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Trophic stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682085/prostaglandin-e-2-produced-by-alginate-encapsulated-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-modulates-the-astrocyte-inflammatory-response
#1
Elizabeth C Stucky, Joshua Erndt-Marino, Rene S Schloss, Martin L Yarmush, David I Shreiber
Astroglia are well known for their role in propagating secondary injury following brain trauma. Modulation of this injury cascade, including inflammation, is essential to repair and recovery. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated as trophic mediators in several models of secondary CNS injury, however, there has been varied success with the use of direct implantation due to a failure to persist at the injury site. To achieve sustained therapeutic benefit, we have encapsulated MSCs in alginate microspheres and evaluated the ability of these encapsulated MSCs to attenuate neuro-inflammation...
June 2017: Nano LIFE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651045/dissolved-organic-carbon-leaching-from-plastics-stimulates-microbial-activity-in-the-ocean
#2
Cristina Romera-Castillo, Maria Pinto, Teresa M Langer, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Gerhard J Herndl
Approximately 5.25 trillion plastic pieces are floating at the sea surface. The impact of plastic pollution on the lowest trophic levels of the food web, however, remains unknown. Here we show that plastics release dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the ambient seawater stimulating the activity of heterotrophic microbes. Our estimates indicate that globally up to 23,600 metric tons of DOC are leaching from marine plastics annually. About 60% of it is available to microbial utilization in less than 5 days. If exposed to solar radiation, however, this DOC becomes less labile...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562913/human-dental-pulp-stromal-cell-conditioned-medium-alters-endothelial-cell-behavior
#3
M A Gharaei, Y Xue, K Mustafa, S A Lie, I Fristad
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is of utmost importance for tissue regeneration and repair. Human dental pulp stromal cells (hDPSCs) possess angiogenic potential, as they secrete paracrine factors that may alter the host microenvironment. However, more insight into how hDPSCs guide endothelial cells (ECs) in a paracrine fashion is yet to be obtained. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the effect(s) of conditioned medium derived from hDPSCs (hDPSC-CM) on EC behavior in vitro. METHODS: hDPSCs were harvested from third molars scheduled for surgical removal under informed consent...
March 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552470/cartilage-repair-in-the-knee-using-umbilical-cord-wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-embedded-onto-collagen-scaffolding-and-implanted-under-dry-arthroscopy
#4
Boguslaw Sadlik, Grzegorz Jaroslawski, Mariusz Puszkarz, Adrian Blasiak, Tomasz Oldak, Dominika Gladysz, Graeme P Whyte
Cell-based cartilage repair procedures are becoming more widely available and have shown promising potential to treat a wide range of cartilage lesion types and sizes, particularly in the knee joint. More recently, techniques have evolved from 2-step techniques that use autologous chondrocyte expansion to 1-step techniques that make use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) embedded onto biocompatible scaffolding. Our 1-step technique has been further developed to provide cell-based cartilage repair using MSCs that have the potential to be used in an off-the-shelf manner, without the need for autologous tissue harvest...
