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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799490/neurotransplantation-therapy-and-cerebellar-reserve
#1
Jan Cendelin, Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto
Neurotransplantation has been recently the focus of interest as a promising therapy to substitute lost cerebellar neurons and improve cerebellar ataxias. However, since cell differentiation and synaptic formation are required to obtain a functional circuitry, highly integrated reproduction of cerebellar anatomy is not a simple process. Rather than a genuine replacement, recent studies have shown that grafted cells rescue surviving cells from neurodegeneration by exerting trophic effects, supporting mitochondrial function, modulating neuroinflammation, stimulating endogenous regenerative processes, and facilitating cerebellar compensatory properties thanks to neural plasticity...
August 10, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757877/trophic-activity-and-phenotype-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-background-of-their-regenerative-potential
#2
REVIEW
Beata Kocan, Aleksandra Maziarz, Jacek Tabarkiewicz, Takahiro Ochiya, Agnieszka Banaś-Ząbczyk
There has been an increased interest in mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue, due to their abundance and accessibility with no ethical concerns. Their multipotent properties make them appropriate for regenerative clinical applications. It has been shown that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may differ between the origin sites. Moreover, a variety of internal and external factors may affect their biological characteristics, as what we aimed to highlight in this review. It has been demonstrated that ASCs secrete multiple trophic factors that are capable of stimulating cell proliferation and differentiation and migration of various cell types...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757246/evaluation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-modulation-of-trigeminal-neuronal-responses-to-cold
#3
Michael A Eskander, Koyo Takimoto, Anibal Diogenes
Tissue engineering protocols, such as regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs), comprise biologically based procedures designed to restore normal physiologic function. For REPs, the goal is reconstitution of the pulp-dentin complex by delivering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including the stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) into a root canal system. Many patients regain cold sensitivity after REPs, but the mechanism is not understood. We hypothesized that SCAP modulate nociceptive function through a paracrine mechanism that activates cold-sensitive ion channels in neurons...
July 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738080/effects-of-exogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-distal-bowel-resection-on-intestinal-and-systemic-adaptive-responses-in-rats
#4
Sarah W Lai, Elaine de Heuvel, Laurie E Wallace, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Mary E Brindle, Prasanth K Chelikani, David L Sigalet
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. BACKGROUND: GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728472/the-identification-of-interferon-%C3%AE-as-a-key-supportive-factor-for-retinal-differentiation-of-murine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Barbora Hermankova, Jan Kossl, Eliska Javorkova, Pavla Bohacova, Michaela Hajkova, Alena Zajicova, Magdalena Krulova, Vladimir Holan
Retinal disorders represent the main cause of decreased quality of vision and even blindness worldwide. The loss of retinal cells causes irreversible damage of the retina and there are currently no effective treatment protocols for most retinal degenerative diseases. A promising approach for the treatment of retinal disorders is represented by stem cell-based therapy. The perspective candidates are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can differentiate into multiple cell types and produce a number of trophic and growth factors...
July 20, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694293/the-trophic-life-cycle-stage-of-the-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-pneumocystis-murina-hinders-the-ability-of-dendritic-cells-to-stimulate-cd4-t-cell-responses
#6
Heather M Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J Stromberg, Carol L Pickett, Beth A Garvy
The life cycle of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina consists of a trophic stage and an ascus-like cystic stage. Infection with the cyst stage induces proinflammatory immune responses, while trophic forms suppress the cytokine response to multiple PAMPs, including β-glucan. A targeted gene expression assay was used to evaluate the dendritic cell response following stimulation with trophic forms alone, a normal mixture of trophic forms and cysts, or with β-glucan. We demonstrate that stimulation with trophic forms downregulated the expression of multiple genes normally associated with the response to infection, including genes encoding transcription factors...
