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Angela M Hansen, Tamara E C Kraus, Sandra M Bachand, William R Horwath, Philip A M Bachand
Constructed wetlands are used worldwide to improve water quality while also providing critical wetland habitat. However, wetlands have the potential to negatively impact drinking water quality by exporting dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that upon disinfection can form disinfection byproducts (DBPs) like trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). We used a replicated field-scale study located on organic rich soils in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to test whether constructed flow-through wetlands which receive water high in DOC that is treated with either iron- or aluminum-based coagulants can improve water quality with respect to DBP formation...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Margarita G Skalnaya, Sumit K Jaiswal, Ranjana Prakash, N Tejo Prakash, Andrei R Grabeklis, Irina V Zhegalova, Feng Zhang, Xiong Guo, Alexey A Tinkov, Anatoly V Skalny
The primary objective of the present study was to assess the level of selenium and toxic trace elements in wheat, rice, maize, and mustard from seleniferous areas of Punjab, India. The content of selenium (Se) and toxic trace elements, including aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and tin (Sn), in crop samples was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry after microwave digestion of the samples. The obtained data demonstrate that cultivation of crops on seleniferous soils significantly increased Se level in wheat, mustard, rice, and maize by a factor of more than 590, 111, 85, and 64, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Da-Jin Kim, Jang-Soon Park, Cheol Ho Kim, Jae Hur, Choong-Ki Kim, Young-Kyun Cho, Jun-Bong Ko, Bonghyuk Park, Dongho Kim, Yang-Kyu Choi
This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of a reconfigurable Yagi-Uda antenna based on a silicon reflector with a solid-state plasma. The silicon reflector, composed of serially connected p-i-n diodes, forms a highly dense solid-state plasma by injecting electrons and holes into the intrinsic region. When this plasma silicon reflector is turned on, the front-realized gain of the antenna increases by more than 2 dBi beyond 5.3 GHz. To achieve the large gain increment, the structure of the antenna is carefully designed with the aid of semiconductor device simulation and antenna simulation...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sneha K S Sheth, Yongling Li, Christopher A Shaw
BACKGROUND: Our group has shown that significant correlations exist between rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and total aluminum adjuvants given to children through vaccines in several Western countries. These correlations satisfied eight out of nine Hill criteria for causality. Experimental studies have demonstrated a range of behavioural abnormalities in young mice after postnatal exposure to aluminium. To build on our previous work, the current study will investigate the effect of aluminium adjuvants on social behaviour in mice...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Lingyuan Gao, Jaime Souto-Casares, James R Chelikowsky, Alexander A Demkov
Work function values measured at different surfaces of a metal are usually different. This raises an interesting question: What is the work function of a nano-size crystal, where differently oriented facets can be adjacent? Work functions of metallic nanocrystals are also of significant practical interest, especially in catalytic applications. Using real space pseudopotentials constructed within density functional theory, we compute the local work function of large aluminum and gold nanocrystals. We investigate how the local work function follows the change of the surface plane orientation around multifaceted nanocrystals, and we establish the importance of the orbital character near the Fermi level in determining work function differences between facets...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zu-Wen Xie, Jhen-Hong Yang, Vishal Vashistha, Wei Lee, Kuo-Ping Chen
Designing color pixels using plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has become a luring area of research in recent years. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the voltage tunability of a dynamic plasmonic color filter by using an aluminum grating integrated with the nematic liquid crystal (LC). Along with a typical substrate coated with rubbed polyimide film, the aluminum grating itself serves as a molecular alignment layer to form a twisted LC cell. This hybrid structure allows electrically controlled transmission color by applying the voltage...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Jeffrey Chi Wang Chan, Bonnie Nga Kwan Choy, Orlando Chia Chieh Chan, Kenneth Kai Wang Li
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess the early intraocular pressure (IOP) changes of ultralow fluence laser iridotomy using pattern scanning laser followed by neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-gamet (Nd:YAG) laser. METHODS: This is a prospective interventional study. Thirty-three eyes of 33 adult Chinese primary angle-closure suspect subjects were recruited for prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy. Sequential laser peripheral iridotomy was performed using pattern scanning laser followed by Nd:YAG laser...
