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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057711/the-effects-of-childhood-maltreatment-on-brain-structure-in-adults-with-eating-disorders
#1
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Palmiero Monteleone, Fabrizio Esposito, Anna Prinster, Valeria Ruzzi, Antonietta Canna, Marco Aiello, Francesco Di Salle, Mario Maj
OBJECTIVES: Childhood maltreatment is a non specific risk factor for eating disorders (EDs). However, no study assessed so far the impact of childhood maltreatment on brain structure of adults with EDs. Therefore, we investigated brain areas volumes and fiber tracts integrity of childhood maltreated (Mal) and non-maltreated (noMal) patients with EDs. METHODS: Thirty-six ED women and 16 healthy women underwent a MRI scanning including acquisition of a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence and a high resolution T1-weighted scan...
October 23, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057603/delay-discounting-of-reward-and-impulsivity-in-eating-disorders-from-anorexia-nervosa-to-binge-eating-disorder
#2
Trevor Steward, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz, Zaida Agüera, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Evidence points to eating disorder patients displaying altered rates of delay discounting (one's degree of preference for immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards). Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients are believed to have an increased capacity to delay reward, which reflects their ability to override the drive to eat. Contrarily, binge eating disorder (BED) patients are associated with a reduced predisposition to delay gratification. Here, we investigated monetary delay discounting and impulsivity in 80 adult women with EDs (56 AN and 24 BED), diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, and 80 healthy controls...
November 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056155/corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-and-addictive-behaviors
#3
Marisa Roberto, Samantha R Spierling, Dean Kirson, Eric P Zorrilla
Drug addiction is a complex disorder that is characterized by compulsivity to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake of the drug, and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome in the absence of the drug. The transition from casual drug use to dependence is mediated by changes in reward and brain stress functions and has been linked to a shift from positive reinforcement to negative reinforcement. The recruitment of brain stress systems mediates the negative emotional state produced by dependence that drives drug seeking through negative reinforcement mechanisms, defined as the "dark side" of addiction...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056099/kindness-toward-one-s-self-and-body-exploring-mediational-pathways-between-early-memories-and-disordered-eating
#4
Cláudia Ferreira, Sara Oliveira, Ana Laura Mendes
Recent literature has emphasized the role played by early emotional experiences on body image and eating-related psychopathology. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the link between positive rearing experiences and eating psychopathology remain scarcely explored. Thus, this study aimed to explore a model in which it was hypothesized that early emotional experiences, characterized by warmth, safeness, and soothing, are negatively associated with disordered eating through higher levels of self-compassion and a more positive and caring relationship with one's own body...
October 23, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052240/testing-predictions-of-the-emotion-regulation-model-of-binge-eating-disorder
#5
Therese E Kenny, Christopher Singleton, Jacqueline C Carter
OBJECTIVE: The emotion regulation (ER) model of binge eating posits that individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED) experience more intense emotions and greater difficulties in ER than individuals without BED, leading them to binge eat as a means of regulating emotions. According to this model, individuals with BED should report greater difficulties in ER than their non-BED counterparts, the severity of these difficulties should be positively associated with BED symptoms, and this association should be stronger when individuals experience persistent negative emotions (i...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052014/predictive-validity-of-a-service-setting-based-measure-to-identify-infancy-mental-health-problems-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Janni Ammitzbøll, Lau Caspar Thygesen, Bjørn E Holstein, Anette Andersen, Anne Mette Skovgaard
Measures to identify infancy mental health problems are essential to guide interventions and reduce the risk of developmental psychopathology in early years. We investigated a new service-setting-based measure the Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Screening (CIMHS) within the general child health surveillance by community health nurses (CHN). The study population of 2973 infants was assessed by CIMHS at age 9-10 months. A subsample of 416 children was examined at age 1½ years, using parent interviews including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1½-5), Check List of Autism and Toddlers (CHAT), Infant-Toddler Symptom Checklist (ITSCL), and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID) and observations of behavior, communication, and interaction...
October 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050636/targeting-self-regulation-to-promote-health-behaviors-in-children
#7
Alison L Miller, Ashley N Gearhardt, Emily M Fredericks, Benjamin Katz, Lilly Fink Shapiro, Kelsie Holden, Niko Kaciroti, Richard Gonzalez, Christine Hunter, Julie C Lumeng
Poor self-regulation (i.e., inability to harness cognitive, emotional, motivational resources to achieve goals) is hypothesized to contribute to unhealthy behaviors across the lifespan. Enhancing early self-regulation may increase positive health outcomes. Obesity is a major public health concern with early-emerging precursors related to self-regulation; it is therefore a good model for understanding self-regulation and health behavior. Preadolescence is a transition when children increase autonomy in health behaviors (e...