July 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685026/cholecystokinin-induced-satiety-a-key-gut-servomechanism-that-is-affected-by-the-membrane-microenvironment-of-this-receptor
#7
REVIEW
A J Desai, M Dong, K G Harikumar, L J Miller
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a central role in nutritional homeostasis, as location for food ingestion, digestion and absorption, with the gut endocrine system responding to and regulating these events, as well as influencing appetite. One key GI hormone with the full spectrum of these activities is cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide released from neuroendocrine I cells scattered through the proximal intestine in response to fat and protein, with effects to stimulate gall bladder contraction and pancreatic exocrine secretion, to regulate gastric emptying and intestinal transit, and to induce satiety...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664016/delayed-onset-eye-opening-apraxia-due-to-progression-of-brain-atrophy-following-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-a-case-report
#8
Takashi Morishita, Masa-Aki Higuchi, Yoshio Tsuboi, Kazuhiro Samura, Tooru Inoue
Eye opening apraxia (EOA) has been described in literature as a complication of deep brain stimulation (DBS), especially after electrode implantation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). EOA can be either worsened or alleviated by DBS depending on the etiology. Herein, we report a rare case where the progression of brain atrophy may have contributed to the delayed onset of EOA. The patient, a 73-year-old woman, had previously undergone bilateral STN-DBS for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), which was performed by another DBS team, at the age of 68 years...
January 2017: NMC Case Rep J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602237/spatial-and-temporal-changes-in-the-abundance-and-compostion-of-ladybird-coleoptera-coccinellidae-communities
#9
REVIEW
Alois Honek, Anthony Fg Dixon, Antonio O Soares, Jiri Skuhrovec, Zdenka Martinkova
Because of their services to agriculture most ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are intensively studied predators of mainly phytophagous pests. The study of the long-term variation in the composition of their communities was stimulated by recent dramatic changes in the abundance of some species. We review and evaluate possible effects of the main causes cited in the literature. Agricultural and habitat changes (particularly urbanization) affect coccinellid abundance, both negatively and positively. In the temperate zone dominant species occur most frequently associated with abundant prey populations on crops, weeds and planted stands of trees resulting from human activity...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600828/allogeneic-mscs-and-recycled-autologous-chondrons-mixed-in-a-one-stage-cartilage-cell-transplantion-a-first-in-man-trial-in-35-patients
#10
Tommy S de Windt, Lucienne A Vonk, Ineke C M Slaper-Cortenbach, Razmara Nizak, Mattie H P van Rijen, Daniel B F Saris
MSCs are known as multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that have been found capable of differentiating into various lineages including cartilage. However, recent studies suggest MSCs are pericytes that stimulate tissue repair through trophic signaling. Aimed at articular cartilage repair in a one-stage cell transplantation, this study provides first clinical evidence that MSCs stimulate autologous cartilage repair in the knee without engrafting in the host tissue. A phase I (first-in-man) clinical trial studied the one-stage application of allogeneic MSCs mixed with 10% or 20% recycled defect derived autologous chondrons for the treatment of cartilage defects in 35 patients...
August 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562226/inhibition-of-pathological-phenotype-of-hypertrophic-scar-fibroblasts-via-coculture-with-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#11
Jingcheng Deng, Yuan Shi, Zhen Gao, Wenjie Zhang, Xiaoli Wu, Weigang Cao, Wei Liu
Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a dermal fibroproliferative disease characterized by fibroblast over-proliferation, overproduction, and deposition of the extracellular matrix. Growing evidence demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) secrete a plethora of trophic and antifibrotic factors, which suppress inflammation and ameliorate fibrosis of different tissues. However, few studies investigate their effect on repressing HS activity. This study evaluated the suppressing effect of ASCs on HS fibroblast bioactivity and the possible mechanism via a coculture model...
July 3, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560291/gastrin-and-gastric-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Jill P Smith, Sandeep Nadella, Nick Osborne
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite progress in understanding its development, challenges with treatment remain. Gastrin, a peptide hormone, is trophic for normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin also has been shown to play an important role in the stimulation of growth of several gastrointestinal cancers including gastric cancer. We sought to review the role of gastrin and its pathway in gastric cancer and its potential as a therapeutic target in the management of gastric cancer...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554399/transplantation-of-reprogrammed-neurons-for-improved-recovery-after-stroke
#13
Zaal Kokaia, Daniel Tornero, Olle Lindvall
Somatic cells such as fibroblasts, reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells, can be used to generate neural stem/progenitor cells or neuroblasts for transplantation. In this review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating that when grafted intracerebrally in animal models of stroke, reprogrammed neurons improve function, probably by several different mechanisms, e.g., trophic actions, modulation of inflammation, promotion of angiogenesis, cellular and synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection. In our own work, we have shown that human skin-derived reprogrammed neurons, fated to cortical progeny, integrate in stroke-injured neuronal network and form functional afferent synapses with host neurons, responding to peripheral sensory stimulation...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522414/therapeutic-potential-of-agmatine-for-cns-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Vivian B Neis, Priscila B Rosa, Gislaine Olescowicz, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is a neuromodulator that regulates multiple neurotransmitters and signaling pathways. Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of this molecule, which seems to be mediated by a reduction in oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and proapoptotic signaling. Since these events are implicated in acute and chronic excitotoxicity-related disorders (ischemia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders) as well as in nociception, agmatine has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
September 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490258/trophic-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-tissue-regeneration
#15
Yao Fu, Lisanne Karbaat, Ling Wu, Jeroen C H Leijten, Sanne Both, Marcel Karperien
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered to hold great therapeutic value for cell-based therapy and for tissue regeneration in particular. Recent evidence indicates that the main underlying mechanism for MSCs' beneficial effects in tissue regeneration is based on their capability to produce a large variety of bioactive trophic factors that stimulate neighboring parenchymal cells to start repairing damaged tissues. These new findings could potential replace the classical paradigm of MSC differentiation and cell replacement...
