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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434079/cell-culture-complications-due-to-mechanical-release-of-atp-and-activation-of-purinoceptors
#1
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Gillian E Knight
There is abundant evidence that ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) is released from a variety of cultured cells in response to mechanical stimulation. The release mechanism involved appears to be a combination of vesicular exocytosis and connexin and pannexin hemichannels. Purinergic receptors on cultured cells mediate both short-term purinergic signalling of secretion and long-term (trophic) signalling such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. We aim in this review to bring to the attention of non-purinergic researchers using tissue culture that the release of ATP in response to mechanical stress evoked by the unavoidable movement of the cells acting on functional purinergic receptors on the culture cells is likely to complicate the interpretation of their data...
April 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424758/redox-related-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-glioblastoma-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-cobalamin-and-dopamine-receptor-subtype-4
#2
Matthew Scott Schrier, Malav Suchin Trivedi, Richard Carlton Deth
Glioblastoma is an exceptionally difficult cancer to treat. Cancer is universally marked by epigenetic changes, which play key roles in sustaining a malignant phenotype, in addition to disease progression and patient survival. Studies have shown strong links between the cellular redox state and epigenetics. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that upregulates endogenous antioxidant production, and is aberrantly expressed in many cancers, including glioblastoma...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412968/interleukin-1-primes-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-and-pro-trophic-phenotype-in-vitro
#3
Elena Redondo-Castro, Catriona Cunningham, Jonjo Miller, Licia Martuscelli, Sarah Aoulad-Ali, Nancy J Rothwell, Cay M Kielty, Stuart M Allan, Emmanuel Pinteaux
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key contributor to central nervous system (CNS) injury such as stroke, and is a major target for therapeutic intervention. Effective treatments for CNS injuries are limited and applicable to only a minority of patients. Stem cell-based therapies are increasingly considered for the treatment of CNS disease, because they can be used as in-situ regulators of inflammation, and improve tissue repair and recovery. One promising option is the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can secrete anti-inflammatory and trophic factors, can migrate towards inflamed and injured sites or can be implanted locally...
April 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411103/-endogenous-regeneration-engineering-growth-factors-for-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Su Jing Chan, Christopher Love, Myron Spector, Simon M Cool, Victor Nurcombe, Eng H Lo
Despite the efforts in developing therapeutics for stroke, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) remains the only FDA approved drug for ischemic stroke. Regenerative medicine targeting endogenous growth factors has drawn much interest in the clinical field as it provides potential restoration for the damaged brain tissue without being limited by a narrow therapeutic window. To date, most of the translational studies using regenerative medicines have encountered problems and failures. In this review, we discuss the effects of some trophic factors which include of erythropoietin (EPO), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) in experimental ischemic stroke models and elaborate the lost in translation of the candidate growth factors from bench to bedside...
April 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398653/the-noble-gas-xenon-provides-protection-and-trophic-stimulation-to-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#5
Jérémie Lavaur, Déborah Le Nogue, Marc Lemaire, Jan Pype, Géraldine Farjot, Etienne C Hirsch, Patrick P Michel
Despite its low chemical reactivity, the noble gas xenon possesses a remarkable spectrum of biological effects. In particular, xenon is a strong neuroprotectant in preclinical models of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. In the present study, we wished to determine whether xenon retained its neuroprotective potential in experimental settings that model the progressive loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Using rat midbrain cultures, we established that xenon was partially protective for DA neurons through either direct or indirect effects on these neurons...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347639/neurite-outgrowth-in-cultured-mouse-pelvic-ganglia-effects-of-neurotrophins-and-bladder-tissue
#6
Mari Ekman, Baoyi Zhu, Karl Swärd, Bengt Uvelius
Neurotrophic factors regulate survival and growth of neurons. The urinary bladder is innervated via both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons located in the major pelvic ganglion. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) on the sprouting rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurites from the female mouse ganglion. The pelvic ganglion was dissected out and attached to a petri dish and cultured in vitro...
