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Trophic stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928669/cholecystokinin-receptor-targeted-polyplex-nanoparticle-inhibits-growth-and-metastasis-of-pancreatic-cancer
#1
Julian Burks, Sandeep Nadella, Abdullah Mahmud, Charoen Mankongpaisarnrung, Juan Wang, Jong-In Hahm, Robin D Tucker, Narayan Shivapurkar, Stephan T Stern, Jill P Smith
Background & Aims: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains the most aggressive malignancy with the lowest 5-year survival rate of all cancers in part owing to the lack of tumor-specific therapy and the rapid metastatic nature of this cancer. The gastrointestinal peptide gastrin is a trophic peptide that stimulates growth of PDAC in an autocrine fashion by interaction with the cholecystokinin receptor that is overexpressed in this malignancy. Methods: We developed a therapeutic novel polyplex nanoparticle (NP) that selectively targets the cholecystokinin receptor on PDAC...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927319/dietary-fat-stimulates-pancreatic-cancer-growth-and-promotes-fibrosis-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-through-the-cholecystokinin-receptor
#2
Sandeep Nadella, Julian Burks, Abdulhameed Al-Sabban, Gloria Inyang, Juan Wang, Robin D Tucker, Marie E Zamanis, William Bukowski, Narayan Shivapurkar, Jill P Smith
The gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) is released from the duodenum in response to dietary fat to aid in digestion, and plasma CCK levels are elevated with the consumption of high fat diets. CCK is also a trophic peptide for the pancreas and has also been shown to stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer. In the current investigation, we studied the influence of a diet high in saturated fat on growth of pancreatic cancer in syngeneic murine models before the mice became obese to exclude the confounding factors associated with obesity...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913913/somatosensory-and-trophic-findings-in-the-referred-pain-area-in-patients-with-kidney-stone-disease
#3
Katja Venborg Pedersen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Ole Graumann, Susanne Sloth Osther, Anne Estrup Olesen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Palle Jørn Sloth Osther
Background and purpose Visceral and somatic afferents activate the same neuronal structures in the central nervous system. Assessing somatosensory function and trophic changes in the referred pain area may therefore indirectly increase information on mechanisms involved in painful visceral diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory and trophic changes in the flank corresponding to the referred pain area in patients with kidney stone disease. Methods A total of 24 patients with unilateral pain-causing kidney stone disease were studied before and after endoscopic percutaneous kidney stone surgery...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901256/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-stimulate-organic-phosphate-mobilization-associated-with-changing-bacterial-community-structure-under-field-conditions
#4
Lin Zhang, Ning Shi, Jiequn Fan, Fei Wang, Timothy S George, Gu Feng
The extraradical hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) harbor and interact with a microbial community performing multiple functions. However, how the AMF-microbiome interaction influences the phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency of the mycorrhizal pathway is unclear. Here we investigated whether AMF and their hyphal microbiome play a role in promoting organic phosphorus (P) mineralizing under field conditions. We developed an AMF hyphae in-growth core system for the field by using PVC tubes sealed with membrane with different size of pores (30 or 0...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789375/neurotrophin-responsiveness-of-sympathetic-neurons-is-regulated-by-rapid-mobilization-of-the-p75-receptor-to-the-cell-surface-through-trka-activation-of-arf6
#5
F Edward Hickman, Emily M Stanley, Bruce D Carter
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays an integral role in patterning the sympathetic nervous system during development. Initially, p75NTR is expressed at low levels as sympathetic axons project toward their targets, which enables neurotrophin-3 (NT3) to activate TrkA receptors and promote growth. Upon reaching nerve growth factor (NGF) producing tissues, p75NTR is up regulated resulting in formation of TrkA-p75 complexes, which are high affinity binding sites selective for NGF, thereby blunting NT3 signaling...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731871/co-implantation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-chondrocytes-increase-the-viability-of-chondrocytes-in-rat-osteo-chondral-defects
#6
Zhi Zhao, Xinshe Zhou, Jianzhong Guan, Min Wu, Jiansheng Zhou
Replacement of chondrocytes by adult stem cells was believed to improve the performance of autologous chondrocytes transplantation, since less chondrocytes were needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that the increased cartilage production in pellet co-cultures of chondrocytes and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is due to the trophic effects of the MSC by stimulating chondrocyte proliferation and matrix production. However, the destination of MSCs or chondrocytes after implanted in osteo-chondral defects is not clear...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721978/vegf-as-a-trophic-factor-for-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-in-hypoxic-retinal-diseases
#7
Shuhua Fu, Shuqian Dong, Meili Zhu, Yun-Zheng Le
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR), leading causes of blindness, share a common retinal environment: hypoxia which is a major stimulator for the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a cardinal pathogenic factor for the breakdown of blood-retina barrier (BRB). As a result of intensive studies on VEGF pathobiology, anti-VEGF strategy has become a major therapeutics for wet AMD and DR. To investigate the potential impact of anti-VEGF strategy on major retinal supporting cells, Müller glia (MG), we disrupted VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) in MG with conditional knockout (CKO) and examined the effect of VEGFR2-null on MG viability and neuronal integrity in mice...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718098/current-knowledge-on-the-acute-regulation-of-steroidogenesis
#8
Vimal Selvaraj, Douglas M Stocco, Barbara J Clark
How rapid induction of steroid hormone biosynthesis occurs in response to trophic hormone stimulation of steroidogenic cells has been a subject of intensive investigation for approximately six decades. A key observation made very early was that acute regulation of steroid biosynthesis required swift and timely synthesis of a new protein whose role appeared to be involved in the delivery of the substrate for all steroid hormones, cholesterol, from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane where the process of steroidogenesis begins...
