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Robert J Vercellino, Darrah K Sleeth, Rodney G Handy, Kyeong T Min, Scott C Collingwood
Exposure to occupational aerosols are a known hazard in many industry sectors and can be a risk factor for several respiratory diseases. In this study, a laboratory evaluation of low-cost aerosol sensors, the Dylos DC1700 and a modified Dylos known as the Utah Modified Dylos Sensor (UMDS), was performed to assess the sensors' efficiency in sampling respirable and inhalable dust at high concentrations, which are most common in occupational settings. Dust concentrations were measured in a low-speed wind tunnel with 3 UMDSs, collocated with an aerosol spectrometer (Grimm 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Sang Woo Kwak, Hyomin Jin, Heuiseok Shin, Ji Hye Lee, Hyonseok Hwang, Junseong Lee, Min Kim, Yongseog Chung, Youngjo Kim, Kang Mun Lee, Myung Hwan Park
A novel class of salen-Al/carbazole dyads (D1 and D2) was synthesized and fully identified. The emission spectra of the dyads presented intriguing dual-emission patterns via an intramolecular energy transfer (IET) state in solution. Furthermore, the IET feature of the dyads was clearly observed in the rigid state. Interestingly, the emission efficiency of the dyads was enhanced by the significant IET process from the carbazole group to the salen-Al moiety. Particularly, D1 exhibited a nearly three-fold enhanced luminescence efficiency compared to the corresponding mononuclear aluminum complexes (A1)...
April 23, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Suvi Heinimäki, Maria Malm, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Norovirus (NoV) is a main cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. NoV vaccine candidates currently in clinical trials are based on noninfectious highly immunogenic virus-like particles (VLPs) delivered intramuscularly (IM). Since NoV is an enteric pathogen, it is likely that mucosal immunity has a significant role in protection from infection in the intestine. Due to the fact that IM delivery of NoV VLPs does not generate mucosal immunity, we investigated whether NoV genotype GII.4 VLPs coadministered with aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3 ) or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) would induce mucosal antibodies in mice...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Jiaxing Liu, Linbin Zhou, Zhixin Ke, Gang Li, Rongjun Shi, Yehui Tan
Few studies focus on the effects of aluminum (Al) on marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, which play important roles in the ocean nitrogen cycling. To examine the effects of Al on the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, bioassay experiments in the oligotrophic South China Sea (SCS) and culture of Crocosphaera watsonii in the laboratory were conducted. Field data showed that 200 nM Al stimulated the growth and the nitrogenase gene expression of Trichodesmium and unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium group A, and the nitrogen fixation rates of the whole community...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Pauline Legrand, Anne Desdion, Gaétan Boccadifuoco, Amélie Dufaÿ Wojcicki, Alan Worsley, Vincent Boudy, Sophie Goulay Dufay
Calcium gluconate glucoheptonate (GGCa) is known to interact with glass containers, leading to the leaching of aluminum from the glass into the solution at toxic level. Therefore, plastic containers seem to be a preferable packaging alternative. Nevertheless, plastics contain potentially toxic additives which could be released into the solution. In order to study content container interaction between GGCa and two plastic containers (polypropylene PP and polyethylene PE containers), an HPLC-PDA method was developed to separate, detect and quantify eleven additives commonly found in plastic materials, with good limit of detection and quantification...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Yi Taek Choi, Sung Hwa Bae, Injoon Son, Ho Sang Sohn, Kyung Tae Kim, Young-Wan Ju
In this study, electrolytic etching, anodic oxidation, and copper electroplating were applied to aluminum to produce a plate on which a copper circuit for a thermoelectric module was formed. An oxide film insulating layer was formed on the aluminum through anodic oxidation, and platinum was coated by sputtering to produce conductivity. Finally, copper electroplating was performed directly on the substrate. In this structure, the copper plating layer on the insulating layer served as a conductive layer in the circuit...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Younghwan Hyeon, Pyungho Choi, Sangsub Kim, Minsoo Kim, Jeonghyun Lee, Kiwon Lim, Soonkon Kim, Kwangjun Koo, Byoungdeog Choi