March 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336086/incretin-hormones-regulate-microglia-oxidative-stress-survival-and-expression-of-trophic-factors
#7
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are primarily known for their metabolic function in the periphery. GLP-1 and GIP are secreted by intestinal endocrine cells in response to ingested nutrients. Both GLP-1 and GIP stimulate the production and release of insulin from pancreatic β cells as well as exhibit several growth-regulating effects on peripheral tissues. GLP-1 and GIP are also present in the brain, where they provide modulatory and anti-apoptotic signals to neurons...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286181/amplifying-mitochondrial-function-rescues-adult-neurogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Kevin Richetin, Manon Moulis, Aurélie Millet, Macarena S Arràzola, Trinovita Andraini, Jennifer Hua, Noélie Davezac, Laurent Roybon, Pascale Belenguer, Marie-Christine Miquel, Claire Rampon
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is strongly impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In several mouse models of AD, it was shown that adult-born neurons exhibit reduced survival and altered synaptic integration due to a severe lack of dendritic spines. In the present work, using the APPxPS1 mouse model of AD, we reveal that this reduced number of spines is concomitant of a marked deficit in their neuronal mitochondrial content. Remarkably, we show that targeting the overexpression of the pro-neural transcription factor Neurod1 into APPxPS1 adult-born neurons restores not only their dendritic spine density, but also their mitochondrial content and the proportion of spines associated with mitochondria...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280669/in-vivo-chondrogenesis-in-3d-bioprinted-human-cell-laden-hydrogel-constructs
#9
Thomas Möller, Matteo Amoroso, Daniel Hägg, Camilla Brantsing, Nicole Rotter, Peter Apelgren, Anders Lindahl, Lars Kölby, Paul Gatenholm
BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. METHODS: Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- × 5- × 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/alginate construct in a subcutaneous pocket...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279188/comparison-of-exosomes-secreted-by-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-synovial-membrane-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-treatment-of-osteoarthritis
#10
Yu Zhu, Yuchen Wang, Bizeng Zhao, Xin Niu, Bin Hu, Qing Li, Juntao Zhang, Jian Ding, Yunfeng Chen, Yang Wang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. In the past decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used widely for the treatment of OA. A potential mechanism of MSC-based therapies has been attributed to the paracrine secretion of trophic factors, in which exosomes may play a major role. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of exosomes secreted by synovial membrane MSCs (SMMSC-Exos) and exosomes secreted by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iMSC-Exos) on the treatment of OA...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267791/dmyc-is-required-in-retinal-progenitors-to-prevent-jnk-mediated-retinal-glial-activation
#11
Lígia Tavares, Andreia Correia, Marília A Santos, João B Relvas, Paulo S Pereira
In the nervous system, glial cells provide crucial insulation and trophic support to neurons and are important for neuronal survival. In reaction to a wide variety of insults, glial cells respond with changes in cell morphology and metabolism to allow repair. Additionally, these cells can acquire migratory and proliferative potential. In particular, after axonal damage or pruning the clearance of axonal debris by glial cells is key for a healthy nervous system. Thus, bidirectional neuron-glial interactions are crucial in development, but little is known about the cellular sensors and signalling pathways involved...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244236/concise-reviews-innate-and-adaptive-immune-recognition-of-allogeneic-and-xenogeneic-cell-transplants-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Chloé J Hoornaert, Debbie Le Blon, Alessandra Quarta, Jasmijn Daans, Herman Goossens, Zwi Berneman, Peter Ponsaerts
Over the last 30 years, numerous allogeneic and xenogeneic cell grafts have been transplanted into the central nervous system (CNS) of mice and men in an attempt to cure neurological diseases. In the early studies, human or porcine embryonic neural cells were grafted in the striatum of animals or patients in an attempt to replace lost neurons. Although the immune-privileged status of the brain as a recipient organ was widely accepted, it rapidly became evident that CNS-grafted allogeneic and xenogeneic cells could be recognized and rejected by the immune system, resulting in poor neural graft survival and limited functional recovery...
February 28, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241859/human-amnion-epithelial-cells-rescue-cell-death-via-immunomodulation-of-microglia-in-a-mouse-model-of-perinatal-brain-injury
#13
Bryan Leaw, Dandan Zhu, Jean Tan, Ruth Muljadi, Mohamed I Saad, Joanne C Mockler, Euan M Wallace, Rebecca Lim, Mary Tolcos
BACKGROUND: Human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) are clonogenic and have been proposed to reduce inflammatory-induced tissue injury. Perturbation of the immune response is implicated in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injury; modulating this response could thus be a novel therapy for treating or preventing such injury. The immunomodulatory properties of hAECs have been shown in other animal models, but a detailed investigation of the effects on brain immune cells following injury has not been undertaken...
