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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448908/biological-impacts-of-glyphosate-on-morphology-embryo-biomechanics-and-larval-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Shuhui Zhang, Jia Xu, Xiangyu Kuang, Shibao Li, Xiang Li, Dongyan Chen, Xin Zhao, Xizeng Feng
All of these days, residues of herbicides such as glyphosate are widely distributed in the environment. The ubiquitous use of glyphosate has drawn extensive attention to its toxicity as an organic pollutant. In this study, we employed larval zebrafish as an animal model to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of glyphosate on early development via morphological, biomechanics, behavioral and physiological analyses. Morphological results showed that an obvious delay occurred in the epiboly process and body length, eye and head area were reduced at concentrations higher than 10 mg/L...
April 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447376/reduced-fasting-periods-increase-intestinal-permeability-in-chickens
#2
S Gilani, G S Howarth, C D Tran, R Barekatain, S M Kitessa, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Fasting of up to 24 hr has been shown to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. The aim of this study was to determine whether fasting duration of 4.5 and 9 hr increased IP and whether l-glutamine (a non-essential amino acid) supplementation before fasting provided some protection of barrier function as shown in other species. Ross 308 male broilers (n = 96) were fed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% glutamine from d0 to d38 post-hatch. On d37, the birds were assigned to single-bird metabolism cages and were fasted for either 0, 4...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446701/wind-and-rain-are-the-primary-climate-factors-driving-changing-phenology-of-an-aerial-insectivore
#3
Rachel D Irons, April Harding Scurr, Alexandra P Rose, Julie C Hagelin, Tricia Blake, Daniel F Doak
While the ecological effects of climate change have been widely observed, most efforts to document these impacts in terrestrial systems have concentrated on the impacts of temperature. We used tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nest observations from two widely separated sites in central Alaska to examine the aspects of climate affecting breeding phenology at the northern extent of this species' range. We found that two measures of breeding phenology, annual lay and hatch dates, are more strongly predicted by windiness and precipitation than by temperature...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446617/is-embryonic-hypothermia-tolerance-common-in-birds
#4
Jin-Ming Zhao, Zhi-Ming Han, Yue-Hua Sun
Avian incubation temperatures oscillate within narrow limits to ensure proper embryonic development. However, field observations and experimental studies have found that some species can tolerate very low incubation temperatures, either regularly or occasionally. We artificially incubated eggs from five domestic species, which represent a range of egg sizes, to examine whether a diversity of avian species could exhibit an unusual hypothermia tolerance, as observed in the field. We found that eggs of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), pigeon (Columba livia domestica), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) survived the incubation period and hatched after experiencing 10°C hypothermia for 6 h each day...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442438/dorsal-fin-development-in-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-bud-formation-and-its-cellular-origin
#5
Jie Chen, Xiaoyu Liu, Xiaohua Yao, Fei Gao, Baolong Bao
The development of the median fin has not been investigated extensively in teleosts, although in other fishes it has been proposed that it involves the same genetic programs operating in the paired appendages. Adult median fins develop from the larval bud; therefore an investigation of fin bud formation and its cellular origin is essential to understanding the maturation mechanisms. In Paralichthys olivaceus, skeletogenesis proceeds from an anterior to posterior direction providing a good opportunity to study the formation of dorsal fin bud...
April 22, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441532/pcp-and-sax-3-robo-pathways-cooperate-to-regulate-convergent-extension-based-nerve-cord-assembly-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#6
Pavak K Shah, Matthew R Tanner, Ismar Kovacevic, Aysha Rankin, Teagan E Marshall, Nathaniel Noblett, Nhan Nguyen Tran, Tony Roenspies, Jeffrey Hung, Zheqian Chen, Cristina Slatculescu, Theodore J Perkins, Zhirong Bao, Antonio Colavita
Formation and resolution of multicellular rosettes can drive convergent extension (CE) type cell rearrangements during tissue morphogenesis. Rosette dynamics are regulated by both planar cell polarity (PCP)-dependent and -independent pathways. Here we show that CE is involved in ventral nerve cord (VNC) assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a VANG-1/Van Gogh and PRKL-1/Prickle containing PCP pathway and a Slit-independent SAX-3/Robo pathway cooperate to regulate, via rosette intermediaries, the intercalation of post-mitotic neuronal cell bodies during VNC formation...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438683/identification-and-expression-of-piwil2-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-with-implications-of-the-involvement-in-embryonic-and-gonadal-development
#7
Huizhen Wang, Bo Wang, Xiaobing Liu, Yuezhong Liu, Xinxin Du, Quanqi Zhang, XuBo Wang
Piwil2, a member of the Argonaute family, is involved in the biogenesis of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and plays an important role in regulating gametogenesis. In the present study, we identified turbot Scophthalmus maximus piwil2 gene, named Smpiwil2, which contained a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain. Sequence comparison, genomic structure and phylogenetic analyses showed that Smpiwil2 is homologous to that of teleosts and tetrapods. The Smpiwil2 transcript showed higher expression in ovary than in testis, demonstrating a sexually dimorphic gene expression pattern...
