not properly cover reaction products (including oligomers) and impurities...
June 19, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625708/-algorithms-for-the-identification-of-hospital-stays-due-to-osteoporotic-femoral-neck-fractures-in-european-medical-administrative-databases-using-icd-10-codes-a-non-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
P Caillet, P Oberlin, E Monnet, L Guillon-Grammatico, P Métral, M Belhassen, P Denier, L Banaei-Bouchareb, M Viprey, D Biau, A-M Schott
BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic hip fractures (OHF) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The French medico-administrative database (SNIIRAM) offers an interesting opportunity to improve the management of OHF. However, the validity of studies conducted with this database relies heavily on the quality of the algorithm used to detect OHF. The aim of the REDSIAM network is to facilitate the use of the SNIIRAM database. The main objective of this study was to present and discuss several OHF-detection algorithms that could be used with this database...
June 15, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622909/biomechanical-evaluation-of-a-novel-pedicle-screw-based-interspinous-spacer-a-finite-element-analysis
#13
Hsin-Chang Chen, Jia-Lin Wu, Shou-Chieh Huang, Zheng-Cheng Zhong, Shiu-Ling Chiu, Yu-Shu Lai, Cheng-Kung Cheng
Interspinous spacers have been designed to provide a minimally invasive surgical technique for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis or foraminal stenosis. A novel pedicle screw-based interspinous spacer has been developed in this study, and the aim of this finite element experiment was to investigate the biomechanical differences between the pedicle screw-based interspinous spacer (M-rod system) and the typical interspinous spacer (Coflex-F™). A validated finite element model of an intact lumbar spine was used to analyze the insertions of the Coflex-F™, titanium alloy M-rod (M-Ti), and polyetheretherketone M-rod (M-PEEK), independently...
June 13, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622020/the-effect-of-direct-and-indirect-force-transmission-on-peri-implant-bone-stress-a-contact-finite-element-analysis
#14
Annike Rand, Meike Stiesch, Michael Eisenburger, Andreas Greuling
In almost all finite element (FE) studies in dentistry, virtual forces are applied directly to dentures. The purpose of this study was to develop a FE model with non-linear contact simulation using an antagonist as force transmitter and to compare this with a similar model that uses direct force transmission. Furthermore, five contact situations were created in order to examine their influence on the peri-implant bone stresses, which are relevant to the survival rate of implants. It was found that the peri-implant bone stresses were strongly influenced by the kind of force transmission and contact number...
August 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621788/graphene-on-h-bn-to-align-or-not-to-align
#15
Roberto Guerra, Merel van Wijk, Andrea Vanossi, Annalisa Fasolino, Erio Tosatti
The contact strength, adhesion and friction, between graphene and an incommensurate crystalline substrate such as h-BN depends on their relative alignment angle θ. The well-established Novaco-McTague (NM) theory predicts for a monolayer graphene on a hard bulk h-BN crystal face a small spontaneous misalignment, here θNM ≃ 0.45 degrees which if realized would be relevant to a host of electronic properties besides the mechanical ones. Because experimental equilibrium is hard to achieve, we inquire theoretically about alignment or misalignment by simulations based on dependable state-of-the-art interatomic force fields...
June 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620696/tuning-ubiquinone-position-in-biomimetic-monolayer-membranes
#16
Javier Hoyo, Ester Guaus, Juan Torrent-Burgués
Artificial lipid bilayers have been extensively studied as models that mimic natural membranes (biomimetic membranes). Several attempts of biomimetic membranes inserting ubiquinone (UQ) have been performed to enlighten which the position of UQ in the lipid layer is, although obtaining contradictory results. In this work, pure components (DPPC and UQ) and DPPC:UQ mixtures have been studied using surface pressure-area isotherms and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of the same compounds have been transferred onto solid substrates being topographically characterized on mica using atomic force microscopy and electrochemically on indium tin oxide slides...
June 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619381/recent-experimental-advances-for-understanding-bubble-particle-attachment-in-flotation
#17
REVIEW
Yaowen Xing, Xiahui Gui, Lei Pan, Bat-El Pinchasik, Yijun Cao, Jiongtian Liu, Michael Kappl, Hans-Jürgen Butt
Bubble-particle interaction is of great theoretical and practical importance in flotation. Significant progress has been achieved over the past years and the process of bubble-particle collision is reasonably well understood. This, however, is not the case for bubble-particle attachment leading to three-phase contact line formation due to the difficulty in both theoretical analysis and experimental verification. For attachment, surface forces play a major role. They control the thinning and rupture of the liquid film between the bubble and the particle...
May 31, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619078/psychological-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-depression-anxiety-alcohol-misuse-or-anger-in-armed-forces-veterans-and-their-families-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#18
Luke O'Shea, Ed Watkins, Paul Farrand
BACKGROUND: Evidence highlights a high prevalence of common mental health disorders in armed forces veterans and their families, with depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse and anger being more common than PTSD. This paper presents a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify existing randomised controlled trial (RCT) research testing the effectiveness of psychological interventions for these difficulties in armed forces veterans and their family members. METHODS: Electronic databases (CENTRAL, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials, EMBASE and ASSIA) will be searched to identify suitable studies for inclusion in the review supplemented by forward and backward reference checking, grey literature searches and contact with subject authors...
June 15, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618588/multiscale-model-for-pedestrian-and-infection-dynamics-during-air-travel
#19
Sirish Namilae, Pierrot Derjany, Anuj Mubayi, Mathew Scotch, Ashok Srinivasan
In this paper we develop a multiscale model combining social-force-based pedestrian movement with a population level stochastic infection transmission dynamics framework. The model is then applied to study the infection transmission within airplanes and the transmission of the Ebola virus through casual contacts. Drastic limitations on air-travel during epidemics, such as during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, carry considerable economic and human costs. We use the computational model to evaluate the effects of passenger movement within airplanes and air-travel policies on the geospatial spread of infectious diseases...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618509/spreading-law-on-a-completely-wettable-spherical-substrate-the-energy-balance-approach
#20
Masao Iwamatsu
The spreading of a cap-shaped spherical droplet on a completely wettable spherical substrate is studied. The nonequilibrium thermodynamic formulation is used to derive the thermodynamic driving force of spreading including the line-tension effect. Then the energy balance approach is adopted to derive the evolution equation of the spreading droplet. The time evolution of the contact angle θ of a droplet obeys a power law θ∼t^{-α} with the exponent α, which is different from that derived from Tanner's law on a flat substrate...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
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