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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522414/therapeutic-potential-of-agmatine-for-cns-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Vivian B Neis, Priscila B Rosa, Gislaine Olescowicz, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is a neuromodulator that regulates multiple neurotransmitters and signaling pathways. Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of this molecule, which seems to be mediated by a reduction in oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and proapoptotic signaling. Since these events are implicated in acute and chronic excitotoxicity-related disorders (ischemia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders) as well as in nociception, agmatine has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490258/trophic-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-tissue-regeneration
#2
Yao Fu, Lisanne Karbaat, Ling Wu, Jeroen C H Leijten, Sanne Both, Marcel Karperien
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered to hold great therapeutic value for cell-based therapy and for tissue regeneration in particular. Recent evidence indicates that the main underlying mechanism for MSCs' beneficial effects in tissue regeneration is based on their capability to produce a large variety of bioactive trophic factors that stimulate neighboring parenchymal cells to start repairing damaged tissues. These new findings could potential replace the classical paradigm of MSC differentiation and cell replacement...
May 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486655/microbial-processes-driving-coral-reef-organic-carbon-flow
#3
Cynthia B Silveira, Giselle S Cavalcanti, Juline M Walter, Arthur W Silva-Lima, Elizabeth A Dinsdale, David G Bourne, Cristiane C Thompson, Fabiano L Thompson
Coral reefs are one of the most productive ecosystems on the planet, with primary production rates compared to that of rain forests. Benthic organisms release 10-50% of their gross organic production as mucus that stimulates heterotrophic microbial metabolism in the water column. As a result, coral reef microbes grow up to 50 times faster than open ocean communities. Anthropogenic disturbances cause once coral-dominated reefs to become dominated by fleshy organisms, with several outcomes for trophic relationships...
May 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482145/a-controlled-release-system-for-simultaneous-delivery-of-three-human-perivascular-stem-cell-derived-factors-for-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#4
Nurlan Mansurov, William C W Chen, Hassan Awada, Johnny Huard, Yadong Wang, Arman Saparov
Transplanted stem/progenitor cells improve tissue healing and regeneration anatomically and functionally mostly due to their secreted trophic factors. However, harsh conditions at the site of injury, including hypoxia, oxidative and inflammatory stress, increased fibrosis and insufficient angiogenesis, and in some cases immunological response or incompatibility, are detrimental to stem cell survival. To overcome the complexity and deficiencies of stem cell therapy, the coacervate delivery platform is deemed promising because it offers controlled and sustained release using heparin to recapitulate the binding and stabilization of extracellular proteins by heparan sulfates in native tissues...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474259/toxic-potential-of-the-emerging-contaminant-nicotine-to-the-aquatic-ecosystem
#5
Ana Lourdes Oropesa Jiménez, António Miguel Floro, Patrícia Palma
Nicotine is a "life-style compound" widely consumed by human populations and, consequently, often found in surface waters. This fact presents a concern for possible effects in the aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to assess the potential lethal and sublethal toxicity of nicotine in aquatic organisms from different trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Thamnocephalus platyurus, and Daphnia magna). The bioassays were performed by exposing the organisms to concentrations of nicotine in a range of 0...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466274/neural-stem-cell-based-regenerative-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Juan Xiao, Rongbing Yang, Sangita Biswas, Yunhua Zhu, Xin Qin, Min Zhang, Lihong Zhai, Yi Luo, Xiaoming He, Chun Mao, Wenbin Deng
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory, and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which ultimately leads to axonal loss and permanent neurological disability. Current treatments for MS are largely comprised of medications that are either immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive and are aimed at reducing the frequency and intensity of relapses. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult brain can differentiate into oligodendrocytes in a context-specific manner and are shown to be involved in the remyelination in these patients...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452204/mesenchymal-stem-cells-time-to-change-the-name
#7
Arnold I Caplan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were officially named more than 25 years ago to represent a class of cells from human and mammalian bone marrow and periosteum that could be isolated and expanded in culture while maintaining their in vitro capacity to be induced to form a variety of mesodermal phenotypes and tissues. The in vitro capacity to form bone, cartilage, fat, etc., became an assay for identifying this class of multipotent cells and around which several companies were formed in the 1990s to medically exploit the regenerative capabilities of MSCs...