In this study, the charge polarity of aluminum fluoride (AlF3) as a function of varying thickness (tAlF3 = 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80 nm) was discussed. AlF3 films were deposited onto p-Si wafers via electron beam sputtering. Thickness dependent charge polarity and reliability issues under bias-temperature stress conditions were identified using a capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization method. AlF3 was found to possess negative fixed charges, leading to a C-V curve shift toward the positive gate bias direction as tAlF3 was increased up to 50 nm...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Lei Cao, Jintang Guo, Jianhua Tian, Yang Xu, Miaomiao Hu, Chun Guo, Meiyu Wang, Jinjie Fan
Synthetic polymer fluid loss additive (FLA), an important type of admixture, was broadly applied in modern well cementation. However, the filter loss volume and fluidity of cement pastes containing polymer-FLA would deteriorate remarkably when sea water was used in mixing slurries instead of fresh water. In this study, a novel sustained-release-type fluid loss additive(S-FLA) was synthesized by means of anion-exchange intercalation reaction between an anionic type-copolymer and a calcium/aluminum type-Layered Double Hydroxide (Ca/Al-LDH)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Tim Leschinger, Karsten Engel, Gert Peter Brüggemann, Viktoria Dederer, Wolfram Friedrich Neiss, Max Joseph Scheyerer, Lars Peter Müller, Kilian Wegmann
Adjacent vertebral body fracture is described as a risk after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. It may be true that this phenomenon is caused precisely because of the frequently used polymethylmethacrylate cement (PMMA), which shows a higher level of stiffness than bone material and may ultimately lead to shifting stress levels within the entire spine. The goal of the present study was to evaluate and compare the pressure distribution in the endplate of human vertebrae after kyphoplasty with PMMA and aluminum-free glass-polyalkenoate cement (gpc)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Qing Li, Steven Y Liang
Microstructure images of metallic materials play a significant role in industrial applications. To address image degradation problem of metallic materials, a novel image restoration technique based on K-means singular value decomposition (KSVD) and smoothing penalty sparse representation (SPSR) algorithm is proposed in this work, the microstructure images of aluminum alloy 7075 (AA7075) material are used as examples. To begin with, to reflect the detail structure characteristics of the damaged image, the KSVD dictionary is introduced to substitute the traditional sparse transform basis (TSTB) for sparse representation...
April 20, 2018: Materials
Hong Ju, JinZhuo Duan, Yuanfeng Yang, Ning Cao, Yan Li
The galvanic corrosion behavior of three metal alloys commonly used in water desalination plants was investigated using coupled multielectrode arrays consisting of aluminum-brass (HAl77-2), titanium alloy (TA2), and 316L stainless steel (316L SS). The three electrode types were coupled galvanically and arranged in different geometric configurations. Their corrosion behavior was characterized as a function of the chloride concentration. The potential and current distributions of the three-electrode coupling systems display electrochemical inhomogeneity...
April 20, 2018: Materials
Gérôme Melaet, Vitalie Stavila, Lennie Klebanoff, Gabor A Somorjai
Recent theoretical predictions indicate that functional groups and additives could have a favorable impact on the hydrogen adsorption characteristics of sorbents; however, no definite evidence has been obtained to date and little is known about the impact of such modifications on the thermodynamics of hydrogen uptake and overall capacity. In this work, we investigate the effect of two types of additives on the cryoadsorption of hydrogen to mesoporous silica. First, Lewis and Brønsted acid sites were evaluated by grafting aluminum to the surface of mesoporous silica (MCF-17) and characterizing the resulting silicate materials' surface area and the concentration of Brønsted and Lewis acid sites created...