January 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550790/hierarchies-of-healing-in-gut-mucosal-injury
#5
M D Basson
The mucosal response to injury can best be understood as a complex layering of different responses that may be invoked depending upon the size and nature of the injury, the persistence of the injurious stimulus, and the availability of various trophic host factors that stimulate repair. There is a hierarchy of responses that ranges from small rapid resealing of acute apical membrane or single cell wounds through the long term attempt to heal a giant peptic ulcer or respond to inflammatory bowel disease. Although much previous attention has been paid to the local factors that regulate these pathways and responses, there is increasing interest in systemic factors that may act either by the production of cytokines and trophic factors or by the direct migration of bone marrow derived stem cells into the mucosal wound...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550535/historical-biogeography-of-loranthaceae-santalales-diversification-agrees-with-emergence-of-tropical-forests-and-radiation-of-songbirds
#6
Bing Liu, Chi Toan Le, Russell L Barrett, Daniel L Nickrent, Zhiduan Chen, Limin Lu, Romina Vidal-Russell
Coadaptation between mistletoes and birds captured the attention of Charles Darwin over 150 years ago, stimulating considerable scientific research. Here we used Loranthaceae, a speciose and ecologically important mistletoe family, to obtain new insights into the interrelationships among its hosts and dispersers. Phylogenetic analyses of Loranthaceae were based on a dataset of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction, and diversification rate analyses were employed to examine historical biogeography...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539878/differential-selection-by-nematodes-on-an-introduced-biocontrol-fungus-vs-indigenous-fungi-in-nonsterile-soil
#7
Tae Gwan Kim, Guy R Knudsen
Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can bea key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity.This study investigated trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes ( p <0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531367/coccolithovirus-facilitation-of-carbon-export-in-the-north-atlantic
#8
Christien P Laber, Jonathan E Hunter, Filipa Carvalho, James R Collins, Elias J Hunter, Brittany M Schieler, Emmanuel Boss, Kuldeep More, Miguel Frada, Kimberlee Thamatrakoln, Christopher M Brown, Liti Haramaty, Justin Ossolinski, Helen Fredricks, Jozef I Nissimov, Rebecca Vandzura, Uri Sheyn, Yoav Lehahn, Robert J Chant, Ana M Martins, Marco J L Coolen, Assaf Vardi, Giacomo R DiTullio, Benjamin A S Van Mooy, Kay D Bidle
Marine phytoplankton account for approximately half of global primary productivity1 , making their fate an important driver of the marine carbon cycle. Viruses are thought to recycle more than one-quarter of oceanic photosynthetically fixed organic carbon2 , which can stimulate nutrient regeneration, primary production and upper ocean respiration2 via lytic infection and the 'virus shunt'. Ultimately, this limits the trophic transfer of carbon and energy to both higher food webs and the deep ocean2 . Using imagery taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite, along with a suite of diagnostic lipid- and gene-based molecular biomarkers, in situ optical sensors and sediment traps, we show that Coccolithovirus infections of mesoscale (~100 km) Emiliania huxleyi blooms in the North Atlantic are coupled with particle aggregation, high zooplankton grazing and greater downward vertical fluxes of both particulate organic and particulate inorganic carbon from the upper mixed layer...
March 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497054/multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-support-lymphatic-regeneration-at-multiple-anatomical-levels-during-wound-healing-and-lymphedema
#9
Manu Beerens, Xabier L Aranguren, Benoit Hendrickx, Wouter Dheedene, Tom Dresselaers, Uwe Himmelreich, Catherine Verfaillie, Aernout Luttun
Lymphatic capillary growth is an integral part of wound healing, yet, the combined effectiveness of stem/progenitor cells on lymphatic and blood vascular regeneration in wounds needs further exploration. Stem/progenitor cell transplantation also emerged as an approach to cure lymphedema, a condition caused by lymphatic system deficiency. While lymphedema treatment requires lymphatic system restoration from the capillary to the collector level, it remains undetermined whether stem/progenitor cells support a complex regenerative response across the entire anatomical spectrum of the system...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483280/swedish-nerve-growth-factor-mutation-ngf-r100w-defines-a-role-for-trka-and-p75-ntr-in-nociception
#10
Kijung Sung, Luiz F Ferrari, Wanlin Yang, ChiHye Chung, Xiaobei Zhao, Yingli Gu, Suzhen Lin, Kai Zhang, Bianxiao Cui, Matthew L Pearn, Michael T Maloney, William C Mobley, Jon D Levine, Chengbiao Wu
Nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts multiple functions on target neurons throughout development. The recent discovery of a point mutation leading to a change from arginine to tryptophan at residue 100 in the mature NGFβ sequence (NGFR100W ) in patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, type V (HSAN V), made it possible to distinguish the signaling mechanisms that lead to two functionally different outcomes of NGF: trophic versus nociceptive. We performed extensive biochemical, cellular and live imaging experiments to examine the binding and signaling properties of NGFR100W Our results show that, similar to the wildtype NGF (wtNGF), the naturally occurring NGFR100W mutant was capable of binding to and activating the TrkA receptor and its downstream signaling pathways to support neuronal survival and differentiation...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473177/manufacture-of-endothelial-colony-forming-progenitor-cells-from-steady-state-peripheral-blood-leukapheresis-using-pooled-human-platelet-lysate
#11
Georg Siegel, Erika Fleck, Stefanie Elser, Ursula Hermanutz-Klein, Marc Waidmann, Hinnak Northoff, Erhard Seifried, Richard Schäfer
BACKGROUND: Endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) are promising candidates for cell therapies. However, ECFC translation to the clinic requires optimized isolation and manufacture technologies according to good manufacturing practice (GMP). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: ECFCs were manufactured from steady-state peripheral blood (PB) leukapheresis (11 donors), using GMP-compliant technologies including pooled human platelet (PLT) lysate, and compared to human umbilical cord endothelial cells, human aortic endothelial cells, and human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells...
February 22, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463895/cryptophyta-as-major-bacterivores-in-freshwater-summer-plankton
#12
Vesna Grujcic, Julia K Nuy, Michaela M Salcher, Tanja Shabarova, Vojtech Kasalicky, Jens Boenigk, Manfred Jensen, Karel Simek
Small bacterivorous eukaryotes play a cardinal role in aquatic food webs and their taxonomic classification is currently a hot topic in aquatic microbial ecology. Despite increasing interest in their diversity, core questions regarding predator-prey specificity remain largely unanswered, e.g., which heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNFs) are the main bacterivores in freshwaters and which prokaryotes support the growth of small HNFs. To answer these questions, we fed natural communities of HNFs from Římov reservoir (Czech Republic) with five different bacterial strains of the ubiquitous betaproteobacterial genera Polynucleobacter and Limnohabitans...
February 20, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451275/cenegermin-for-the-treatment-of-neurotrophic-keratitis
#13
M Sacchetti, A Bruscolini, A Lambiase
The trigeminal nerve provides corneal sensitivity and trophic supply to corneal tissues. The impairment of corneal innervation leads to development of neurotrophic keratitis (NK). NK is a rare, degenerative corneal disease characterized by corneal hypo/anesthesia and development of nonhealing corneal epithelial defects and ulcers. NK is a challenging condition with high medical need due to the lack of approved treatments that can restore corneal integrity. Current treatment of NK aims at stimulating corneal healing and preventing disease progression...
November 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429944/engineering-stem-and-stromal-cell-therapies-for-musculoskeletal-tissue-repair
#14
REVIEW
Claudia Loebel, Jason A Burdick
Stem cells and tissue-derived stromal cells stimulate the repair of degenerated and injured tissues, motivating a growing number of cell-based interventions in the musculoskeletal field. Recent investigations have indicated that these cells are critical for their trophic and immunomodulatory role in controlling endogenous cells. This Review presents recent clinical advances where stem cells and stromal cells have been used to stimulate musculoskeletal tissue repair, including delivery strategies to improve cell viability and retention...
March 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425760/agathisflavone-a-flavonoid-derived-from-poincianella-pyramidalis-tul-enhances-neuronal-population-and-protects-against-glutamate-excitotoxicity
#15
Cleide Dos Santos Souza, Maria Socorro Grangeiro, Erica Patricia Lima Pereira, Cleonice Creusa Dos Santos, Alessandra Bispo da Silva, Geraldo Pedral Sampaio, Daiana Dias Ribeiro Figueiredo, Jorge Mauricio David, Juceni Pereira David, Victor Diogenes Amaral da Silva, Arthur Morgan Butt, Silvia Lima Costa
Flavonoids are bioactive compounds that are known to be neuroprotective against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, one of the major causes of neurodegeneration. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unresolved, but recent evidence indicates flavonoids may modulate estrogen signaling, which can delay the onset and ameliorate the severity of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the roles played by glial cells in the neuroprotective effects of flavonoids are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the flavonoid agathisflavone (FAB) in primary neuron-glial co-cultures from postnatal rat cerebral cortex...
