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Corinne Gibble, Rebecca Duerr, Barbara Bodenstein, Kirsten Lindquist, Jackie Lindsey, Jessie Beck, Laird Henkel, Jan Roletto, Jim Harvey, Raphael Kudela
From August through December 2015, beachcast bird survey programs reported increased deposition of common murres ( Uria aalge) on central and northern California beaches, but not on southern California beaches. Coastal wildlife rehabilitation centers received more than 1,000 live, stranded, and debilitated murres from Sonoma County to San Luis Obispo County during August-October. Approximately two-thirds of admitted birds were after-hatch-year birds in emaciated body condition and in various stages of molt, with extremely worn plumage...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kathryn A McInerney, Kristen A Hahn, Elizabeth E Hatch, Ellen M Mikkelsen, Anne Z Steiner, Kenneth J Rothman, Henrik T Sørensen, Thala M Snerum, Lauren A Wise
OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which lubricant use during intercourse is associated with time-to-pregnancy (TTP). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Denmark and North America. POPULATION: 6,467 women aged 18-49 years who were not using contraception or fertility treatment. METHODS: We pooled data from two ongoing prospective cohort studies of pregnancy planners in Denmark (2011-2017) and North America (2013-2017)...
March 15, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Peter G Tickle, John R Hutchinson, Jonathan R Codd
Broiler chickens are increasingly at the forefront of global meat production but the consequences of fast growth and selection for an increase in body mass on bird health are an ongoing concern for industry and consumers. To better understand the implications of selection we evaluated energetics and behaviour over the 6-week hatch-to-slaughter developmental period in a commercial broiler. The effect of posture on resting metabolic rate becomes increasingly significant as broilers grow, as standing became more energetically expensive than sitting...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
P R Pearson, D A Warner
Seasonal shifts in environmental conditions provide predictable cues to which organisms can respond in adaptive ways. For example, seasonal changes in temperature can induce phenotypes at different times of the year that have season-specific fitness benefits. Here, we tested the hypothesis that embryo responses to seasonal changes in thermal environments are adaptively matched to the timing of reproduction (environmental-matching hypothesis). We collected eggs of the brown anole lizard ( Anolis sagrei ) from early and late seasons, and exposed them to early and late thermal regimes that mimic nest temperatures...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Eva Krkavcová, Jakub Kreisinger, Ludmila Hyánková, Pavel Hyršl, Veronika Javůrková
Avidin is key egg white antimicrobial protein with strong binding capacity for biotin, an essential growth and immune cell precursor. As such, it is assumed to have a pronounced, though still poorly explored, effect on hatchling phenotype. We tested the effect of experimentally increased egg white avidin concentration (AVIDIN+) on hatching success, chick morphology, post-hatching growth performance and innate immune function in a model bird, Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica ). Probability of embryo survival in the late embryonic phase increased with increasing egg weight in control eggs, but not in AVIDIN+ eggs...
March 14, 2018: Biology Open
Bjørn Arne Rukke, Ranjeni Sivasubramaniam, Tone Birkemoe, Anders Aak
Sublethal heat stress may weaken bed bug infestations to potentially ease control. In the present study, experimental populations exposed to 34, 36 or 38°C for 2 or 3 weeks suffered significant mortality during exposure. Among survivors, egg production, egg hatching, moulting success and offspring proliferation decreased significantly in the subsequent 7 week recovery period at 22°C. The overall population success was negatively impacted by increasing temperature and duration of the stress. Such heat stress is inadequate as a single tool for eradication, but may be included as a low cost part of an integrated pest management protocol...
2018: PloS One
Arnola C Rietzler, Henri J Dumont, Odete Rocha, Marcela M Ribeiro
We investigated feeding and reproductive performance of coexisting pelagic turbellarians from experiments on predation rates of Mesostoma ehrenbergii and M. craci as a function of food (Daphnia similis, three levels) and temperature (4 levels) during 10 days. Flatworms were collected from the pelagic of a subtropical lake in Brazil. Growth was more rapid at higher temperatures: more prey were consumed, and more eggs produced. M. craci and particularly M. ehrenbergii fitted a linear mixed-effects model and showed a type II functional response...
