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Tony C Slaba, Amir A Bahadori, Brandon D Reddell, Robert C Singleterry, Martha S Clowdsley, Steve R Blattnig
Models have been extensively used in the past to evaluate and develop material optimization and shield design strategies for astronauts exposed to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) on long duration missions. A persistent conclusion from many of these studies was that passive shielding strategies are inefficient at reducing astronaut exposure levels and the mass required to significantly reduce the exposure is infeasible, given launch and associated cost constraints. An important assumption of this paradigm is that adding shielding mass does not substantially increase astronaut exposure levels...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
Matthew Aderholt, Dale L Vogelien, Marina Koether, Sigurdur Greipsson
Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA...
February 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Letícia Nazareth Fernandes Paz, Laís Mesquita Moura, Danielle Cristinne A Feio, Mirella de Souza Gonçalves Cardoso, Wagner Luiz O Ximenes, Raquel C Montenegro, Ana Paula N Alves, Rommel R Burbano, Patrícia Danielle L Lima
Aluminum and its compounds are common contaminants of water and food, as well as medications and cosmetics. The wide distribution of the element facilitates the demand for detailed studies of its biological and toxicological effects. This work aimed to evaluate the possible genotoxic and toxic activity resulting from in vivo and in vitro exposure to Al. For in vivo analysis, 40 Swiss mice were used, various concentrations of hydrated aluminum chloride were administered orally. They were analyzed for possible genic activity and metal cytotoxicity using a micronucleus test (MN), and for toxicity through histopathological evaluation of the extracted organs...
February 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Yingbo Dong, Hai Lin, Yinhai He
The physicochemical properties of the 24 modified clinoptilolite samples and their ammonia-nitrogen removal rates were measured to investigate the correlation between them. The modified clinoptilolites obtained by acid modification, alkali modification, salt modification, and thermal modification were used to adsorb ammonia-nitrogen. The surface area, average pore width, macropore volume, mecropore volume, micropore volume, cation exchange capacity (CEC), zeta potential, silicon-aluminum ratios, and ammonia-nitrogen removal rate of the 24 modified clinoptilolite samples were measured...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
John Muryn, Ashraf Morgan, Chris Liptak, Frank Dong, Paul Segars, Andrew Primak, Xiang Li
In Monte Carlo simulation of CT dose, many input parameters are required (e.g., bowtie filter properties and scan start/end location). Our goal was to examine the uncertainties in patient dose when input parameters were inaccurate. Using a validated Monte Carlo program, organ dose from a chest CT scan was simulated for an average-size female phantom using a reference set of input parameter values (treated as the truth). Additional simulations were performed in which errors were purposely introduced into the input parameter values...
February 16, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Tianyuan Ma, Gui-Liang Xu, Yan Li, Li Wang, Xiangming He, Jianming Zheng, Jun Liu, Mark H Engelhard, Peter Zapol, Larry A Curtiss, Jacob Jorne, Khalil Amine, Zonghai Chen
The corrosion of aluminum current collectors and the oxidation of solvents at a relatively high potential have been widely investigated with an aim to stabilize the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries using such components. The corrosion behavior of aluminum current collectors was revisited using a home-build high-precision electrochemical measurement system, and the impact of electrolyte components and the surface protection layer on aluminum foil was systematically studied. The electrochemical results showed that the corrosion of aluminum foil was triggered by the electrochemical oxidation of solvent molecules, like ethylene carbonate, at a relative high potential...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Dmitri Konarev, Salavat Khasanov, Manabu Ishikawa, Yoshiaki Nakano, Akihiro Otsuka, Hideki Yamochi, Gunzi Saito, Rimma N Lyubovskaya
Reduction of aluminum(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) chloride phthalocyanines by sodium fluorenone ketyl in the presence of tetrabutylammonium cations yielded crystalline salts (Bu4N+)2[M(III)(HFl-O-)(Pc*3-)](*-)(Br-).1.5C6H4Cl2 (M = Al (1), Ga(2), HFl-O- = Fluoren-9-olato- anion) and (Bu4N+)[In(III)Br(Pc*3-)]*-.0.875C6H4Cl2.0.125C6H14 (3). The salts contain Pc(*3-) radical anions with negatively charged phthalocyanine macrocycles evidenced by the presence of intense bands of (Pc*3-) in the NIR range and noticeable blue shift of both Q- and Soret bands of phthalocyanine...
February 15, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Zhen Liu, Hai Liu, Xiaoyi Wang, Haigui Yang, Jinsong Gao
A large area and broadband ultra-black absorber based on microstructured aluminum (Al) doped silicon (Si) films prepared by a low-cost but very effective approach is presented. The average absorption of the absorber is greater than 99% within the wide range from 350 nm to 2000 nm, and its size reaches to 6 inches. We investigate the fabrication mechanism of the absorber and find that the Al atom doped in silicon improves the formation of the nanocone-like microstructures on the film surface, resulting in a significant decrease in the reflection of incident light...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ghada Aldosary, Habib Safigholi, William Song, Jan Seuntjens, Arman Sarfehnia
In this work, the response of Farmer-type ionization chambers fitted with high atomic number (Z) walls is studied, and results of the effects of such walls on polarity and ion recombination correction factors in both continuous and pulsed beams are presented. Measurements were made in a continuous Co-60 beam and a pulsed 6MV linac beam using an Exradin-A12 ionization chamber fitted with the manufacturer's C-552 plastic wall, as well as geometrically identical walls made from aluminum, copper and molybdenum...