April 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438181/efficient-vitrification-of-mouse-embryos-using-the-kitasato-vitrification-system-as-a-novel-vitrification-device
#8
Kenji Momozawa, Atsushi Matsuzawa, Yukio Tokunaga, Shiori Abe, Yumi Koyanagi, Miho Kurita, Marina Nakano, Takao Miyake
BACKGROUND: Currently, the cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes is essential for assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratories worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Kitasato Vitrification System (KVS) as a vitrification device for the cryopreservation of mouse embryos to determine whether this novel device can be adapted to the field of ART. METHODS: In Experiment 1, blastocysts were vitrified using the KVS. Vitrified blastocysts were warmed and subsequently cultured for 72 h...
April 24, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437624/immune-response-to-salmonella-infections-in-vaccinated-and-non-vaccinated-turkeys
#9
Martina Hesse, Andreas Stamm, Angela Berndt, Gerhard Glünder, Rita Weber
Vaccination has been widely used to reduce the Salmonella burden in poultry and subsequently the transmission to humans. Concerning turkey, there is little knowledge on the immune response to colonization and invasion by Salmonella species or about efficacy of vaccination and involved immune mechanisms. In the present study, turkeys were vaccinated at the day of hatch and infected with Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) or Enteritidis (SE) field strains three weeks later. A control group was kept uninfected. After challenge infection, bacterial counts in the cecal content, liver and spleen were determined 7 and 14days post infection...
April 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434758/mallards-anas-platyrhynchos-and-wastewater-ponds-part-ii-developmental-physiological-morphological-and-behavioural-effects-of-ingestion-of-secondary-clarified-effluent-water
#10
K B Tierney, P O Welsh, M Mills, S Nason, D R Barreda, C A Paszkowski
Rather than migrating, mallard ducks may choose to overwinter in northern cities on open-water thermal refuges, such as municipal wastewater treatment ponds, which in Edmonton, Canada, stay ≥10°C during frigid winter months. Refuging mallards spend appreciable time daily on these ponds and hydrate using secondary clarified municipal wastewater (SCEW). We aimed to determine if SCEW ingestion affected mallard health. To this end, we gavaged newly hatched mallards (domesticated Pekin strain) over their first month with SCEW, as well as water representing negative and positive controls (municipal tap water, and the primary active ingredient from birth control pills, 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), respectively)...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433729/comparative-vertical-transmission-of-rickettsia-by-dermacentor-variabilis-and-amblyomma-maculatum
#11
Emma K Harris, Victoria I Verhoeve, Kaikhushroo H Banajee, Jacqueline A Macaluso, Abdu F Azad, Kevin R Macaluso
The geographical overlap of multiple Rickettsia and tick species coincides with the molecular detection of a variety of rickettsial agents in what may be novel tick hosts. However, little is known concerning transmissibility of rickettsial species by various tick hosts. To examine the vertical transmission potential between select tick and rickettsial species, two sympatric species of ticks, Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma maculatum, were exposed to five different rickettsial species, including Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia montanensis, Rickettsia amblyommatis, or flea-borne Rickettsia felis...
April 6, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432496/reproductive-effects-of-life-cycle-exposure-to-difenoconazole-on-female-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#12
Xiaocui Dong, Zhenghong Zuo, Jiaojiao Guo, Hongbin Li, Lemeng Zhang, Meng Chen, Zhibin Yang, Chonggang Wang
Difenoconazole (DFZ) is a widely used triazole fungicide which has been detected in some estuaries and embayments. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of DFZ on ovarian development in female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). After 180 days exposure of the embryo to DFZ (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/L), the gonadosomatic index and percentage of mature oocytes produced were significantly reduced in the 1, 10 and 100 ng/L treatments but not the 1000 ng/L treatment compared to the control, thus exhibiting a U-shaped dose response curve...
