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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728472/the-identification-of-interferon-%C3%AE-as-a-key-supportive-factor-for-retinal-differentiation-of-murine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Barbora Hermankova, Jan Kossl, Eliska Javorkova, Pavla Bohacova, Michaela Hajkova, Alena Zajicova, Magdalena Krulova, Vladimir Holan
Retinal disorders represent the main cause of decreased quality of vision and even blindness worldwide. The loss of retinal cells causes irreversible damage of the retina and there are currently no effective treatment protocols for most retinal degenerative diseases. A promising approach for the treatment of retinal disorders is represented by stem cell-based therapy. The perspective candidates are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can differentiate into multiple cell types and produce a number of trophic and growth factors...
July 20, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694293/the-trophic-life-cycle-stage-of-the-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-pneumocystis-murina-hinders-the-ability-of-dendritic-cells-to-stimulate-cd4-t-cell-responses
#2
Heather M Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J Stromberg, Carol L Pickett, Beth A Garvy
The life cycle of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina consists of a trophic stage and an ascus-like cystic stage. Infection with the cyst stage induces proinflammatory immune responses, while trophic forms suppress the cytokine response to multiple PAMPs, including β-glucan. A targeted gene expression assay was used to evaluate the dendritic cell response following stimulation with trophic forms alone, a normal mixture of trophic forms and cysts, or with β-glucan. We demonstrate that stimulation with trophic forms downregulated the expression of multiple genes normally associated with the response to infection, including genes encoding transcription factors...
July 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685026/cholecystokinin-induced-satiety-a-key-gut-servomechanism-that-is-affected-by-the-membrane-microenvironment-of-this-receptor
#3
REVIEW
A J Desai, M Dong, K G Harikumar, L J Miller
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a central role in nutritional homeostasis, as location for food ingestion, digestion and absorption, with the gut endocrine system responding to and regulating these events, as well as influencing appetite. One key GI hormone with the full spectrum of these activities is cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide released from neuroendocrine I cells scattered through the proximal intestine in response to fat and protein, with effects to stimulate gall bladder contraction and pancreatic exocrine secretion, to regulate gastric emptying and intestinal transit, and to induce satiety...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664016/delayed-onset-eye-opening-apraxia-due-to-progression-of-brain-atrophy-following-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-a-case-report
#4
Takashi Morishita, Masa-Aki Higuchi, Yoshio Tsuboi, Kazuhiro Samura, Tooru Inoue
Eye opening apraxia (EOA) has been described in literature as a complication of deep brain stimulation (DBS), especially after electrode implantation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). EOA can be either worsened or alleviated by DBS depending on the etiology. Herein, we report a rare case where the progression of brain atrophy may have contributed to the delayed onset of EOA. The patient, a 73-year-old woman, had previously undergone bilateral STN-DBS for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), which was performed by another DBS team, at the age of 68 years...
January 2017: NMC Case Rep J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602237/spatial-and-temporal-changes-in-the-abundance-and-compostion-of-ladybird-coleoptera-coccinellidae-communities
#5
REVIEW
Alois Honek, Anthony Fg Dixon, Antonio O Soares, Jiri Skuhrovec, Zdenka Martinkova
Because of their services to agriculture most ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are intensively studied predators of mainly phytophagous pests. The study of the long-term variation in the composition of their communities was stimulated by recent dramatic changes in the abundance of some species. We review and evaluate possible effects of the main causes cited in the literature. Agricultural and habitat changes (particularly urbanization) affect coccinellid abundance, both negatively and positively. In the temperate zone dominant species occur most frequently associated with abundant prey populations on crops, weeds and planted stands of trees resulting from human activity...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600828/allogeneic-mscs-and-recycled-autologous-chondrons-mixed-in-a-one-stage-cartilage-cell-transplantion-a-first-in-man-trial-in-35-patients
#6
Tommy S de Windt, Lucienne A Vonk, Ineke C M Slaper-Cortenbach, Razmara Nizak, Mattie H P van Rijen, Daniel B F Saris
MSCs are known as multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that have been found capable of differentiating into various lineages including cartilage. However, recent studies suggest MSCs are pericytes that stimulate tissue repair through trophic signaling. Aimed at articular cartilage repair in a one-stage cell transplantation, this study provides first clinical evidence that MSCs stimulate autologous cartilage repair in the knee without engrafting in the host tissue. A phase I (first-in-man) clinical trial studied the one-stage application of allogeneic MSCs mixed with 10% or 20% recycled defect derived autologous chondrons for the treatment of cartilage defects in 35 patients...