February 6, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425678/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-for-liver-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Mohammed Alfaifi, Young Woo Eom, Philip N Newsome, Soon Koo Baik
The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in the treatment of liver fibrosis is predominantly based on their immunosuppressive properties, and their ability to secrete various trophic factors. This potential has been investigated in clinical and pre-clinical studies. Although the therapeutic mechanisms of MSC transplantation are still not fully characterized, accumulating evidence has revealed that various trophic factors secreted by MSC play key therapeutic roles in regeneration by alleviating inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis as well as stimulating angiogenesis and tissue regeneration in damaged liver...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406993/a-novel-bimodal-approach-for-treating-atrophic-bone-non-unions-with-extracorporeal-shockwaves-and-autologous-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplant
#17
Valerio Sansone, Manuel Brañes, Pietro Romeo
We propose a novel approach for the treatment of atrophic bone non-unions via parallel applications of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and an autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplant. The hypothesis resides on the potentiality of shock waves (SWs) to act as a tool for manipulating the patient's mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition to the conventional physical stimulus achieved by delivering SWs at the site of non-union to stimulate the well-known trophic effects on bone tissue, a series of concomitant ESWT would be administered in tandem at a bone marrow donor site, such as the iliac crest, to precondition resident bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vivo, priming resident MSCs by enlarging and conditioning their population prior to bone marrow aspiration...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391466/potential-benefits-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-electroacupuncture-on-the-trophic-factors-associated-with-neurogenesis-in-mice-with-ischemic-stroke
#18
Yu Ri Kim, Sung Min Ahn, Malk Eun Pak, Hong Ju Lee, Da Hee Jung, Yong-Il Shin, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
The beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and electroacupuncture (EA) on neurogenesis and related trophic factors remain unclear. Bone marrow MSCs (mBMSC) were transplanted into the striatum of mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and EA stimulation was applied at two acupoints, Baihui and Dazhui. EA treatment significantly improved motor function, and a synergistic effect of combined mBMSC and EA treatment was observed. Combined mBMSC and EA treatment reduced prominent atrophic changes in the striatum and led to proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the surrounding areas of the striatum (SVZ + striatum) of MCAO mice...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373492/do-neuroendocrine-peptides-and-their-receptors-qualify-as-novel-therapeutic-targets-in-osteoarthritis
#19
REVIEW
Susanne Grässel, Dominique Muschter
Joint tissues like synovium, articular cartilage, meniscus and subchondral bone, are targets for neuropeptides. Resident cells of these tissues express receptors for various neuroendocrine-derived peptides including proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, i.e., α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and β-endorphin (β-ED), and sympathetic neuropeptides like vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide y (NPY). Melanocortins attained particular attention due to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in several tissues and organs...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349647/behaviour-of-freshwater-snails-radix-balthica-exposed-to-the-pharmaceutical-sertraline-under-simulated-predation-risk
#20
Melanie Lea Hedgespeth, Tomasz Karasek, Johan Ahlgren, Olof Berglund, Christer Brönmark
Due to their potential for affecting the modulation of behaviour, effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the environment are particularly interesting regarding interspecies interactions and non-consumptive effects (NCEs) induced by predator cues in prey organisms. We evaluated the effects of sertraline (0.4, 40 ng/L, 40 µg/L) over 8 days on activity and habitat choice in the freshwater snail Radix balthica, on snails' boldness in response to mechanical stimulation (simulating predator attack), and their activity/habitat choice in response to chemical cues from predatory fish...
March 2018: Ecotoxicology
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