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Imke Spöring, Sebastian Felgner, Matthias Preuße, Denitsa Eckweiler, Manfred Rohde, Susanne Häussler, Siegfried Weiss, Marc Erhardt
Flagellum-driven motility of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium facilitates host colonization. However, the large extracellular flagellum is also a prime target for the immune system. As consequence, expression of flagella is bistable within a population of Salmonella , resulting in flagellated and nonflagellated subpopulations. This allows the bacteria to maximize fitness in hostile environments. The degenerate EAL domain protein RflP (formerly YdiV) is responsible for the bistable expression of flagella by directing the flagellar master regulatory complex FlhD4 C2 with respect to proteolytic degradation...
May 1, 2018: MBio
Hiroaki Kitagishi, Daiki Shimoji, Takehiro Ohta, Ryo Kamiya, Yasuhiro Kudo, Akira Onoda, Takashi Hayashi, Jean Weiss, Jennifer A Wytko, Koji Kano
In mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase (C c O) catalyses the reduction of oxygen (O2 ) to water by using a heme/copper hetero-binuclear active site. Here we report a highly efficient supramolecular approach for the construction of a water-soluble biomimetic model for the active site of C c O. A tridentate copper(ii) complex was fixed onto 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinatoiron(iii) (FeIII TPPS) through supramolecular complexation between FeIII TPPS and a per- O -methylated β-cyclodextrin dimer linked by a (2,2':6',2''-terpyridyl)copper(ii) complex (CuII TerpyCD2 )...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Kymberly A Wroble, Morgan N Trott, George G Schweitzer, Rabia S Rahman, Patrick V Kelly, Edward P Weiss
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets cause mild, sub-clinical systemic acidosis. Anaerobic exercise performance is limited by acidosis. Therefore, we evaluated the hypothesis that a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet impairs anaerobic exercise performance, as compared to a high-carbohydrate diet. METHODS: Sixteen men and women (BMI, 23±1 kg/m2, age 23±1 yr) participated in a randomized-sequence, counterbalanced crossover study in which they underwent exercise testing after four days of either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LC; <50 g/day and <10% of energy from carbohydrates) or a high-carbohydrate diet (HC; 6-10 g/kg/day carbohydrate)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Wei Wang, Hyo Sook Song, Paul W Keller, Esmeralda Alvarado-Facundo, Russell Vassell, Carol D Weiss
Vaccines that elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies to the conserved stem of hemagglutinin (HA) are being developed as universal influenza vaccines that protect against influenza across multiple years. However, different influenza strains, even those in the same subtype with identical stem sequences, can vary in susceptibility to broadly neutralizing stem antibodies, and the reasons are not understood. Here we studied potential mechanisms underlying different sensitivities of a panel of H5N1 HA-pseudoviruses to broadly neutralizing stem antibodies...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Deniz Turan, Monika Gibis, Gurbuz Gunes, Stefan K Baier, Jochen Weiss
The conjugation reaction of electrospun fibers of a mixture of whey protein isolate (WPI) and dextran using different molecular weights (40, 70, and 100 kDa) and mixing ratios was studied. This study includes the electrospinnability of a mixture of WPI and dextran, and the conjugation reaction between them via the initial stage of the Maillard reaction. The WPI-dextran fibers were characterized using optical and transmission electron microscopy. The covalent attachment of dextran to WPI was confirmed using sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis with protein and glycoprotein staining...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
Corina L Reichert, Hanna Salminen, Gabriela Badolato Bönisch, Christian Schäfer, Jochen Weiss
HYPOTHESIS: This study examined the emulsifying properties of mixed surfactant systems of Quillaja saponins and food-grade co-surfactants (Na-caseinate, pea protein, rapeseed lecithin, and egg lecithin). We hypothesized to these mixtures may build mixed adsorption layers and thus enhance emulsion stabilization. EXPERIMENTS: Oil-in-water emulsions (10%, pH 7) were prepared with different concentrations of co-surfactants (0.1-5.0%) alone or mixed with Quillaja saponins (0...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
David R Johnson, Robert E Boyd, Anthony J Bednar, Charles A Weiss, Matt S Hull, Jessica G Coleman, Alan J Kennedy, Cynthia J Banks, Jeffery A Steevens
The synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials is often inefficient, generating large amounts of soot with metals as waste by-product. Currently, there are no specific regulations for disposal of engineered nanomaterials or the waste by-products resulting from their synthesis, so it is presumed that by-products are disposed of in the same way as the parent (bulk) materials. We studied the terrestrial toxicity of soot from gadolinium metallofullerene nanomanufacturing on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and isopods (Porcellio scaber)...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Benjamin Zeeb, Vanessa Schöck, Nicole Schmid, Lisa Majer, Kurt Herrmann, Jörg Hinrichs, Jochen Weiss
Process-stable complexes composed of whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar beet pectin have great potential as structuring agents or fat replacers in foods. The current study investigates the compatibility of heated WPI : pectin complexes in different meat matrices. Spreadable raw-fermented sausages and sliceable emulsion-type sausages were therefore manufactured containing biopolymer complexes with various WPI : pectin ratios r (2 : 1, 8 : 1). Macro- and microstructural properties of the meat dispersions were analyzed in terms of colour, texture, rheometry, sensory, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) measurements...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
Peter J Leary, Edward Hess, Anna E Barón, Kelley R Branch, Gaurav Choudhary, Catherine L Hough, Bradley A Maron, David D Ralph, John J Ryan, Ryan J Tedford, Noel S Weiss, Roham T Zamanian, Tim Lahm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Peter Weiss-Penzias, Armin Sorooshian, Kenneth Coale, Wesley Heim, Ewan Crosbie, Hossein Dadashazar, Alexander B MacDonald, Zhen Wang, Haflidi Jonsson
Water samples from marine stratus clouds were collected during 16 aircraft flights above the Pacific Ocean near the Central California coast during the summer of 2016. These samples were analyzed for total mercury (THg), monomethyl mercury (MMHg), and 32 other chemical species in addition to aerosol physical parameters. The mean concentrations of THg and MMHg in the cloudwater samples were 9.2 ± 6.0 ng L-1 (2.3-33.8 ng L-1 ) ( N = 97) and 0.87 ± 0.66 ng L-1 (0.17-2.9 ng L-1 ) ( N = 22), respectively. This corresponds to 9...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
John C Thomas, Dominic P Goronzy, Andrew C Serino, Harsharn S Auluck, Olivia R Irving, Elisa Jimenez-Izal, Jacqueline M Deirmenjian, Jan Macháček, Philippe Sautet, Anastassia N Alexandrova, Tomáš Baše, Paul S Weiss
We use simple acid-base chemistry to control the valency in self-assembled monolayers of two different carboranedithiol isomers on Au{111}. Monolayer formation proceeds via Au-S bonding, where manipulation of pH prior to or during deposition enables the assembly of dithiolate species, monothiol/monothiolate species, or combination. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images identify two distinct binding modes in each unmodified monolayer, where simultaneous spectroscopic imaging confirms different dipole offsets for each binding mode...
March 27, 2018: ACS Nano
Heike Pfeifer, Katharina Raum, Sandra Markovic, Verena Nowak, Stephanie Fey, Julia Obländer, Jovita Pressler, Verena Böhm, Monika Brüggemann, Lydia Wunderle, Andreas Hüttmann, Ralph Wäsch, Joachim Beck, Matthias Stelljes, Andreas Viardot, Fabian Lang, Dieter Hoelzer, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Hubert Serve, Christel Weiss, Nicola Goekbuget, Oliver G Ottmann, Daniel Nowak
We investigated the role of copy number alterations to refine risk stratification in adult Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph)+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (aSCT). Ninety-seven Ph+ ALL patients (median age 41 years; range 18-64 years) within the prospective multicenter German Multicenter ALL Study Group studies 06/99 (n = 8) and 07/2003 (n = 89) were analyzed. All patients received TKI and aSCT in first complete remission (CR1)...
March 29, 2018: Blood
Linda C Weiss, Leonie Pötter, Annika Steiger, Sebastian Kruppert, Uwe Frost, Ralph Tollrian
Anthropogenically released CO2 accumulates in the global carbon cycle and is anticipated to imbalance global carbon fluxes [1]. For example, increased atmospheric CO2 induces a net air-to-sea flux where the oceans take up large amounts of atmospheric CO2 (i.e., ocean acidification [2-5]). Research on ocean acidification is ongoing, and studies have demonstrated the consequences for ecosystems and organismal biology with major impacts on marine food webs, nutrient cycles, overall productivity, and biodiversity [6-9]...