December 7, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Li-Ying Ren, Zhi-Neng Hong, Zhao-Dong Liu, Ren-Kou Xu
The primary objective of this study was to determine the capacity and the mechanisms of adhesion of Bacillus subtilis onto variable- and constant-charge soil colloids. The adhesion process was investigated using in situ attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential, and batch adhesion experiments. The maximum adhesion capacity of B. subtilis on the colloids of Oxisol, Ultisol, and Alfisol reached 699.17, 462.56, and 258.82mgg-1, respectively. B. subtilis adhesion to all three soil colloids decreased as the suspension pH increased from 3 to 8...
December 2, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Bruna Lucian Petry, Augusto Bodanezi, Flávia Emi Razera Baldasso, Débora Delai, Naiara Leites Larentis, Vania Regina Camargo Fontanella, Patrícia Maria Poli Kopper
The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of different gutta-percha points (Endo Points®, Dentsply®, Tanari®, Meta®, Roeko® and Odous®) in samples of 1 mm thick as established by ANSI/ADA Specification #57 and ISO 6876/2001, in comparison with thinner samples. Twelve test specimens for each material, four for each thickness (0.3, 0.6, and 1 mm and diameter of 8 mm), were laminated and compressed between two polished glass plates until the desirable thickness. Digital radiographs were obtained along with a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1 to 10 mm in thickness...
September 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
Katerine Jahnecke Pilownic, Ana Paula Neutzling Gomes, Zhe Jun Wang, Luiza Helena Silva Almeida, Ana Regina Romano, Ya Shen, Anelize de Oliveira Campello Felix, Markus Haapasalo, Fernanda Geraldo Pappen
This study assessed the pH, radiopacity, antimicrobial effect, cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of endodontic filling materials for primary teeth. Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), Vitapex and Calen paste thickened with zinc oxide (ZO) were evaluated in comparison to an experimental MTA-based material. Radiopacity was tested using a graduated aluminum stepwedge with a digital sensor (n=5). The materials pH was recorded at 1, 4, 12 h; 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days (n=5). Direct contact test was used to assess the antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis after 1, 4, 12, 24 h (n=5)...
September 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
Reid A Peterson, Edgar C Buck, Jaehun Chun, Richard C Daniel, Daniel L Herting, Eugene S Ilton, Gregg J Lumetta, Sue B Clark
This paper reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micron scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Qianqian Zhang, Jianxin Kang, Zhiqiang Xie, Xungang Diao, Zhaoyue Liu, Jin Zhai
Many ion channels in the cell membrane are believed to function as gates that control the water and ion flow through the transitions between an inherent hydrophobic state and a stimuli-induced hydration state. The construction of nanofluidic gating systems with high gating efficiency and reversibility is inspired by this hydrophobic gating behavior. A kind of electrically actuated nanochannel is developed by integrating a polypyrrole (PPy) micro/nanoporous film doped with perfluorooctanesulfonate ions onto an anodic aluminum oxide nanoporous membrane...
December 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
Xiao-Ni Yao, Yi-Gang Chen, Yao Guo, Ying-Jie Jia, Xing-Xing Jiang, Xian-Ming Zhang
A novel and thermally stable aluminum phosphate Li6Na3Sr14Al11P22O90 (1) has been achieved by using a solid-state molten method, which contains an oxo-centered trinuclear cluster and an anti-Lowenstein's rule Al-O-Al linkage and is constructed from two types of (3,6)-connected kgd layers [Al(Al3O)(PO4)7]25- and [Al(PO4)2]3-. The good optical transparency in the whole UV range and excellent thermal stability make the title compound a potential optical window material.
December 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Junais Habeeb Mokkath
Using first-principles time-dependent density functional theory calculations, we investigate the shape-anisotropy effects on the optical response of a spherical aluminium nanoparticle subjected to a stretching process in different directions. Progressively increased stretching in one direction resulted in prolate spheroid (nanorice) geometries and produced a couple of well-distinguishable dominant peaks together with some satellite peaks in the UV-visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. On the other hand, progressively increased stretching in two directions caused multiple peaks to appear in the UV-visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum...
