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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911568/nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediates-mesenchymal-transition-remodeling-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-response-to-chronic-inflammation-by-viral-rna-patterns
#1
Bing Tian, Igor Patrikeev, Lorenzo Ochoa, Gracie Vargas, KarryAnne K Belanger, Julia Litvinov, Istvan Boldogh, Bill T Ameredes, Massoud Motamedi, Allan R Brasier
Airway remodeling is resultant of a complex multi-cellular response associated with a progressive decline of pulmonary function in patients with chronic airway disease. Here, repeated infections with respiratory viruses are linked with airway remodeling through largely unknown mechanisms. Although acute activation of the Toll like receptor (TLR)3 pathway by extracellular poly(I:C) induces innate signaling through the NFkB transcription factor in human small airway epithelial cells (hSAECs), prolonged (repetitive or tonic) poly(I:C) stimulation produces chronic stress fiber formation, mesenchymal transition and activation of a fibrotic program...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911440/the-prey-s-scent-volatile-organic-compound-mediated-interactions-between-soil-bacteria-and-their-protist-predators
#2
Kristin Schulz-Bohm, Stefan Geisen, E R Jasper Wubs, Chunxu Song, Wietse de Boer, Paolina Garbeva
Protists are major predators of bacteria in soils. However, it remains unknown how protists sense their prey in this highly complex environment. Here, we investigated whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of six phylogenetic distinct soil bacteria affect the performance of three different soil protists and how that relates to direct feeding interactions. We observed that most bacteria affected protist activity by VOCs. However, the response of protists to the VOCs was strongly dependent on both the bacterial and protist interacting partner...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908981/neurotrophin-signalling-novel-insights-into-mechanisms-and-pathophysiology
#3
REVIEW
Mariela Mitre, Abigail Mariga, Moses V Chao
Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are prominent regulators of neuronal survival, growth and differentiation during development. While trophic factors are viewed as well-understood but not innovative molecules, there are many lines of evidence indicating that BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative disorders, depression, anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. In particular, lower levels of BDNF are associated with the aetiology of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870972/mek-erk-signaling-is-involved-in-the-role-of-vegf-and-igf1-in-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-mouse-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#4
Chunhui Wang, Wenhui Liu, Xianning Zhang, Yinghui Wang, Huan Liu, Haifang Li
BACKGROUND: We found that mouse brown adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (BATDCs), but not white adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (WATDCs), could spontaneously differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells in a simple culture medium. This study would find out some critical trophic factors that were responsible for such difference in differentiation, and further determine the involved signaling pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cardiomyocyte differentiation capacity of cells was identified by morphological observations, immunofluorescence staining, and evaluation of expression of cardiomyocyte specific markers...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861769/positive-feedback-between-chironomids-and-algae-creates-net-mutualism-between-benthic-primary-consumers-and-producers
#5
Cristina M Herren, Kyle C Webert, Michael D Drake, M Jake Vander Zanden, Árni Einarsson, Anthony R Ives, Claudio Gratton
The chironomids of Lake Mývatn show extreme population fluctuations that affect most aspects of the lake ecosystem. During periods of high chironomid densities, chironomid larvae comprise over 90% of aquatic secondary production. Here, we show that chironomid larvae substantially stimulate benthic gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP), despite consuming benthic algae. Benthic GPP in experimental mesocosms with 140,000 larvae/m(2) was 71% higher than in mesocosms with no larvae. Similarly, chlorophyll a concentrations in mesocosms increased significantly over the range of larval densities...
November 14, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843016/factors-determining-accumulation-of-bisphenol-a-and-alkylphenols-at-a-low-trophic-level-as-exemplified-by-mussels-mytilus-trossulus
#6
Marta Staniszewska, Bożena Graca, Adam Sokołowski, Iga Nehring, Andrzej Wasik, Anna Jendzul
The aim of the study was to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) in mussels Mytilus trossulus from the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic). The key abiotic factor influencing BPA, OP and NP accumulation in mussels is their hydrophilicity/lipophilicity, which affects their main assimilation routes - by digestive tract for the more lipophilic OP and NP, and additionally by the gills for the less lipophilic BPA...
November 11, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815831/current-perspective-of-stem-cell-therapy-in-neurodegenerative-and-metabolic-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Ajay Kumar, Karthikeyan Narayanan, Ravi Kumar Chaudhary, Sachin Mishra, Sundramurthy Kumar, Kumar Jayaseelan Vinoth, Parasuraman Padmanabhan, Balázs Gulyás
Neurodegenerative diseases have been an unsolved riddle for quite a while; to date, there are no proper and effective curative treatments and only palliative and symptomatic treatments are available to treat these illnesses. The absence of therapeutic treatments for neurodegenerative ailments has huge economic hit and strain on the society. Pharmacotherapies and various surgical procedures like deep brain stimulation are being given to the patient, but they are only effective for the symptoms and not for the diseases...