January 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Kewal Asosingh, Nicholas Wanner, Kelly Weiss, Kimberly Queisser, Liya Gebreab, Biruk Kassa, Eric Stuehr, Brian Graham, Serpil Erzurum
Accumulating evidence shows a causative role for the bone marrow (BM) in the genesis and progression of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Engraftment of BM hematopoietic stem cells from PH patients to mice reproduces the cardiopulmonary pathology of PH. However, it is unknown whether healthy BM can prevent the development of right heart disease. Caveolin-1 -deficient ( CAV-1 KO) mice develop cardiopulmonary disease with manifestations resembling PH, including elevated right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure (RVSP), RV hypertrophy, and pulmonary endothelial proliferative disease...
March 28, 2017: Blood Advances
Natalia Mayordomo, Harald Foerstendorf, Johannes Lützenkirchen, Karsten Heim, Stephan Weiss, Ursula Alonso, Tiziana Missana, Katja Schmeide, Norbert Jordan
The sorption processes of Se(IV) onto γ-Al2 O3 were studied by in situ Infrared spectroscopy, batch sorption studies, zeta potential measurements and surface complexation modeling (SCM) in the pH range from 5 to 10. In situ attenuated total reflection fourier-transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the predominant formation of a single inner-sphere surface species at the alumina surface, supporting previously reported EXAFS results, irrespective of the presence or absence of atmospherically derived carbonate...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jessica L Metcalf, Se Jin Song, James T Morton, Sophie Weiss, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Frédéric Joly, Claudia Feh, Pierre Taberlet, Eric Coissac, Amnon Amir, Eske Willerslev, Rob Knight, Valerie McKenzie, Ludovic Orlando
The mammal gut microbiome, which includes host microbes and their respective genes, is now recognized as an essential second genome that provides critical functions to the host. In humans, studies have revealed that lifestyle strongly influences the composition and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that these trends in humans may be paralleled in mammals subjected to anthropogenic forces such as domestication and captivity, in which diets and natural life histories are often greatly modified...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Duncan Grady, Marjorie Weiss, Jules Hernandez-Sanchez, Joanna Pepke-Zaba
The aims of this study were to investigate the medication adherence of patients on pulmonary hypertension (PH)-targeted therapies and uncover factors that might influence adherence values. Patients taking at least one specialist medicine (sildenafil, tadalafil, bosentan, ambrisentan, iloprost, epoprostenol, treprostinil) completed a Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) questionnaire. Participants' MMAS-8 scores were used to estimate overall medicine adherence. Potential adherence co-factor data were collected from patient databases and hospital discharge summaries...
January 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
Matthias Sendler, Frank-Ulrich Weiss, Janine Golchert, Georg Homuth, Cindy van den Brandt, Ujjwal M Mahajan, Lars-Ivo Partecke, Paula Döring, Ilya Gukovsky, Anna S Gukovskaya, Preshit R Wagh, Markus M Lerch, Julia Mayerle
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute pancreatitis is characterized by premature intracellular activation of digestive proteases within pancreatic acini and a consecutive systemic inflammatory response. We investigated how these processes interact during severe pancreatitis in mice. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in C57Bl/6 wild-type (control), cathepsin B (CTSB)-knockout, and cathepsin L-knockout mice by partial pancreatic duct ligation with supramaximal caerulein injection, or by repetitive supramaximal caerulein injections alone...
February 2018: Gastroenterology
Rita Das Mahapatra, Joykrishna Dey, Richard G Weiss
A series of β-amino acid containing tripeptides has been designed and synthesized in order to develop oligopeptide-based, thermoreversible, pH-sensitive, and proteolytically stable hydrogels. The Fmoc [N-(fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl)]-protected tripeptides were found to produce hydrogels in both pH 7 and 2 buffers at a very low concentration (<0.2% w/v). It has been shown that the Fmoc group plays an important role in the gelation process. Also a dependence of gelation ability on hydrophobicity of the side chain of the Fmoc-protected α-amino acid was observed...
November 3, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Steven Dajnowicz, Ryne C Johnston, Jerry M Parks, Matthew P Blakeley, David A Keen, Kevin L Weiss, Oksana Gerlits, Andrey Kovalevsky, Timothy C Mueser
Enzymes dependent on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6 ) perform a myriad of diverse chemical transformations. They promote various reactions by modulating the electronic states of PLP through weak interactions in the active site. Neutron crystallography has the unique ability of visualizing the nuclear positions of hydrogen atoms in macromolecules. Here we present a room-temperature neutron structure of a homodimeric PLP-dependent enzyme, aspartate aminotransferase, which was reacted in situ with α-methylaspartate...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
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