September 28, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048569/impulse-control-in-negative-mood-states-emotional-eating-and-food-addiction-are-associated-with-lower-quality-of-life-in-adolescents-with-severe-obesity
#8
Meredith H Rose, Evan P Nadler, Eleanor R Mackey
Objectives: Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome to evaluate in adolescents with severe obesity, yet intrapersonal predictors of QoL are understudied. The current study assessed whether difficulty with impulse control when experiencing a negative mood (negative urgency) is associated with poorer QoL, mediated by more emotional eating and food addiction. Method: Participants consisted of 69 primarily female (71%), minority (76%) adolescents aged 13-21 (M age = 16...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048213/structural-modeling-the-relationship-of-food-addiction-and-eating-attitudes-of-young-adults-with-emotional-appetite-and-self-esteem
#9
Nevin Sanlier, Furkan Baser, Hande Mortas, Semra Navruz Varli, M Sedanur Macit, Tugba Tatar
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among food addiction, eating attitudes, emotional appetite, and self-esteem of young adults aged 18-30 years by using a structural model. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,058 volunteers (male = 307, female = 751). The hypothesis that self-esteem of young adults influences their eating attitudes was supported in the study (β = -0.081, p < .05). Another hypothesis was also supported, so self-esteem had a positive effect on food addiction (β = 0...
October 19, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045451/getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter-does-aberrant-interoceptive-processing-contribute-towards-emotional-eating
#10
Hayley A Young, Claire Williams, Aimee E Pink, Gary Freegard, Amy Owens, David Benton
According to estimates from Public Health England, by 2034 70% of adults are expected to be overweight or obese, therefore understanding the underpinning aetiology is a priority. Eating in response to negative affect contributes towards obesity, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Evidence that visceral afferent signals contribute towards the experience of emotion is accumulating rapidly, with the emergence of new influential models of 'active inference'. No longer viewed as a 'bottom up' process, new interoceptive facets based on 'top down' predictions have been proposed, although at present it is unclear which aspects of interoception contribute to aberrant eating behaviour and obesity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044580/low-oxytocin-levels-are-related-to-alexithymia-in-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Cindy Schmelkin, Franziska Plessow, Jennifer J Thomas, Emily K Gray, Dean A Marengi, Reitumetse Pulumo, Lisseth Silva, Karen K Miller, Nouchine Hadjikhani, Debra L Franko, Kamryn T Eddy, Elizabeth A Lawson
OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa is associated with social-emotional functioning deficits and low levels of the social neurohormone oxytocin, even after weight gain. The relationship between low oxytocin levels and social-emotional functioning impairment has not been studied. METHOD: We performed a cross-sectional study of 79 women (19 who were less than 85% of ideal body weight [IBW] with anorexia nervosa [AN], 26 who were 90-120% IBW with a history of AN [AN-WR], and 34 who were 90-120% IBW with no eating disorder history [H])...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043085/a-pilot-open-series-of-lamotrigine-in-dbt-treated-eating-disorders-characterized-by-significant-affective-dysregulation-and-poor-impulse-control
#12
Mary Ellen Trunko, Terry A Schwartz, Laura A Berner, Anne Cusack, Tiffany Nakamura, Ursula F Bailer, Joanna Y Chen, Walter H Kaye
BACKGROUND: There is little effective psychopharmacological treatment for individuals with eating disorders who struggle with pervasive, severe affective and behavioral dysregulation. METHODS: This pilot open series evaluated lamotrigine, a mood stabilizer, in the treatment of patients with eating disorders who did not respond adequately to antidepressant medications. Nine women with anorexia nervosa- or bulimia nervosa-spectrum eating disorders in partial hospital or intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)-based eating disorder treatment took lamotrigine for 147 ± 79 days (mean final dose = 161...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042189/dietary-disinhibition-mediates-the-relationship-between-poor-sleep-quality-and-body-weight
#13
Michelle L Blumfield, Bei Bei, Iona Z Zimberg, Sean W Cain
BACKGROUND: Inadequate sleep independently influences eating habits and weight status. However, the relationship between these three factors has not been well quantified. The objective of this study was to examine if eating behavior (i.e. dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger) mediates the relationship between sleep and body mass index (BMI) in a large sample of American adults. METHOD: Cross-sectional data from the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland sample were assessed (n = 602; 38...