February 12, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
Ran Zhang, Yange Feng, Shuanhong Ma, Meirong Cai, Jun Yang, Bo Yu, Feng Zhou
One of the most prominent properties of hydrogels is their excellent hydro-lubrication that derives from the strong hydration of the gel network. However, excessive hydration makes hydrogels very poor mechanical property, which limits the practical applications. Here, the novel composite surface of hydrogel nanofibers embedded in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate was prepared and exhibited both excellent lubrication and high load bearing capacity. Through the copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and 3-Sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPMA), gel network swelled sufficiently in aqueous solution and caused high osmotic pressure repulsion to bear heavy load, and hence performed excellent aqueous lubrication (µ~0...
February 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Lukas Neudert, Frank Heinke, Thomas Bräuniger, Florian J Pucher, Gavin B Vaughan, Oliver Oeckler, Wolfgang Schnick
A new imidooxonitridophosphate AlP6O3x(NH)3-3xN9 with x ≈ 0.33 was synthesized under high-pressure high-temperature conditions. The crystal structure determination of the microcrystalline product involved a combination of electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR. In the solid there are discrete AlN6 octahedra that interconnect imidophosphate layers. The network topology is unprecedented but is related to other nitride structures.
February 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Akimitsu Miyaji, Nobuhiro Kimura, Akinobu Shiga, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Toshiki Nishitoba, Ken Motokura, Toshihide Baba
The positions of aluminum (Al) atoms in SSZ-35 together with the characteristics of the generated protons were investigated by (27)Al multiple quantum magic-angle spinning (MQ-MAS), (29)Si MAS, and (1)H MAS NMR data analyses accompanied by a variable temperature (1)H MAS NMR analysis. The origin of the acidic -OH groups (Brønsted acid sites) generated by introducing Al atoms into the T sites was investigated and the T sites introduced into the Al atoms were revealed. To further determine the catalytic properties of the acidic protons generated in SSZ-35, the influence of the concentration of the Al atoms on the catalytic activity and selectivity during the transformation of toluene was examined...
February 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ashok Kumar Pannu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Natalie Gugala, Joe A Lemire, Raymond J Turner
The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the prevalence of biofilm-related infections have generated a demand for alternative anti-microbial therapies. Metals have not been explored in adequate detail for their capacity to combat infectious disease. Metal compounds can now be found in textiles, medical devices and disinfectants-yet, we know little about their efficacy against specific pathogens. To help fill this knowledge gap, we report on the anti-microbial and antibiofilm activity of seven metals: silver, copper, titanium, gallium, nickel, aluminum and zinc against three bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
Li-Hao Liu, Yung-Han Shih, Wan-Ling Liu, Chia-Her Lin, Hsi-Ya Huang
In this study, nanoporous carbon (NPC) derived from metal-organic framework (MOF) was used as support for the immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia lipase. The decorated aluminum oxide within the mesoporous NPC facilitated the enzyme loading efficiency as well as catalytic ability for transesterification of soybean oil thus making it green and sustainable technique for industrial application.
February 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
Li Shangguan, Yuanqing Wei, Xu Liu, Jiachao Yu, Songqin Liu
An artificial metabolon with high conversion efficiency was constructed by confining a bi-enzyme into porous aluminum oxide nanochannels, which accelerated enzymatic reactions by minimizing the diffusion loss of intermediate species.
February 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Chaoling Xu, Yubin Zhang, Andrew Godfrey, Guilin Wu, Wenjun Liu, Jonathan Z Tischler, Qing Liu, Dorte Juul Jensen
Remarkably little is known about the physical phenomena leading to nucleation of new perfect crystals within deformed metals during annealing, in particular how and where volumes with nearly perfect lattices evolve from structures filled with dislocations, and how local variations at the micrometer length scale affect this nucleation process. We present here the first experimental measurements that relate directly nucleation of recrystallization to the local deformation microstructure in the bulk of a sample of cold rolled aluminum, further deformed locally by a hardness indentation...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
K Ambiado, C Bustos, A Schwarz, R Bórquez
The objective of this study is to evaluate the treatment of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) from copper mining by nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) at pilot scale. The performances of two commercial spiral-wound membranes - NF99 and RO98pHt, both from Alfa Laval - were compared. The effects of pressure and feed flow on ion rejection and permeate flux were evaluated. The results showed high ion removal under optimum pressure conditions, which reached 92% for the NF99 membrane and 98% for the RO98pHt membrane...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Feriel Bouatay, Nesrine Eljebsi, Sonia Dridi-Dhaouadi, Farouk Mhenni
The Vicia faba membranes are an abundant and a low cost product. In the present research paper, the extracted Vicia faba mucilage was tested as an eco-friendly flocculant for textile wastewater treatment. Its performance as flocculant, in decolorization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the concentration of total suspended solids was checked. The natural extracted product was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. The total sugars were determined in the extracted product. The effect study, followed by an optimization and modeling analysis, of some experimental parameters on the coagulation-flocculation performance, using Vicia faba mucilage (as a flocculant), combined with aluminum sulfate (as a coagulant), showed that the best conditions for the flocculation process were pH of the effluent about 7, flocculant dose about 6...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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