April 28, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442998/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-delivery-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-delicate-balance-between-neuroprotection-trophic-effects-and-unwanted-compensatory-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Liliane Tenenbaum, Marie Humbert-Claude
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and Neurturin (NRTN) bind to a receptor complex consisting of a member of the GDNF family receptor (GFR)-α and the Ret tyrosine kinase. Both factors were shown to protect nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons and reduce motor symptoms when applied terminally in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) models. However, clinical trials based on intraputaminal GDNF protein administration or recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated NRTN gene delivery have been disappointing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434079/cell-culture-complications-due-to-mechanical-release-of-atp-and-activation-of-purinoceptors
#9
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Gillian E Knight
There is abundant evidence that ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) is released from a variety of cultured cells in response to mechanical stimulation. The release mechanism involved appears to be a combination of vesicular exocytosis and connexin and pannexin hemichannels. Purinergic receptors on cultured cells mediate both short-term purinergic signalling of secretion and long-term (trophic) signalling such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. We aim in this review to bring to the attention of non-purinergic researchers using tissue culture that the release of ATP in response to mechanical stress evoked by the unavoidable movement of the cells acting on functional purinergic receptors on the culture cells is likely to complicate the interpretation of their data...
April 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424758/redox-related-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-glioblastoma-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-cobalamin-and-dopamine-receptor-subtype-4
#10
Matthew Scott Schrier, Malav Suchin Trivedi, Richard Carlton Deth
Glioblastoma is an exceptionally difficult cancer to treat. Cancer is universally marked by epigenetic changes, which play key roles in sustaining a malignant phenotype, in addition to disease progression and patient survival. Studies have shown strong links between the cellular redox state and epigenetics. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that upregulates endogenous antioxidant production, and is aberrantly expressed in many cancers, including glioblastoma...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412968/interleukin-1-primes-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-and-pro-trophic-phenotype-in-vitro
#11
Elena Redondo-Castro, Catriona Cunningham, Jonjo Miller, Licia Martuscelli, Sarah Aoulad-Ali, Nancy J Rothwell, Cay M Kielty, Stuart M Allan, Emmanuel Pinteaux
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key contributor to central nervous system (CNS) injury such as stroke, and is a major target for therapeutic intervention. Effective treatments for CNS injuries are limited and applicable to only a minority of patients. Stem cell-based therapies are increasingly considered for the treatment of CNS disease, because they can be used as in-situ regulators of inflammation, and improve tissue repair and recovery. One promising option is the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can secrete anti-inflammatory and trophic factors, can migrate towards inflamed and injured sites or can be implanted locally...
April 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411103/endogenous-regeneration-engineering-growth-factors-for-stroke
#12
REVIEW
Su Jing Chan, Christopher Love, Myron Spector, Simon M Cool, Victor Nurcombe, Eng H Lo
Despite the efforts in developing therapeutics for stroke, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) remains the only FDA approved drug for ischemic stroke. Regenerative medicine targeting endogenous growth factors has drawn much interest in the clinical field as it provides potential restoration for the damaged brain tissue without being limited by a narrow therapeutic window. To date, most of the translational studies using regenerative medicines have encountered problems and failures. In this review, we discuss the effects of some trophic factors which include of erythropoietin (EPO), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) in experimental ischemic stroke models and elaborate the lost in translation of the candidate growth factors from bench to bedside...
April 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398653/the-noble-gas-xenon-provides-protection-and-trophic-stimulation-to-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#13
Jérémie Lavaur, Déborah Le Nogue, Marc Lemaire, Jan Pype, Géraldine Farjot, Etienne C Hirsch, Patrick P Michel
Despite its low chemical reactivity, the noble gas xenon possesses a remarkable spectrum of biological effects. In particular, xenon is a strong neuroprotectant in preclinical models of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. In the present study, we wished to determine whether xenon retained its neuroprotective potential in experimental settings that model the progressive loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Using rat midbrain cultures, we established that xenon was partially protective for DA neurons through either direct or indirect effects on these neurons...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347639/neurite-outgrowth-in-cultured-mouse-pelvic-ganglia-effects-of-neurotrophins-and-bladder-tissue
#14
Mari Ekman, Baoyi Zhu, Karl Swärd, Bengt Uvelius
Neurotrophic factors regulate survival and growth of neurons. The urinary bladder is innervated via both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons located in the major pelvic ganglion. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) on the sprouting rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurites from the female mouse ganglion. The pelvic ganglion was dissected out and attached to a petri dish and cultured in vitro...