December 7, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Stephen Mason, Ritu Karwal, Mary Lynn Bosma
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated and compared plaque removal efficacy of commercially available dentifrices containing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to those without NaHCO3 in a single timed brushing clinical study model. METHODS: Two randomized, examiner-blind, three-period, three-treatment, crossover studies were performed in adults with a mean Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (TPI) score of = 2.00. In Study 1, 60 subjects were randomized to commercially available dentifrices containing: (i) 67% NaHCO3 plus 1425 ppm fluoride (F) as sodium fluoride (NaF); (ii) 45% NaHCO3 plus 1425 ppm F as NaF; or (iii) 0% NaHCO3 plus silica and 1450 ppm F as NaF...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
Kuizhi Chen, Maryam Abdolrhamani, Eric Sheets, Jeremy Freeman, Garrett Ward, Jeffery L White
Direct observation of multiple reactive sites in the zeolite HZSM-5, a member of the MFI family of zeolite structures, contradicts the traditional view of only one type of active protonic species in industrially-important zeolites. In addition to the well-known Bronsted acid site proton, two other protonic species undergo room-temperature hydrogen-deuterium exchange with an alkane hydrocarbon reagent, including one zeolite moiety characterized by a broad 1H chemical shift at ca. 12-15 ppm that is reported here for the first time...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Carla Müller Ramos-Tonello, Bruno Freitas Trevizo, Raphaela Farias Rodrigues, Ana Paula Rodrigues Magalhães, Adilson Yoshio Furuse, Paulo Noronha Lisboa-Filho, Americo Sheitiro Tabata, Ana Flávia Sanches Borges
OBJECTIVES.: Sandblasting is a common method to try to improve the Y-TZP/veneer bond strength of dental prostheses, however, it may put stress on zirconia surfaces and could accelerate the t→m phase transformation. Y-TZP sandblasting before sintering could be an alternative to improve surface roughness and bonding strength of veneering ceramic. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Y-TZP pre-sintering sandblasting on surface roughness, phase transformation, and the Y-TZP/veneer shear bond strength...
November 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Tim Kolbe, Arne Knauer, Jens Rass, Hyun Kyong Cho, Sylvia Hagedorn, Sven Einfeldt, Michael Kneissl, Markus Weyers
The effects of composition and p-doping profile of the AlGaN:Mg electron blocking layer (EBL) in 310 nm ultraviolet B (UV-B) light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated. The carrier injection and internal quantum efficiency of the LEDs were simulated and compared to electroluminescence measurements. The light output power depends strongly on the temporal biscyclopentadienylmagnesium (Cp 2 Mg) carrier gas flow profile during growth as well as on the aluminum profile of the AlGaN:Mg EBL. The highest emission power has been found for an EBL with the highest Cp 2 Mg carrier gas flow and a gradually decreasing aluminum content in direction to the p-side of the LED...
December 6, 2017: Materials
Aysenur Ogedey, Mehtap Tanyol
Leachate is the most difficult wastewater to be treated due to its complex content and high pollution release. For this reason, since it is not possible to be treated with a single process, a pre-treatment is needed. In the present study, a batch electrocoagulation reactor containing aluminum and iron electrodes was used to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) from landfill leachate (Tunceli, Turkey). Optimization of COD elimination was carried out with response surface methodology to describe the interaction effect of four main process independent parameters (current density, inter-electrode distance, pH and time of electrolysis)...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kodai Otsubo, Takashi Yoneda, Atsushi Kaneko, Seiya Yagi, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Yoshiro Chuman
Protein phosphorylation is strictly regulated by protein kinases and protein phosphatases, and disordered regulation of protein phosphorylation often causes serious diseases, such as cancer. Protein phosphatases are divided into two major groups: tyrosine (Tyr) phosphatases and serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatases. Substrate trapping mutants are frequently used to characterize Tyr phosphatases and identify their substrates; however, a rapid and simple method to identify substrates for Ser/Thr phosphatases has yet to be developed...
December 5, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
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