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Giacomo Volpe, David S Walton, David E Grainger, Carl Ward, Pierre Cauchy, Daniel Blakemore, Daniel J L Coleman, Peter N Cockerill, Paloma Garcia, Jon Frampton
Growth Factor Independence 1 (GFI1) is a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role during both myeloid and lymphoid haematopoietic lineage commitment. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of GFI1 in haematological malignancies and have suggested that low expression of GFI1 is a negative indicator of disease progression for both myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). In this study, we have stratified AML patients into those defined as having a normal karyotype (CN-AML)...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Craig Buxton, David Blakemore, John Bower
Ni-catalyzed coupling of benzyl acrylates with activated ketones or imines provides γ-butyrolactones and lactams. The benzyl alcohol byproduct released during the lactonization/lactamization event is relayed to the next cycle where it serves as the reductant for C-C bond formation. This strategy represents a conceptually unique approach to transfer hydrogenative C-C bond formation, providing examples of reductive heterocyclizations where hydrogen embedded within an alcohol leaving group facilitates turnover...
September 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Tamara Blakemore, James Leslie Herbert, Fiona Arney, Samantha Parkinson
While awareness of institutional child sexual abuse has grown in recent years, there remains limited understanding of its occurrence and outcomes as a distinct form of abuse. Drawing on research commissioned by the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, this article presents a rapid review of available evidence on the impacts of institutional abuse on victim/survivors. Literature searches identified 75 sources spanning international peer reviewed work and reports to Government that document or quantify the impacts of mostly historical child sexual abuse occurring in religious, educational, sporting and residential or out-of-home care settings...
August 31, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Samantha I Johnson, Harry B Gray, James D Blakemore, William A Goddard
Recent work has shown that Cp*Rh(bpy) [Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, bpy = 2,2'- bipyridine] undergoes endo protonation at the [Cp*] ligand in the presence of weak acid (Et3NH(+); pKa = 18.8 in MeCN). Upon exposure to stronger acid (e.g., DMFH(+); pKa = 6.1), hydrogen is evolved with unity yield. Here, we study the mechanisms by which this catalyst evolves dihydrogen using density functional theory (M06) with polarizable continuum solvation. The calculations show that the complex can be protonated by weak acid first at the metal center with a barrier of 3...
September 1, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Cassandra Kenning, Gavin Daker-White, Amy Blakemore, Maria Panagioti, Waquas Waheed
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are about 25,000 people from UK ethnic minority groups with dementia. It is clear that there is an increasing need to improve access to dementia services for all ethnic groups to ensure that everyone has access to the same potential health benefits. The aim was to systematically review qualitative studies and to perform a meta-synthesis around barriers and facilitators to accessing care for dementia in ethnic minorities. METHODS: Databases were searched to capture studies on barriers and facilitators to accessing care for dementia in ethnic minorities...
August 30, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Anuja Pandey, Daniel Hale, Anne-Lise Goddings, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Russell Viner
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that childhood and adolescence self-regulation contributes to multiple health, educational and social outcomes. Considering the potential impact of self-regulation skills on improved life chances in conjunction with evidence suggesting that self-regulation can be modified by interventions, there is a need to identify interventions which are most effective in improving childhood and adolescence self-regulation. The present systematic review was designed to determine the effectiveness of universal interventions focused on enhancing the self-regulation of children and adolescents...
August 29, 2017: Systematic Reviews
Paul R Blakemore, Reinhard W Hoffmann
Two carbenoids combine to generate an olefin by a mechanism involving ate-complex formation, 1,2-metallate rearrangement, and beta-elimination. Because each stage of this eliminative coupling is stereospecific, the overall stereochemical outcome can be understood, and in principle fully controlled, providing that the absolute stereochemical configurations of the reacting carbenoid species are defined. By contrast to traditional alkene syntheses, the eliminative cross-coupling of carbenoids offers a connective approach to olefins capable of precisely targeting a given isomer regardless of the nature of the features distinguishing isomers...
August 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Yun Peng, Mario V Ramos-Garcés, Davide Lionetti, James D Blakemore
There are few examples of the isolation of analogous metal complexes bearing [η(5)-Cp*] and [η(4)-Cp*H] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) complexes within the same metal/ligand framework, despite the relevance of such structures to catalytic applications. Recently, protonation of Cp*Rh(bpy) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) has been shown to yield a complex bearing the uncommon [η(4)-Cp*H] ligand, rather than generating a [Rh(III)-H] complex. We now report the purification and isolation of this protonated species, as well as characterization of analogous complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)...
August 23, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Davide Lionetti, Victor W Day, James D Blakemore
A new tripodal ligand featuring three appended pyrene moieties has been prepared for studies of noncovalent binding of lanthanide metal complexes to graphitic carbon surfaces. The ligand tightly binds lanthanide(iii) ions by encapsulation within a heptadentate coordination environment; the cerium, neodymium, samarium, and europium complexes (all with formal metal oxidation state of +3) have been synthesized and characterized. These compounds are readily immobilized on graphitic electrodes-this is driven by the presence of the pyrene moieties, as complexes of an analogous ligand without pyrene groups are not stably adherent to the surface...