2018: PloS One
Zhang Jian-Feng, Yao Yun-Yi, Xiong Chun-Rong, Zhao Song, Feng Yun, Wang Xin-Yao, Li Wei
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathogenic detection capacity of county - level organizations in Jiangsu Province, and to improve the field schistosomiasis detection capacity of professional personnel, thus to provide the technical support for the construction of quality control system of schistosomiasis field detection. METHODS: The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum were obtained from rabbit schistosomiasis models and were produced into suspensions at four different concentrations...
February 27, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Megan A Schilling, Robab Katani, Sahar Memari, Meredith Cavanaugh, Joram Buza, Jessica Radzio-Basu, Fulgence N Mpenda, Melissa S Deist, Susan J Lamont, Vivek Kapur
Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
F Strollo, C Macchi, I Eberini, M A Masini, M Botta, G Vassilieva, I Nichiporuk, M Monici, D Santucci, F Celotti, P Magni, M Ruscica
PURPOSE: The "Mars-500 project" allowed to evaluate the changes in psychological/physiological adaptation over a prolonged confinement, in order to gather information for future missions. Here, we evaluated the impact of confinement and isolation on body composition, glucose metabolism/insulin resistance and adipokine levels. METHODS: The "Mars-500 project" consisted of 520 consecutive days of confinement from June 3, 2010 to Nov 4, 2011. The crew was composed of six male subjects (three Russians, two Europeans, and one Chinese) with a median age of 31 years (range 27-38 years)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Nathan W Burke, Russell Bonduriansky
Facultative reproductive strategies that incorporate both sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction should be optimal, yet are rarely observed in animals. Resolving this paradox requires an understanding of the economics of facultative asexuality. Recent work suggests that switching from parthenogenesis to sex can be costly and that females can resist mating to avoid switching. However, it remains unclear whether these costs and resistance behaviors are dependent on female age. We addressed these questions in the Cyclone Larry stick insect, Sipyloidea larryi , by pairing females with males (or with females as a control) in early life prior to the start of parthenogenetic reproduction, or in mid- or late life after a period of parthenogenetic oviposition...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Sami Johan Taipale, Kimmo Kalevi Kahilainen, Gordon William Holtgrieve, Elina Talvikki Peltomaa
The first few months of life is the most vulnerable period for fish and their optimal hatching time with zooplankton prey is favored by natural selection. Traditionally, however, prey abundance (i.e., zooplankton density) has been considered important, whereas prey nutritional composition has been largely neglected in natural settings. High-quality zooplankton, rich in both essential amino acids (EAAs) and fatty acids (FAs), are required as starting prey to initiate development and fast juvenile growth. Prey quality is dependent on environmental conditions, and, for example, eutrophication and browning are two major factors defining primary producer community structures that will directly determine the nutritional quality of the basal food sources (algae, bacteria, terrestrial matter) for zooplankton...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Eric W Riddick, Zhixin Wu, Fred J Eller, Mark A Berhow
Maximizing the reproductive potential of ladybird beetles fed factitious foods or artificial diets, in lieu of natural prey, is a major challenge to cost-effective mass rearing for augmentative biological control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that compounds in redcedar, Juniperus virginiana , stimulate oviposition in the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata . We also tested the prediction that several bioflavonoids, identified in heartwood fractions, elicited this behavioral response. Phenolic compounds were extracted from J...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
M M Vaezirad, M G Koene, J A Wagenaar, J P M van Putten
In ovo immunization of chicken embryos with live vaccines is an effective strategy to protect chickens against several viral pathogens. We investigated the immune response of chicken embryos to purified recombinant protein. In ovo delivery of Salmonella flagellin to 18-day old embryonated eggs resulted in elevated pro-inflammatory chIL-6 and chIL-8 (CXCL8-CXCLi2) cytokine transcript levels in the intestine but not in the spleen at 24 h post-injection. Analysis of the chicken Toll-like receptor (TLR) repertoire in 19-day old embryos revealed gene transcripts in intestinal and spleen tissue for most chicken TLRs, including TLR5 which recognizes Salmonella flagellin (FliC)...