April 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431176/effect-of-melatonin-on-renewal-of-chicken-small-intestinal-mucosa
#13
J Li, R X Li, G Liu, C F Lv, Y L Mi, C Q Zhang
A higher concentration of melatonin (MEL) in the intestine - even more than that in the plasma and pineal gland - implies its putative important role in the gastrointestinal structural or functional regulation. However, little evidence has shown that MEL can regulate the physiological functions of the intestinal mucosa. In this study, fertilized chicken eggs were treated with MEL (0.1 to 10 μg/d) from embryonic d 12 (E12) to post-hatching d 6 (D6), and the small intestine samples were collected at D6 to determine the changes in mucosal construction and function...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431095/avi-lution%C3%A2-supplemented-at-1-0-or-2-0%C3%A2-g-kg-in-feed-improves-the-growth-performance-of-broiler-chickens-during-challenge-with-bacitracin-resistant-clostridium-perfringens
#14
L A Krueger, D A Spangler, D R Vandermyde, M D Sims, G A Ayangbile
Avi-Lution® is a defined, patented, synbiotic product containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enterococcus faecium, and Bacillus spp. Broiler chickens (n = 1,250) were experimentally treated as uninoculated controls (uCon), inoculated controls (iCon) with Clostridium perfringens, or inoculated and treated with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) at 55 mg/kg as an infected/treated control or Avi-Lution® at 1.0 (AvL1) or 2.0 (AvL2) g/kg in feed for 42 d. Each treatment was applied to 10 replicate pens of 25 straight-run, newly hatched chicks...
April 18, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430726/vaginal-mesh-removal-outcomes-eight-years-of-experience-at-an-academic-hospital
#15
Olivia O Cardenas-Trowers, Pouran Malekzadeh, David E Nix, Kenneth D Hatch
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical history leading up to and the outcomes after vaginal mesh removal surgery at an academic hospital. METHODS: A retrospective case series of patients who underwent vaginal mesh removal from 2008 to 2015 was conducted. Demographics, clinical history, physical examination, pre- and postoperative symptoms, and number and type of reoperations were abstracted. RESULTS: Between February 2008 and November 2015, 83 patients underwent vaginal mesh removal surgery at our hospital...
April 20, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429796/spatial-control-of-functional-response-in-4d-printed-active-metallic-structures
#16
Ji Ma, Brian Franco, Gustavo Tapia, Kubra Karayagiz, Luke Johnson, Jun Liu, Raymundo Arroyave, Ibrahim Karaman, Alaa Elwany
We demonstrate a method to achieve local control of 3-dimensional thermal history in a metallic alloy, which resulted in designed spatial variations in its functional response. A nickel-titanium shape memory alloy part was created with multiple shape-recovery stages activated at different temperatures using the selective laser melting technique. The multi-stage transformation originates from differences in thermal history, and thus the precipitate structure, at various locations created from controlled variations in the hatch distance within the same part...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428856/forage-plants-of-an-arctic-nesting-herbivore-show-larger-warming-response-in-breeding-than-wintering-grounds-potentially-disrupting-migration-phenology
#17
Thomas K Lameris, Femke Jochems, Alexandra J van der Graaf, Mattias Andersson, Juul Limpens, Bart A Nolet
During spring migration, herbivorous waterfowl breeding in the Arctic depend on peaks in the supply of nitrogen-rich forage plants, following a "green wave" of grass growth along their flyway to fuel migration and reproduction. The effects of climate warming on forage plant growth are expected to be larger at the Arctic breeding grounds than in temperate wintering grounds, potentially disrupting this green wave and causing waterfowl to mistime their arrival on the breeding grounds. We studied the potential effect of climate warming on timing of food peaks along the migratory flyway of the Russian population of barnacle geese using a warming experiment with open-top chambers...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424542/why-do-psychiatric-patients-stop-antipsychotic-medication-a-systematic-review-of-reasons-for-nonadherence-to-medication-in-patients-with-serious-mental-illness
#18
REVIEW
Dawn I Velligan, Martha Sajatovic, Ainslie Hatch, Pavel Kramata, John P Docherty
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medication reduces the severity of serious mental illness (SMI) and improves patient outcomes only when medicines were taken as prescribed. Nonadherence to the treatment of SMI increases the risk of relapse and hospitalization and reduces the quality of life. It is necessary to understand the factors influencing nonadherence to medication in order to identify appropriate interventions. This systematic review assessed the published evidence on modifiable reasons for nonadherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with SMI...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424053/stress-induced-nuclear-granules-form-in-response-to-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Katherine M Sampuda, Mason Riley, Lynn Boyd
BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. elegans. RESULTS: Salt stress, oxidative stress, and starvation, but not heat shock, induce the relocalization of ubiquitin, proteasome, and the TIAR-2 protein into distinct subnuclear regions referred to as stress induced nuclear granules (SINGs)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423429/modeling-temperature-dependent-development-of-glyphodes-pyloalis-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#20
Zohreh Moallem, Azadeh Karimi-Malati, Ahad Sahragard, Arash Zibaee
Development of Glyphodes pyloalis Walker was studied under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures of 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 32, and 36 °C. No development occurred at 36 °C. Although eggs hatched at 12 ºC, no larvae were capable of developing to adult stage. At 16 ºC, survival rate was low (4%) and prepupal stage lasted 101.68 ± 11.03 d. Larvae completed development through six stadia at 16, 30, and 32 °C. Developmental time of overall immature stages varied from 46.62 d at 20 °C to 22...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
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