April 27, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704537/testosterone-and-fsh-modulate-sertoli-cell-extracellular-secretion-proteomic-analysis
#9
Francesca Mancuso, Mario Calvitti, Domenico Milardi, Giuseppe Grande, Giulia Falabella, Iva Arato, Stefano Giovagnoli, Federica Vincenzoni, Francesca Mancini, Claudio Nastruzzi, Maria Bodo, Tiziano Baroni, Massimo Castagnola, Riccardo Marana, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Riccardo Calafiore, Giovanni Luca
Spermatogenesis is a highly complicated biological process that occurs in the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. It is regulated by a complex network of endocrine and paracrine factors and by juxtacrine testicular cross-talk. Sertoli cells (SC) play a key role in spermatogenesis due to their production of trophic, differentiation and immune-modulating factors, but many of the molecular pathways of SC action remain controversial and unclear. Over the last two decades, research has focused on extracellular vesicles as an important mechanism of intercellular communication...
April 25, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702551/kruppel-like-factor-15-is-critical-for-the-development-of-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#10
REVIEW
Sheila K Patel, Jay Ramchand, Vincenzo Crocitti, Louise M Burrell
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events and is often present in patients with hypertension. Treatment to reduce blood pressure and regress LVH is key to improving health outcomes, but currently available drugs have only modest cardioprotective effects. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of LVH may lead to new therapeutic targets in the future. There is now compelling evidence that the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is an important negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy in both experimental models and in man...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682085/prostaglandin-e-2-produced-by-alginate-encapsulated-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-modulates-the-astrocyte-inflammatory-response
#11
Elizabeth C Stucky, Joshua Erndt-Marino, Rene S Schloss, Martin L Yarmush, David I Shreiber
Astroglia are well known for their role in propagating secondary injury following brain trauma. Modulation of this injury cascade, including inflammation, is essential to repair and recovery. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated as trophic mediators in several models of secondary CNS injury, however, there has been varied success with the use of direct implantation due to a failure to persist at the injury site. To achieve sustained therapeutic benefit, we have encapsulated MSCs in alginate microspheres and evaluated the ability of these encapsulated MSCs to attenuate neuro-inflammation...
June 2017: Nano LIFE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651045/dissolved-organic-carbon-leaching-from-plastics-stimulates-microbial-activity-in-the-ocean
#12
Cristina Romera-Castillo, Maria Pinto, Teresa M Langer, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Gerhard J Herndl
Approximately 5.25 trillion plastic pieces are floating at the sea surface. The impact of plastic pollution on the lowest trophic levels of the food web, however, remains unknown. Here we show that plastics release dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the ambient seawater stimulating the activity of heterotrophic microbes. Our estimates indicate that globally up to 23,600 metric tons of DOC are leaching from marine plastics annually. About 60% of it is available to microbial utilization in less than 5 days. If exposed to solar radiation, however, this DOC becomes less labile...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562913/human-dental-pulp-stromal-cell-conditioned-medium-alters-endothelial-cell-behavior
#13
M A Gharaei, Y Xue, K Mustafa, S A Lie, I Fristad
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is of utmost importance for tissue regeneration and repair. Human dental pulp stromal cells (hDPSCs) possess angiogenic potential, as they secrete paracrine factors that may alter the host microenvironment. However, more insight into how hDPSCs guide endothelial cells (ECs) in a paracrine fashion is yet to be obtained. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the effect(s) of conditioned medium derived from hDPSCs (hDPSC-CM) on EC behavior in vitro. METHODS: hDPSCs were harvested from third molars scheduled for surgical removal under informed consent...
March 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552470/cartilage-repair-in-the-knee-using-umbilical-cord-wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-embedded-onto-collagen-scaffolding-and-implanted-under-dry-arthroscopy
#14
Boguslaw Sadlik, Grzegorz Jaroslawski, Mariusz Puszkarz, Adrian Blasiak, Tomasz Oldak, Dominika Gladysz, Graeme P Whyte
Cell-based cartilage repair procedures are becoming more widely available and have shown promising potential to treat a wide range of cartilage lesion types and sizes, particularly in the knee joint. More recently, techniques have evolved from 2-step techniques that use autologous chondrocyte expansion to 1-step techniques that make use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) embedded onto biocompatible scaffolding. Our 1-step technique has been further developed to provide cell-based cartilage repair using MSCs that have the potential to be used in an off-the-shelf manner, without the need for autologous tissue harvest...