November 4, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807740/reduced-risk-of-apoptosis-mechanisms-of-stress-responses
#8
Irina Milisav, Borut Poljšak, Samo Ribarič
Apoptosis signaling pathways are integrated into a wider network of interconnected apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways that regulate a broad range of cell responses from cell death to growth, development and stress responses. An important trigger for anti- or pro-apoptotic cell responses are different forms of stress including hypoxia, energy deprivation, DNA damage or inflammation. Stress duration and intensity determine whether the cell's response will be improved cell survival, due to stress adaptation, or cell death by apoptosis, necrosis or autophagy...
November 2, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781093/gut-chemosensing-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755727/sediments-and-flow-have-mainly-independent-effects-on-multitrophic-stream-communities-and-ecosystem-functions
#10
Kaisa-Riikka Mustonen, Heikki Mykrä, Pauliina Louhi, Annamari Markkola, Mikko Tolkkinen, Ari Huusko, Nico Alioravainen, Sirkku Lehtinen, Timo Muotka
Stream ecosystems are affected by multiple abiotic stressors, and species responses to simultaneous stressors may differ from those predicted based on single-stressor responses. Using 12 semi-natural stream channels, we examined the individual and interactive effects of flow level (low or high flow) and addition of fine sediments (grain size <2 mm) on key ecosystem processes (leaf breakdown, algal biomass accrual) and benthic macroinvertebrate and fungal communities. Both stressors had mostly independent effects on biological responses, with sand addition being the more influential of the two...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738510/erythropoietin-stimulation-of-human-adipose-tissue-for-therapeutic-refilling-releases-protective-cytokines
#11
Maurizio Sabbatini, Michela Bosetti, Alessia Borrone, Liah Moalem, Antonio Taveggia, Giovanni Verna, Mario Cannas
Apoptosis and inflammatory processes may be at the basis of reducing graft survival. Erythropoietin is a tissue-protective hormone with pleiotropic potential, and it interferes with the activities of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulates healing following injury, preventing destruction of tissue surrounding the injury site. It may represent a useful tool to increase the autograft integration. Through the use of multipanel kit cytokine analysis we have detected the cytokines secreted by human tissue adipose mass seeded in culture following withdrawal by Coleman's modified technique in three groups: control, after lipopolysaccharides stimulation and after erythropoietin stimulation...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651520/characterization-and-transcriptional-profiles-of-engraulis-encrasicolus-gnrh-forms
#12
Andrea Miccoli, Ike Olivotto, Andrea De Felice, Iole Leonori, Oliana Carnevali
The European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, a member of the Clupeiformes order, holds a great biological and economical importance. In the past, this species was mostly investigated with the aim of assessing its reproductive biology, trophic ecology, population dynamics and the relations existing with the physical environment. At present days, though, an almost complete lack of information afflicts its neuroendocrinology and reproductive physiology. The hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HPG) axis at its highest levels was herein investigated...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644947/validation-of-trophic-and-anthropic-underwater-noise-as-settlement-trigger-in-blue-mussels
#13
Aurélie Jolivet, Rejean Tremblay, Fréderic Olivier, Cédric Gervaise, Rémi Sonier, Bertrand Genard, Laurent Chauvaud
Like the majority of benthic invertebrates, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis has a bentho-pelagic cycle with its larval settlement being a complex phenomenon involving numerous factors. Among these factors, underwater noise and pelagic trophic conditions have been weakly studied in previous researches. Under laboratory conditions, we tested the hypothesis that picoplankton assimilation by the pediveliger blue mussel larvae acts as a food cue that interacts with anthropic underwater sound to stimulate settlement...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621269/tdp-43-loss-of-function-inhibits-endosomal-trafficking-and-alters-trophic-signaling-in-neurons
#14
Benjamin M Schwenk, Hannelore Hartmann, Alperen Serdaroglu, Martin H Schludi, Daniel Hornburg, Felix Meissner, Denise Orozco, Alessio Colombo, Sabina Tahirovic, Meike Michaelsen, Franziska Schreiber, Simone Haupt, Michael Peitz, Oliver Brüstle, Clemens Küpper, Thomas Klopstock, Markus Otto, Albert C Ludolph, Thomas Arzberger, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn, Dieter Edbauer
Nuclear clearance of TDP-43 into cytoplasmic aggregates is a key driver of neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that TDP-43 knockdown specifically reduces the number and motility of RAB11-positive recycling endosomes in dendrites, while TDP-43 overexpression has the opposite effect. This is associated with delayed transferrin recycling in TDP-43-knockdown neurons and decreased β2-transferrin levels in patient CSF Whole proteome quantification identified the upregulation of the ESCRT component VPS4B upon TDP-43 knockdown in neurons...