March 9, 2018: Vaccine
Zhihao Ren, Fanfeng Meng, Qiuchen Li, Yixin Wang, Xiaofeng Liu, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
BACKGROUND: Reticuloendotheliosis is an immunosuppressive disease caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). It is commonly found in poultry farms and has caused a notable economic loss worldwide. Despite this, there is currently no effective vaccine available to protect against REV infection. METHOD: In this study, gp90 protein derived from an REV isolated from a contaminated vaccine was co-administered with cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) adjuvant to hens to determine if it protects their chicks against REV infection...
March 12, 2018: Virology Journal
Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Eman Hamza, Eva Nagy, Shayan Sharif, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
BACKGROUND: Toll like receptor (TLR) 3 is a critically important innate pattern recognizing receptor that senses many viral infections. Although, it has been shown that double stranded (ds) RNA can be used for the stimulation of TLR3 signaling pathway in a number of host-viral infection models, it's effectiveness as an antiviral agent against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) needs further investigation. METHODS: In this study, first, we delivered TLR3 ligand, dsRNA, in ovo at embryo day (ED)18 since in ovo route is routinely used for vaccination against poultry viral and parasitic infections and infected with H4N6 LPAIV 24-h post-treatment...
March 12, 2018: Virology Journal
Tamás Müller, Hajime Matsubara, Yuki Kubara, Ákos Horváth, Balázs Kolics, János Taller, Viktor Stéger, Balázs Kovács, László Horváth, Juan F Asturiano, David S Peñaranda, Béla Urbányi
The objective of this study was to assess impact of cryopreserved European eel sperm and Japanese eel native sperm on early fertilization, hatch, survival, and malformation rates of larvae, as well as develop molecular techniques to distinguish different eel species. Eggs from Japanese eel females (Anguilla japonica) were artificially fertilized with sperm of Japanese eel males and cryopreserved sperm from European eel (A. anguilla, extender was modified Tanaka solution and methanol as cryoprotectant). There were no statistical differences (p > 0...
March 2, 2018: Theriogenology
S Druyan, M Ruzal, D Shinder, A Haron
The prenatal circulatory system is adaptive and capable of plasticity designed for the needs of the growing tissue. When a broiler embryo is faced with hypoxic stress, the process of angiogenesis in tissues begins. Exposure to hypoxic conditions of 17% oxygen during the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) development (E5 to E12) affected the circulatory system and contributed to an increase in the blood oxygen carrying capacity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of hypoxic exposure during CAM development on post-hatch performance of broilers and to examine whether hypoxic exposure improved sustainability of birds exposed to acute heat stress...
March 8, 2018: Poultry Science
Violeta Trejo-Reveles, Lynn McTeir, Kim Summers, Joe Rainger
Precise anterior segment (AS) development in the vertebrate eye is essential for maintaining ocular health throughout life. Disruptions to genetic programs can lead to severe structural AS disorders at birth, while more subtle AS defects may disrupt the drainage of ocular fluids and cause dysregulation of intraocular pressure homeostasis, leading to progressive vision loss. To date, the mouse has served as the major model to study AS development and pathogenesis. Here we present an accurate histological atlas of chick AS formation throughout eye development, with a focus on the formation of drainage structures...
March 8, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Zeinab Khoobbakht, Mehrdad Mohammadi, Mohammad Roostaei-Ali Mehr, Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Mohammad Mehdi Sohani
The objective was to examine the effect of different dietary zinc sources on reproduction of male Japanese quail. A total of 512 quail chicks (day-old) were divided into four groups with four replications for a period of 42 days. After this period, excess chicks were removed to attain the ratio of one male to three females and 16 quail in each subgroup. At 52 to 60 d of age, the eggs were collected and incubated. The basal diet (control) contained no zinc and the other three experimental diets were supplemented with 25 and 50 mg/kg zinc from zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) and zinc-methionine (Zn-Met) for 1 to 35 and 36 to 60 days, respectively...
February 23, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
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