May 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486655/microbial-processes-driving-coral-reef-organic-carbon-flow
#16
Cynthia B Silveira, Giselle S Cavalcanti, Juline M Walter, Arthur W Silva-Lima, Elizabeth A Dinsdale, David G Bourne, Cristiane C Thompson, Fabiano L Thompson
Coral reefs are one of the most productive ecosystems on the planet, with primary production rates compared to that of rain forests. Benthic organisms release 10-50% of their gross organic production as mucus that stimulates heterotrophic microbial metabolism in the water column. As a result, coral reef microbes grow up to 50 times faster than open ocean communities. Anthropogenic disturbances cause once coral-dominated reefs to become dominated by fleshy organisms, with several outcomes for trophic relationships...
May 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482145/a-controlled-release-system-for-simultaneous-delivery-of-three-human-perivascular-stem-cell-derived-factors-for-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#17
Nurlan Mansurov, William C W Chen, Hassan Awada, Johnny Huard, Yadong Wang, Arman Saparov
Transplanted stem/progenitor cells improve tissue healing and regeneration anatomically and functionally mostly due to their secreted trophic factors. However, harsh conditions at the site of injury, including hypoxia, oxidative and inflammatory stress, increased fibrosis and insufficient angiogenesis, and in some cases immunological response or incompatibility, are detrimental to stem cell survival. To overcome the complexity and deficiencies of stem cell therapy, the coacervate delivery platform is deemed promising because it offers controlled and sustained release using heparin to recapitulate the binding and stabilization of extracellular proteins by heparan sulfates in native tissues...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474259/toxic-potential-of-the-emerging-contaminant-nicotine-to-the-aquatic-ecosystem
#18
Ana Lourdes Oropesa, António Miguel Floro, Patrícia Palma
Nicotine is a "life-style compound" widely consumed by human populations and, consequently, often found in surface waters. This fact presents a concern for possible effects in the aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to assess the potential lethal and sublethal toxicity of nicotine in aquatic organisms from different trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Thamnocephalus platyurus, and Daphnia magna). The bioassays were performed by exposing the organisms to concentrations of nicotine in a range of 0...
July 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466274/neural-stem-cell-based-regenerative-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Juan Xiao, Rongbing Yang, Sangita Biswas, Yunhua Zhu, Xin Qin, Min Zhang, Lihong Zhai, Yi Luo, Xiaoming He, Chun Mao, Wenbin Deng
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory, and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which ultimately leads to axonal loss and permanent neurological disability. Current treatments for MS are largely comprised of medications that are either immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive and are aimed at reducing the frequency and intensity of relapses. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult brain can differentiate into oligodendrocytes in a context-specific manner and are shown to be involved in the remyelination in these patients...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452204/mesenchymal-stem-cells-time-to-change-the-name
#20
Arnold I Caplan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were officially named more than 25 years ago to represent a class of cells from human and mammalian bone marrow and periosteum that could be isolated and expanded in culture while maintaining their in vitro capacity to be induced to form a variety of mesodermal phenotypes and tissues. The in vitro capacity to form bone, cartilage, fat, etc., became an assay for identifying this class of multipotent cells and around which several companies were formed in the 1990s to medically exploit the regenerative capabilities of MSCs...
June 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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