February 28, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236968/regulation-of-embryonic-and-postnatal-development-by-the-csf-1-receptor
#14
Violeta Chitu, E Richard Stanley
Macrophages are found in all tissues and regulate tissue morphogenesis during development through trophic and scavenger functions. The colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor (CSF-1R) is the major regulator of tissue macrophage development and maintenance. In combination with receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), the CSF-1R also regulates the differentiation of the bone-resorbing osteoclast and controls bone remodeling during embryonic and early postnatal development. CSF-1R-regulated macrophages play trophic and remodeling roles in development...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211847/syntrophic-linkage-between-predatory-carpediemonas-and-specific-prokaryotic-populations
#15
Emmo Hamann, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Dietmar Riedel, Sten Littmann, Soeren Ahmerkamp, Jianwei Chen, Philipp F Hach, Marc Strous
Most anoxic environments are populated by small (<10 μm) heterotrophic eukaryotes that prey on different microbial community members. How predatory eukaryotes engage in beneficial interactions with other microbes has rarely been investigated so far. Here, we studied an example of such an interaction by cultivating the anerobic marine flagellate, Carpediemonas frisia sp. nov. (supergroup Excavata), with parts of its naturally associated microbiome. This microbiome consisted of so far uncultivated members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Nanoarchaeota...
May 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178268/influence-of-ocean-acidification-on-plankton-community-structure-during-a-winter-to-summer-succession-an-imaging-approach-indicates-that-copepods-can-benefit-from-elevated-co2-via-indirect-food-web-effects
#16
Jan Taucher, Mathias Haunost, Tim Boxhammer, Lennart T Bach, María Algueró-Muñiz, Ulf Riebesell
Plankton communities play a key role in the marine food web and are expected to be highly sensitive to ongoing environmental change. Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) causes pronounced shifts in marine carbonate chemistry and a decrease in seawater pH. These changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-can significantly affect the physiology of planktonic organisms. However, studies on the response of entire plankton communities to OA, which also include indirect effects via food-web interactions, are still relatively rare...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153532/fty720-fingolimod-reverses-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-downregulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-mrna-in-oln-93-oligodendroglial-cells
#17
Ismael Segura-Ulate, Barbara Yang, Javier Vargas-Medrano, Ruth G Perez
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a demyelinating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein (aSyn) inside oligodendrocyte precursors, mature oligodendroglia, and neurons. MSA dysfunction is associated with loss of trophic factor production by glial and neuronal cells. Here, we report that recombinant wild type human aSyn uptake by OLN-93, an oligodendroglia cell-line, reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Furthermore, OLN-93 cells stably transfected with human wild type or an MSA-associated mutant aSyn, A53E that produces neuronal and glial inclusions, reduced BDNF mRNA to nearly unmeasurable qPCR levels...
January 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068068/reservoir-water-level-drawdowns-accelerate-and-amplify-methane-emission
#18
John A Harrison, Bridget R Deemer, M Keith Birchfield, Maria T O'Malley
Water-level fluctuations due to reservoir management could substantially affect the timing and magnitude of reservoir methane (CH4) fluxes to the atmosphere. However, effects of such fluctuations on CH4 emissions have received limited attention. Here we examine CH4 emission dynamics in six Pacific Northwest U.S. reservoirs of varying trophic status, morphometry, and management regimes. In these systems, we show that water-level drawdowns can, at least temporarily, greatly increase per-area reservoir CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere, and can account for more than 90% of annual reservoir CH4 flux in a period of just a few weeks...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991908/early-activated-hepatic-stellate-cell-derived-paracrine-molecules-modulate-acute-liver-injury-and-regeneration
#19
Wenju Chang, Lujun Song, Xiujuan Chang, Meiling Ji, Hongshan Wang, Xinyu Qin, Weixin Niu
The effects of paracrine action from early activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) on resident liver epithelium cells are not clear. Here, we investigated whether a systemic infusion of early activated HSC-derived paracrine factors (HSC-CM) would evoke an enhanced liver protective response in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice and explored the possible underlying mechanisms. The survival rate, liver injury, and liver regeneration were analyzed in mice with or without HSC-CM treatment in vivo...
December 19, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986082/mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-therapeutic-target-of-biophysical-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-musculoskeletal-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Marco Viganò, Valerio Sansone, Maria Cristina d'Agostino, Pietro Romeo, Carlotta Perucca Orfei, Laura de Girolamo
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders are regarded as a major cause of worldwide morbidity and disability, and they result in huge costs for national health care systems. Traditional therapies frequently turned out to be poorly effective in treating bone, cartilage, and tendon disorders or joint degeneration. As a consequence, the development of novel biological therapies that can treat more effectively these conditions should be the highest priority in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent one of the most promising tools in musculoskeletal tissue regenerative medicine, thanks to their proliferation and differentiation potential and their immunomodulatory and trophic ability...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
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