September 12, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620732/thermal-discharge-created-increasing-temperatures-alter-the-bacterioplankton-composition-and-functional-redundancy
#15
Jinbo Xiong, Shangling Xiong, Peng Qian, Demin Zhang, Lian Liu, Yuejun Fei
Elevated seawater temperature has altered the coupling between coastal primary production and heterotrophic bacterioplankton respiration. This shift, in turn, could influence the feedback of ocean ecosystem to climate warming. However, little is known about how natural bacterioplankton community responds to increasing seawater temperature. To investigate warming effects on the bacterioplankton community, we collected water samples from temperature gradients (ranged from 15.0 to 18.6 °C) created by a thermal flume of a coal power plant...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613156/mesenchymal-stem-cells-conditioned-media-ameliorates-diabetic-endothelial%C3%A2-dysfunction%C3%A2-by-improving-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-via-the-sirt1-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway
#16
Yujia Yuan, Meimei Shi, Lan Li, Jingping Liu, Bo Chen, Younan Chen, Xingxing An, Shuyun Liu, Ruixi Luo, Dan Long, Wengeng Zhang, Philip Newsholme, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu
Vasculopathy is a major complication of diabetes. Impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics and biogenesis due to oxidative stress is a critical causal factor for diabetic endothelial dysfunction. Sirt1, a NAD(+)-dependent enzyme, is known to play an important protective role through deacetylation of many substrates involved in oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs-CM) has emerged as a promising cell-free therapy due to the trophic actions of MSCs secreted molecules...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597256/in-vitro-assessment-of-tat-ciliary-neurotrophic-factor-therapeutic-potential-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#17
Silvia Barbon, Elena Stocco, Alessandro Negro, Daniele Dalzoppo, Luca Borgio, Senthilkumar Rajendran, Francesca Grandi, Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Claudio Grandi
In regenerative neurobiology, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) is raising high interest as a multifunctional neurocytokine, playing a key role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Despite its promising trophic and regulatory activity, its clinical application is limited by the onset of severe side effects, due to the lack of efficient intracellular trafficking after administration. In this study, recombinant CNTF linked to the transactivator transduction domain (TAT) was investigated in vitro and found to be an optimized fusion protein which preserves neurotrophic activity, besides enhancing cellular uptake for therapeutic advantage...
October 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583193/il-1%C3%AE-mediates-cellular-cross-talk-in-the-airway-epithelial-mesenchymal-trophic-unit
#18
Alison R Hill, Jessica E Donaldson, Cornelia Blume, Natalie Smithers, Liku Tezera, Kamran Tariq, Patrick Dennison, Hitasha Rupani, Matthew J Edwards, Peter H Howarth, Christopher Grainge, Donna E Davies, Emily J Swindle
The bronchial epithelium and underlying fibroblasts form an epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU) which controls the airway microenvironment. We hypothesized that cell-cell communication within the EMTU propagates and amplifies the innate immune response to respiratory viral infections. EMTU co-culture models incorporating polarized (16HBE14o-) or differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and fibroblasts were challenged with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or rhinovirus. In the polarized EMTU model, dsRNA affected ionic but not macromolecular permeability or cell viability...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572330/the-life-cycle-stages-of-pneumocystis-murina-have-opposing-effects-on-the-immune-response-to-this-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen
#19
Heather M Evans, Grady L Bryant, Beth A Garvy
The cyst cell wall β-glucans of Pneumocystis have been shown to stimulate immune responses in lung epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and alveolar macrophages. Little is known about how the trophic life forms, which do not have a fungal cell wall, interact with these innate immune cells. Here, we report differences in the responses of both neonatal and adult mice to the trophic and cystic life cycle stages of Pneumocystis murina The adult and neonatal immune responses to infection with Pneumocystis murina trophic forms were less robust than the response to infection with a physiologically normal mixture of cysts and trophic forms...
August 29, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568644/an-impaired-metabolism-of-nucleotides-underpins-a-novel-mechanism-of-cardiac-remodeling-leading-to-huntington-s-disease-related-cardiomyopathy
#20
Marta Toczek, Daniel Zielonka, Paulina Zukowska, Jerzy T Marcinkowski, Ewa Slominska, Mark Isalan, Ryszard T Smolenski, Michal Mielcarek
Huntington's disease (HD) is mainly thought of as a neurological disease, but multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated a number of cardiovascular events leading to heart failure in HD patients. Our recent studies showed an increased risk of heart contractile dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy in HD pre-clinical models. This could potentially involve metabolic remodeling, that is a typical feature of the failing heart, with reduced activities of high energy phosphate generating pathways. In this study, we sought to identify metabolic abnormalities leading to HD-related cardiomyopathy in pre-clinical and clinical settings...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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