October 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031166/can-the-perceived-barriers-to-psychological-treatment-scale-be-used-to-investigate-treatment-barriers-among-females-with-disordered-and-non-disordered-eating-behaviours
#14
Natasha T Innes, Bonnie A Clough, Jamin J Day, Leanne M Casey
There is a lack of psychometrically sound instruments to assess treatment barriers among individuals with disordered eating behaviours. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Perceived Barriers to Psychological Treatment scale (PBPT; Mohr et al., 2010) among a sample of individuals with disordered eating behaviours. Participants were 708 females aged 14 years and older who completed an online survey. The sample was randomly divided in two for the conduct of exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses...
September 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030085/are-emotionally-driven-and-addictive-like-eating-behaviors-the-missing-links-between-psychological-distress-and-greater-body-weight
#15
L Bourdier, M Orri, A Carre, A N Gearhardt, L Romo, C Dantzer, S Berthoz
There is now a large body of evidence suggesting a significant association between emotional discomfort management, disordered eating behaviors and weight status. In the field of overweight and obesity, emotionally driven eating habits that resemble addictive behaviors are considered as a risk factor. This study aimed to investigate in a large sample of French university students 1) the associations between self-reported levels of psychological distress (PD), emotional eating (EE), food addiction (FA) and Body Mass Index (BMI); and 2) the potential mediation effect of eating behaviors (EE and FA) between PD and BMI...
October 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028365/exploring-self-care-and-preferred-supports-for-adult-parents-in-recovery-from-substance-use-disorders-qualitative-findings-from-a-feasibility-study
#16
Phyllis A Raynor, Charlene Pope, Janet York, Gigi Smith, Martina Mueller
Very little is known about the self-care behaviors (SCB) that adult parents employ and the preferred supports they utilize to maintain their recovery from substance use disorders (SUD) while also parenting their children. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach to explore perceptions of self-care and parenting to inform future self-care interventions for parents in early recovery. Nineteen mothers and fathers of at least one child between the ages of 6-18 were interviewed by telephone about parental self-care practices while in recovery from SUD, recovery management, and preferred supports in the community...
October 13, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024361/emotional-processing-in-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-exploratory-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
J Fernandes, F Ferreira-Santos, K Miller, S Torres
The role of emotional functioning in the development and maintenance of obesity has been investigated, but the literature is poorly integrated. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to explore emotional processing impairments in obesity. PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases were searched in March 2016, yielding 31 studies comparing emotional processing competencies in individuals with obesity, with or without binge eating disorder (BED), and control groups. Meta-analyses demonstrated that individuals with obesity had higher scores of alexithymia (d = 0...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022251/genetic-and-environmental-relationships-between-eating-behavior-and-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression
#18
Yun-Mi Song, Kayoung Lee, Joohon Sung
PURPOSE: To assess gender-specific genetic and environmental correlations between depressive and anxiety symptoms, and concurrent and follow-up eating behavior in Korean twins and their family members. METHODS: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure depressive and anxiety symptoms in subjects. To assess concurrent and follow-up relationships of the symptoms with eating behavior domains (restrained, emotional, and external eating), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire was administered to 2359 subjects at baseline (men, 48...
October 11, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022218/an-examination-of-the-mechanisms-and-personality-traits-underlying-food-addiction-among-individuals-with-severe-obesity-awaiting-bariatric-surgery
#19
Anne-Sophie Ouellette, Christopher Rodrigue, Simone Lemieux, André Tchernof, Laurent Biertho, Catherine Bégin
PURPOSE: The aetiology underlying addiction has often been investigated to shed more light on the factors contributing to the development and maintenance of various disorders. In the field of addictive eating behaviours, data on the aetiological factors related to food addiction (FA) in the bariatric context remain scarce. The present study aimed to explore mechanisms and variables underlying FA among individuals suffering from severe obesity and awaiting bariatric surgery. METHODS: Participants (N = 146) were recruited at the Quebec Heart and Lung Institute during their pre-operative visit and were invited to complete questionnaires...
October 11, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021748/binge-like-sucrose-self-administration-experience-inhibits-cocaine-and-sucrose-seeking-behavior-in-offspring
#20
Qiumin Le, Yanqing Li, Weiqing Hou, Biao Yan, Xiangchen Yu, Haikun Song, Feifei Wang, Lan Ma
Recent studies show that emotional and environmental stimuli promote epigenetic inheritance and influence behavioral development in the subsequent generations. Caloric mal- and under-nutrition has been shown to cause metabolic disturbances in the subsequent generation, but the incentive properties of paternal binge-like eating in offspring is still unknown. Here we show that paternal sucrose self-administration experience could induce inter-generational decrease in both sucrose and cocaine-seeking behavior, and sucrose responding in F1 rats, but not F2, correlated with the performance of F0 rats in sucrose self-administration...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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