January 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550790/hierarchies-of-healing-in-gut-mucosal-injury
#15
M D Basson
The mucosal response to injury can best be understood as a complex layering of different responses that may be invoked depending upon the size and nature of the injury, the persistence of the injurious stimulus, and the availability of various trophic host factors that stimulate repair. There is a hierarchy of responses that ranges from small rapid resealing of acute apical membrane or single cell wounds through the long term attempt to heal a giant peptic ulcer or respond to inflammatory bowel disease. Although much previous attention has been paid to the local factors that regulate these pathways and responses, there is increasing interest in systemic factors that may act either by the production of cytokines and trophic factors or by the direct migration of bone marrow derived stem cells into the mucosal wound...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550535/historical-biogeography-of-loranthaceae-santalales-diversification-agrees-with-emergence-of-tropical-forests-and-radiation-of-songbirds
#16
Bing Liu, Chi Toan Le, Russell L Barrett, Daniel L Nickrent, Zhiduan Chen, Limin Lu, Romina Vidal-Russell
Coadaptation between mistletoes and birds captured the attention of Charles Darwin over 150 years ago, stimulating considerable scientific research. Here we used Loranthaceae, a speciose and ecologically important mistletoe family, to obtain new insights into the interrelationships among its hosts and dispersers. Phylogenetic analyses of Loranthaceae were based on a dataset of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction, and diversification rate analyses were employed to examine historical biogeography...
July 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539878/differential-selection-by-nematodes-on-an-introduced-biocontrol-fungus-vs-indigenous-fungi-in-nonsterile-soil
#17
Tae Gwan Kim, Guy R Knudsen
Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can bea key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity.This study investigated trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes ( p <0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531367/coccolithovirus-facilitation-of-carbon-export-in-the-north-atlantic
#18
Christien P Laber, Jonathan E Hunter, Filipa Carvalho, James R Collins, Elias J Hunter, Brittany M Schieler, Emmanuel Boss, Kuldeep More, Miguel Frada, Kimberlee Thamatrakoln, Christopher M Brown, Liti Haramaty, Justin Ossolinski, Helen Fredricks, Jozef I Nissimov, Rebecca Vandzura, Uri Sheyn, Yoav Lehahn, Robert J Chant, Ana M Martins, Marco J L Coolen, Assaf Vardi, Giacomo R DiTullio, Benjamin A S Van Mooy, Kay D Bidle
Marine phytoplankton account for approximately half of global primary productivity 1 , making their fate an important driver of the marine carbon cycle. Viruses are thought to recycle more than one-quarter of oceanic photosynthetically fixed organic carbon 2 , which can stimulate nutrient regeneration, primary production and upper ocean respiration 2 via lytic infection and the 'virus shunt'. Ultimately, this limits the trophic transfer of carbon and energy to both higher food webs and the deep ocean 2 . Using imagery taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite, along with a suite of diagnostic lipid- and gene-based molecular biomarkers, in situ optical sensors and sediment traps, we show that Coccolithovirus infections of mesoscale (~100 km) Emiliania huxleyi blooms in the North Atlantic are coupled with particle aggregation, high zooplankton grazing and greater downward vertical fluxes of both particulate organic and particulate inorganic carbon from the upper mixed layer...
May 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497054/multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-support-lymphatic-regeneration-at-multiple-anatomical-levels-during-wound-healing-and-lymphedema
#19
Manu Beerens, Xabier L Aranguren, Benoit Hendrickx, Wouter Dheedene, Tom Dresselaers, Uwe Himmelreich, Catherine Verfaillie, Aernout Luttun
Lymphatic capillary growth is an integral part of wound healing, yet, the combined effectiveness of stem/progenitor cells on lymphatic and blood vascular regeneration in wounds needs further exploration. Stem/progenitor cell transplantation also emerged as an approach to cure lymphedema, a condition caused by lymphatic system deficiency. While lymphedema treatment requires lymphatic system restoration from the capillary to the collector level, it remains undetermined whether stem/progenitor cells support a complex regenerative response across the entire anatomical spectrum of the system...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483280/swedish-nerve-growth-factor-mutation-ngf-r100w-defines-a-role-for-trka-and-p75-ntr-in-nociception
#20
Kijung Sung, Luiz F Ferrari, Wanlin Yang, ChiHye Chung, Xiaobei Zhao, Yingli Gu, Suzhen Lin, Kai Zhang, Bianxiao Cui, Matthew L Pearn, Michael T Maloney, William C Mobley, Jon D Levine, Chengbiao Wu
Nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts multiple functions on target neurons throughout development. The recent discovery of a point mutation leading to a change from arginine to tryptophan at residue 100 in the mature NGFβ sequence (NGFR100W ) in patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN V) made it possible to distinguish the signaling mechanisms that lead to two functionally different outcomes of NGF: trophic versus nociceptive. We performed extensive biochemical, cellular, and live-imaging experiments to examine the binding and signaling properties of NGFR100W Our results show that, similar to the wild-type NGF (wtNGF), the naturally occurring NGFR100W mutant was capable of binding to and activating the TrkA receptor and its downstream signaling pathways to support neuronal survival and differentiation...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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