March 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336086/incretin-hormones-regulate-microglia-oxidative-stress-survival-and-expression-of-trophic-factors
#15
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are primarily known for their metabolic function in the periphery. GLP-1 and GIP are secreted by intestinal endocrine cells in response to ingested nutrients. Both GLP-1 and GIP stimulate the production and release of insulin from pancreatic β cells as well as exhibit several growth-regulating effects on peripheral tissues. GLP-1 and GIP are also present in the brain, where they provide modulatory and anti-apoptotic signals to neurons...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286181/amplifying-mitochondrial-function-rescues-adult-neurogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Kevin Richetin, Manon Moulis, Aurélie Millet, Macarena S Arràzola, Trinovita Andraini, Jennifer Hua, Noélie Davezac, Laurent Roybon, Pascale Belenguer, Marie-Christine Miquel, Claire Rampon
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is strongly impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In several mouse models of AD, it was shown that adult-born neurons exhibit reduced survival and altered synaptic integration due to a severe lack of dendritic spines. In the present work, using the APPxPS1 mouse model of AD, we reveal that this reduced number of spines is concomitant of a marked deficit in their neuronal mitochondrial content. Remarkably, we show that targeting the overexpression of the pro-neural transcription factor Neurod1 into APPxPS1 adult-born neurons restores not only their dendritic spine density, but also their mitochondrial content and the proportion of spines associated with mitochondria...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280669/in-vivo-chondrogenesis-in-3d-bioprinted-human-cell-laden-hydrogel-constructs
#17
Thomas Möller, Matteo Amoroso, Daniel Hägg, Camilla Brantsing, Nicole Rotter, Peter Apelgren, Anders Lindahl, Lars Kölby, Paul Gatenholm
BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. METHODS: Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- × 5- × 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/alginate construct in a subcutaneous pocket...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279188/comparison-of-exosomes-secreted-by-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-synovial-membrane-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-treatment-of-osteoarthritis
#18
Yu Zhu, Yuchen Wang, Bizeng Zhao, Xin Niu, Bin Hu, Qing Li, Juntao Zhang, Jian Ding, Yunfeng Chen, Yang Wang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. In the past decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used widely for the treatment of OA. A potential mechanism of MSC-based therapies has been attributed to the paracrine secretion of trophic factors, in which exosomes may play a major role. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of exosomes secreted by synovial membrane MSCs (SMMSC-Exos) and exosomes secreted by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iMSC-Exos) on the treatment of OA...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267791/dmyc-is-required-in-retinal-progenitors-to-prevent-jnk-mediated-retinal-glial-activation
#19
Lígia Tavares, Andreia Correia, Marília A Santos, João B Relvas, Paulo S Pereira
In the nervous system, glial cells provide crucial insulation and trophic support to neurons and are important for neuronal survival. In reaction to a wide variety of insults, glial cells respond with changes in cell morphology and metabolism to allow repair. Additionally, these cells can acquire migratory and proliferative potential. In particular, after axonal damage or pruning the clearance of axonal debris by glial cells is key for a healthy nervous system. Thus, bidirectional neuron-glial interactions are crucial in development, but little is known about the cellular sensors and signalling pathways involved...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244236/concise-review-innate-and-adaptive-immune-recognition-of-allogeneic-and-xenogeneic-cell-transplants-in-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Chloé J Hoornaert, Debbie Le Blon, Alessandra Quarta, Jasmijn Daans, Herman Goossens, Zwi Berneman, Peter Ponsaerts
Over the last 30 years, numerous allogeneic and xenogeneic cell grafts have been transplanted into the central nervous system (CNS) of mice and men in an attempt to cure neurological diseases. In the early studies, human or porcine embryonic neural cells were grafted in the striatum of animals or patients in an attempt to replace lost neurons. Although the immune-privileged status of the brain as a recipient organ was widely accepted, it rapidly became evident that CNS-grafted allogeneic and xenogeneic cells could be recognized and rejected by the immune system, resulting in poor neural graft survival and limited functional recovery...
May 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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