April 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anderson Petrauskas, Karina Andrea Novaes Olivieri, Yasmine Mendes Pupo, Guilherme Berger, Ederson Áureo Gonçalves Betiol
Aim: This study aims to evaluate the microshear bond strength of zirconia-based ceramics with different resin cement systems and surface treatments. Materials and Methods: Forty blocks of zirconia-based ceramic were prepared and embedded in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes with acrylic resin. After polishing, the samples were washed in an ultrasonic bath and dried in an oven for 10 min. Half of the samples were subjected to sandblasting with aluminum oxide. Blocks were divided into four groups ( n = 10) in which two resin cements were used as follows: (1) RelyX™ U100 with surface-polished zirconia; (2) RelyX™ U100 with surface-blasted zirconia; (3) Multilink with surface-polished zirconia; and 4) Multilink with surface-blasted zirconia...
March 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Rui Qing, Qingke Xiang, Zhongqi Liu, Fei Xiao, Fan Yang
Objective To investigate the effect of aluminum phosphate (AP) and aluminum hydroxide (AH) as adjuvants on Brucella outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) in inducing humoral and cellular immune responses and immune protection. Methods AP and AH adjuvants were prepared and separately mixed with Brucella Omp31 protein to measure the adsorption rates. The AP- and AH-absorbed Omp31 protein were intraperitoneally injected into BLAB/c mice at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, and meanwhile, unabsorbed Omp31 protein and PBS were used as controls...
February 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Peter Bateson, Jack E H Fleet, Anthony S Riseley, Elena Janeva, Anastasia S Marcella, Chiara Farinea, Maria Kuptsova, Núria Conde Pueyo, Christopher J Howe, Paolo Bombelli, Brenda M Parker
Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana . We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV) device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days...
April 17, 2018: Biology
Turker Dagdelen, Eihab Abdel-Rahman, Mustafa Yavuz
Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated...
April 17, 2018: Materials
Zachary Shrock, Suk W Yoon, Rathnayaka Gunasingha, Mark Oldham, Justus Adamson
PURPOSE: Cherenkov light during MV radiotherapy has recently found imaging and therapeutic applications, but is challenged by relatively low fluence. Our purpose is to investigate the feasibility of increasing Cherenkov light production during MV radiotherapy by increasing photon energy and applying specialized beam hardening filtration. METHODS: GAMOS 5.0.0, a GEANT4-based framework for Monte Carlo simulations, was used to model standard clinical linear accelerator primary photon beams...
April 19, 2018: Medical Physics
Lijun Zhang, Changyan Sun
Aircraft service process is in a state of the composite load of pressure and temperature for a long period of time, which inevitably affects the inherent characteristics of some components in aircraft accordingly. The flow field of aircraft wing materials under different Mach numbers is simulated by Fluent in order to extract pressure and temperature on the wing in this paper. To determine the effect of coupling stress on the wing’s material and structural properties, the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method is used in ANSYS-Workbench to calculate the stress that is caused by pressure and temperature...
April 18, 2018: Sensors
Krzysztof Karczewski, Wojciech J Stępniowski, Marco Salerno
Iron aluminides are intermetallics with interesting applications in porous form thanks to their mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. However, making porous forms of these materials is not easy due to their high melting points. We formed FeAl foams by elemental iron and aluminum powders sintering with tartaric acid additive. Tartaric acid worked as an in situ gas-releasing agent during the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of FeAl intermetallic alloy, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements...
April 18, 2018: Materials
Gabriel Ozorowski, Albert Cupo, Michael Golabek, Michelle LoPiccolo, Thomas A Ketas, Matt Cavallary, Christopher A Cottrell, P J Klasse, Andrew B Ward, John P Moore
Native-like, soluble, recombinant SOSIP trimers of various designs and based on several env genes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are being tested as immunogens in different animal models. These experiments almost always involve co-formulating the trimers with an adjuvant to boost the magnitude of the immune responses. One factor relevant to the choice of an adjuvant is that it should not physically damage the immunogen or impede its ability to present relevant epitopes. As examples, an adjuvant formulation that includes harsh detergents could disrupt the structural integrity of a trimer, and any charged compounds in the formulation could bind to counter-charged regions of the trimer and physically occlude nearby epitopes...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
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