September 12, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Stefano Palminteri, Germain Lefebvre, Emma J Kilford, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Previous studies suggest that factual learning, that is, learning from obtained outcomes, is biased, such that participants preferentially take into account positive, as compared to negative, prediction errors. However, whether or not the prediction error valence also affects counterfactual learning, that is, learning from forgone outcomes, is unknown. To address this question, we analysed the performance of two groups of participants on reinforcement learning tasks using a computational model that was adapted to test if prediction error valence influences learning...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Lisa J Knoll, Jovita T Leung, Lucy Foulkes, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Adolescents are particularly susceptible to social influence. Here, we investigated the effect of social influence on risk perception in 590 participants aged eight to fifty-nine-years tested in the United Kingdom. Participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations, were then informed about the rating of these situations from a (fictitious) social-influence group consisting of teenagers or adults, and then re-evaluated the situation. Our first aim was to attempt to replicate our previous finding that young adolescents are influenced more by teenagers than by adults...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescence
Jarlei Fiamoncini, Andrianos M Yiorkas, Kurt Gedrich, Milena Rundle, Sanne I Alsters, Guus Roeselers, Tim J van den Broek, Thomas Clavel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Suzan Wopereis, Gary S Frost, Ben van Ommen, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Hannelore Daniel
Bile acids (BA) are signaling molecules with a wide range of biological effects, also identified amongst the most responsive plasma metabolites in the post-prandial state. We here describe this response to different dietary challenges and report on key determinants linked to its inter-individual variability. Healthy men and women (N=72, 62 ± 8 years) were enrolled into a 12-week weight loss intervention. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) before and after the intervention...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Myra L Weiner, James M McKim, William R Blakemore
This paper is an addendum to a 2016 paper outlining pitfalls and parameters to consider in the conduct of food additive research with carrageenan (Fd. Chem. Tox. 87, 31-44 (2016)). The literature on the food additive, "carrageenan," contains many publications which either erroneously misuse the name, carrageenan, for a sample which is not carrageenan, but "degraded carrageenan" or "poligeenan" and also conduct studies without understanding the physical/chemical properties of carrageenan. Degraded carrageenan and poligeenan are not food additives and have a completely different physical/chemical and toxicological properties from carrageenan...
September 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nikolaus Steinbeis, Eveline Crone, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Eunae Cho, Chung Hwan Jun, Sung Bum Cho, Chang Hwan Park, Hyun Soo Kim, Sung Kyu Choi, Jong Sun Rew
This study was aimed to determine the risk factors of endoscopic variceal ligation-(EVL) induced ulcer bleeding.The prevalence of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding is reported to be 3.6%. However, there are only limited reports of this serious complication, and the risk factors and the treatment methods are not well established.A total of 430 patients who had undergone EVL in Chonnam National University Hospital from January 2014 to October 2016 were studied. EVL was performed for prophylaxis or acute hemorrhage. The patients were classified into 2 groups: a bleeding group (n = 33) and a non-bleeding group (n = 397)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Venu M Nemani, Laurel C Blakemore, Lori A Karol, Daniel W Green, Roger F Widmann
The primary goal in the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is to prevent the progression of spinal deformity either with the use of a brace or with surgery. The goals of surgery, if indicated, are to correct the spinal deformity safely and to preserve overall spinal balance and as many motion segments as possible, which maximizes the long-term health of a patient's spine. Recently, tremendous advances have been made in the surgical techniques that are used to correct adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and improved tools have allowed surgeons to perform spinal deformity surgery as safely and with as few complications as possible...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
Frances A Farley, Laurel C Blakemore
Congenital scoliosis is lateral curvature of the spine caused by vertebral anomalies. Congenital scoliosis is associated with congenital anomalies of other organ systems. Traditionally, treatment options for patients with congenital scoliosis focused on posterior spinal fusion. Current surgical treatment options for young children include growing rods, vertical expandable prosthetic titanium ribs, and, most recently, magnetic rods. Hemivertebrae resection is an important early treatment option for patients who have a hemivertebra...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
Lucía Magis-Weinberg, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Iroise Dumontheil
Reasoning during social interactions requires the individual manipulation of mental representations of one's own traits and those of other people as well as their joint consideration (relational integration). Research using nonsocial paradigms has linked relational integration to activity in the rostrolateral PFC. Here, we investigated whether social reasoning is supported by the same general system or whether it additionally relies on regions of the social brain network, such as the medial PFC. We further assessed the development of social reasoning...
October 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Kathleen M Antony, Diana A Racusin, Michael A Belfort, Gary A Dildy
Objective Uterine tamponade by fluid-filled balloons is now an accepted method of controlling postpartum hemorrhage. Available tamponade balloons vary in design and material, which affects the filling attributes and volume at which they rupture. We aimed to characterize the filling capacity and pressure-volume relationship of various tamponade balloons. Study Design Balloons were filled with water ex vivo. Intraluminal pressure was measured incrementally (every 10 mL for the Foley balloons and every 50 mL for all other balloons)...
April 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Maura Blakemore Gentner, Rebecca German, Mary L Leppert
We examined longitudinal neurodevelopmental outcomes in a series of infants with microcephaly. Retrospective review identified neonatal intensive care unit follow-up clinic patients with a diagnostic code of microcephaly, verified by head circumference less than the fifth precentile (WHO growth curves). Data were collected regarding clinical history and developmental assessments by Capute Scales and gross motor age equivalent. Developmental Quotient (DQ) was age adjusted up until 2 years for preterm infants...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
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