June 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562226/inhibition-of-pathological-phenotype-of-hypertrophic-scar-fibroblasts-via-coculture-with-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#7
Jingcheng Deng, Yuan Shi, Zhen Gao, Wenjie Zhang, Xiaoli Wu, Weigang Cao, Wei Liu
Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a dermal fibroproliferative disease characterized by fibroblast over-proliferation, overproduction, and deposition of the extracellular matrix. Growing evidence demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) secrete a plethora of trophic and antifibrotic factors, which suppress inflammation and ameliorate fibrosis of different tissues. However, few studies investigate their effect on repressing HS activity. This study evaluated the suppressing effect of ASCs on HS fibroblast bioactivity and the possible mechanism via a coculture model...
July 3, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560291/gastrin-and-gastric-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Jill P Smith, Sandeep Nadella, Nick Osborne
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite progress in understanding its development, challenges with treatment remain. Gastrin, a peptide hormone, is trophic for normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin also has been shown to play an important role in the stimulation of growth of several gastrointestinal cancers including gastric cancer. We sought to review the role of gastrin and its pathway in gastric cancer and its potential as a therapeutic target in the management of gastric cancer...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554399/transplantation-of-reprogrammed-neurons-for-improved-recovery-after-stroke
#9
Zaal Kokaia, Daniel Tornero, Olle Lindvall
Somatic cells such as fibroblasts, reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells, can be used to generate neural stem/progenitor cells or neuroblasts for transplantation. In this review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating that when grafted intracerebrally in animal models of stroke, reprogrammed neurons improve function, probably by several different mechanisms, e.g., trophic actions, modulation of inflammation, promotion of angiogenesis, cellular and synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection. In our own work, we have shown that human skin-derived reprogrammed neurons, fated to cortical progeny, integrate in stroke-injured neuronal network and form functional afferent synapses with host neurons, responding to peripheral sensory stimulation...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522414/therapeutic-potential-of-agmatine-for-cns-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Vivian B Neis, Priscila B Rosa, Gislaine Olescowicz, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is a neuromodulator that regulates multiple neurotransmitters and signaling pathways. Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of this molecule, which seems to be mediated by a reduction in oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and proapoptotic signaling. Since these events are implicated in acute and chronic excitotoxicity-related disorders (ischemia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders) as well as in nociception, agmatine has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490258/trophic-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-tissue-regeneration
#11
Yao Fu, Lisanne Karbaat, Ling Wu, Jeroen C H Leijten, Sanne Both, Marcel Karperien
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered to hold great therapeutic value for cell-based therapy and for tissue regeneration in particular. Recent evidence indicates that the main underlying mechanism for MSCs' beneficial effects in tissue regeneration is based on their capability to produce a large variety of bioactive trophic factors that stimulate neighboring parenchymal cells to start repairing damaged tissues. These new findings could potential replace the classical paradigm of MSC differentiation and cell replacement...
May 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486655/microbial-processes-driving-coral-reef-organic-carbon-flow
#12
Cynthia B Silveira, Giselle S Cavalcanti, Juline M Walter, Arthur W Silva-Lima, Elizabeth A Dinsdale, David G Bourne, Cristiane C Thompson, Fabiano L Thompson
Coral reefs are one of the most productive ecosystems on the planet, with primary production rates compared to that of rain forests. Benthic organisms release 10-50% of their gross organic production as mucus that stimulates heterotrophic microbial metabolism in the water column. As a result, coral reef microbes grow up to 50 times faster than open ocean communities. Anthropogenic disturbances cause once coral-dominated reefs to become dominated by fleshy organisms, with several outcomes for trophic relationships...
May 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482145/a-controlled-release-system-for-simultaneous-delivery-of-three-human-perivascular-stem-cell-derived-factors-for-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#13
Nurlan Mansurov, William C W Chen, Hassan Awada, Johnny Huard, Yadong Wang, Arman Saparov
Transplanted stem/progenitor cells improve tissue healing and regeneration anatomically and functionally mostly due to their secreted trophic factors. However, harsh conditions at the site of injury, including hypoxia, oxidative and inflammatory stress, increased fibrosis and insufficient angiogenesis, and in some cases immunological response or incompatibility, are detrimental to stem cell survival. To overcome the complexity and deficiencies of stem cell therapy, the coacervate delivery platform is deemed promising because it offers controlled and sustained release using heparin to recapitulate the binding and stabilization of extracellular proteins by heparan sulfates in native tissues...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474259/toxic-potential-of-the-emerging-contaminant-nicotine-to-the-aquatic-ecosystem
#14
Ana Lourdes Oropesa, António Miguel Floro, Patrícia Palma
Nicotine is a "life-style compound" widely consumed by human populations and, consequently, often found in surface waters. This fact presents a concern for possible effects in the aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to assess the potential lethal and sublethal toxicity of nicotine in aquatic organisms from different trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Thamnocephalus platyurus, and Daphnia magna). The bioassays were performed by exposing the organisms to concentrations of nicotine in a range of 0...
July 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466274/neural-stem-cell-based-regenerative-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Juan Xiao, Rongbing Yang, Sangita Biswas, Yunhua Zhu, Xin Qin, Min Zhang, Lihong Zhai, Yi Luo, Xiaoming He, Chun Mao, Wenbin Deng
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory, and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which ultimately leads to axonal loss and permanent neurological disability. Current treatments for MS are largely comprised of medications that are either immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive and are aimed at reducing the frequency and intensity of relapses. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult brain can differentiate into oligodendrocytes in a context-specific manner and are shown to be involved in the remyelination in these patients...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452204/mesenchymal-stem-cells-time-to-change-the-name
#16
Arnold I Caplan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were officially named more than 25 years ago to represent a class of cells from human and mammalian bone marrow and periosteum that could be isolated and expanded in culture while maintaining their in vitro capacity to be induced to form a variety of mesodermal phenotypes and tissues. The in vitro capacity to form bone, cartilage, fat, etc., became an assay for identifying this class of multipotent cells and around which several companies were formed in the 1990s to medically exploit the regenerative capabilities of MSCs...
June 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442998/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-delivery-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-delicate-balance-between-neuroprotection-trophic-effects-and-unwanted-compensatory-mechanisms
#17
REVIEW
Liliane Tenenbaum, Marie Humbert-Claude
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and Neurturin (NRTN) bind to a receptor complex consisting of a member of the GDNF family receptor (GFR)-α and the Ret tyrosine kinase. Both factors were shown to protect nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons and reduce motor symptoms when applied terminally in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) models. However, clinical trials based on intraputaminal GDNF protein administration or recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated NRTN gene delivery have been disappointing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434079/cell-culture-complications-due-to-mechanical-release-of-atp-and-activation-of-purinoceptors
#18
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Gillian E Knight
There is abundant evidence that ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) is released from a variety of cultured cells in response to mechanical stimulation. The release mechanism involved appears to be a combination of vesicular exocytosis and connexin and pannexin hemichannels. Purinergic receptors on cultured cells mediate both short-term purinergic signalling of secretion and long-term (trophic) signalling such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. We aim in this review to bring to the attention of non-purinergic researchers using tissue culture that the release of ATP in response to mechanical stress evoked by the unavoidable movement of the cells acting on functional purinergic receptors on the culture cells is likely to complicate the interpretation of their data...
April 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424758/redox-related-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-glioblastoma-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-cobalamin-and-dopamine-receptor-subtype-4
#19
Matthew Scott Schrier, Malav Suchin Trivedi, Richard Carlton Deth
Glioblastoma is an exceptionally difficult cancer to treat. Cancer is universally marked by epigenetic changes, which play key roles in sustaining a malignant phenotype, in addition to disease progression and patient survival. Studies have shown strong links between the cellular redox state and epigenetics. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that upregulates endogenous antioxidant production, and is aberrantly expressed in many cancers, including glioblastoma...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412968/interleukin-1-primes-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-and-pro-trophic-phenotype-in-vitro
#20
Elena Redondo-Castro, Catriona Cunningham, Jonjo Miller, Licia Martuscelli, Sarah Aoulad-Ali, Nancy J Rothwell, Cay M Kielty, Stuart M Allan, Emmanuel Pinteaux
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key contributor to central nervous system (CNS) injury such as stroke, and is a major target for therapeutic intervention. Effective treatments for CNS injuries are limited and applicable to only a minority of patients. Stem cell-based therapies are increasingly considered for the treatment of CNS disease, because they can be used as in-situ regulators of inflammation, and improve tissue repair and recovery. One promising option is the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can secrete anti-inflammatory and trophic factors, can migrate towards inflamed and injured sites or can be implanted locally...
April 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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