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Trophic stimulation

Kaisa-Riikka Mustonen, Heikki Mykrä, Pauliina Louhi, Annamari Markkola, Mikko Tolkkinen, Ari Huusko, Nico Alioravainen, Sirkku Lehtinen, Timo Muotka
Stream ecosystems are affected by multiple abiotic stressors, and species responses to simultaneous stressors may differ from those predicted based on single-stressor responses. Using 12 semi-natural stream channels, we examined the individual and interactive effects of flow level (low or high flow) and addition of fine sediments (grain size <2 mm) on key ecosystem processes (leaf breakdown, algal biomass accrual) and benthic macroinvertebrate and fungal communities. Both stressors had mostly independent effects on biological responses, with sand addition being the more influential of the two...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Maurizio Sabbatini, Michela Bosetti, Alessia Borrone, Liah Moalem, Antonio Taveggia, Giovanni Verna, Mario Cannas
Apoptosis and inflammatory processes may be at the basis of reducing graft survival. Erythropoietin is a tissue-protective hormone with pleiotropic potential, and it interferes with the activities of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulates healing following injury, preventing destruction of tissue surrounding the injury site. It may represent a useful tool to increase the autograft integration. Through the use of multipanel kit cytokine analysis we have detected the cytokines secreted by human tissue adipose mass seeded in culture following withdrawal by Coleman's modified technique in three groups: control, after lipopolysaccharides stimulation and after erythropoietin stimulation...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Andrea Miccoli, Ike Olivotto, Andrea De Felice, Iole Leonori, Oliana Carnevali
The European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, a member of the Clupeiformes order, holds a great biological and economical importance. In the past, this species was mostly investigated with the aim of assessing its reproductive biology, trophic ecology, population dynamics and the relations existing with the physical environment. At present days, though, an almost complete lack of information afflicts its neuroendocrinology and reproductive physiology. The hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HPG) axis at its highest levels was herein investigated...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Aurélie Jolivet, Rejean Tremblay, Fréderic Olivier, Cédric Gervaise, Rémi Sonier, Bertrand Genard, Laurent Chauvaud
Like the majority of benthic invertebrates, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis has a bentho-pelagic cycle with its larval settlement being a complex phenomenon involving numerous factors. Among these factors, underwater noise and pelagic trophic conditions have been weakly studied in previous researches. Under laboratory conditions, we tested the hypothesis that picoplankton assimilation by the pediveliger blue mussel larvae acts as a food cue that interacts with anthropic underwater sound to stimulate settlement...
2016: Scientific Reports
Benjamin M Schwenk, Hannelore Hartmann, Alperen Serdaroglu, Martin H Schludi, Daniel Hornburg, Felix Meissner, Denise Orozco, Alessio Colombo, Sabina Tahirovic, Meike Michaelsen, Franziska Schreiber, Simone Haupt, Michael Peitz, Oliver Brüstle, Clemens Küpper, Thomas Klopstock, Markus Otto, Albert C Ludolph, Thomas Arzberger, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn, Dieter Edbauer
Nuclear clearance of TDP-43 into cytoplasmic aggregates is a key driver of neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that TDP-43 knockdown specifically reduces the number and motility of RAB11-positive recycling endosomes in dendrites, while TDP-43 overexpression has the opposite effect. This is associated with delayed transferrin recycling in TDP-43-knockdown neurons and decreased β2-transferrin levels in patient CSF Whole proteome quantification identified the upregulation of the ESCRT component VPS4B upon TDP-43 knockdown in neurons...
September 12, 2016: EMBO Journal
Jinbo Xiong, Shangling Xiong, Peng Qian, Demin Zhang, Lian Liu, Yuejun Fei
Elevated seawater temperature has altered the coupling between coastal primary production and heterotrophic bacterioplankton respiration. This shift, in turn, could influence the feedback of ocean ecosystem to climate warming. However, little is known about how natural bacterioplankton community responds to increasing seawater temperature. To investigate warming effects on the bacterioplankton community, we collected water samples from temperature gradients (ranged from 15.0 to 18.6 °C) created by a thermal flume of a coal power plant...
December 2016: AMB Express
Yujia Yuan, Meimei Shi, Lan Li, Jingping Liu, Bo Chen, Younan Chen, Xingxing An, Shuyun Liu, Ruixi Luo, Dan Long, Wengeng Zhang, Philip Newsholme, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu
Vasculopathy is a major complication of diabetes. Impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics and biogenesis due to oxidative stress is a critical causal factor for diabetic endothelial dysfunction. Sirt1, a NAD(+)-dependent enzyme, is known to play an important protective role through deacetylation of many substrates involved in oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs-CM) has emerged as a promising cell-free therapy due to the trophic actions of MSCs secreted molecules...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Silvia Barbon, Elena Stocco, Alessandro Negro, Daniele Dalzoppo, Luca Borgio, Senthilkumar Rajendran, Francesca Grandi, Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Claudio Grandi
In regenerative neurobiology, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) is raising high interest as a multifunctional neurocytokine, playing a key role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Despite its promising trophic and regulatory activity, its clinical application is limited by the onset of severe side effects, due to the lack of efficient intracellular trafficking after administration. In this study, recombinant CNTF linked to the transactivator transduction domain (TAT) was investigated in vitro and found to be an optimized fusion protein which preserves neurotrophic activity, besides enhancing cellular uptake for therapeutic advantage...
October 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Alison R Hill, Jessica E Donaldson, Cornelia Blume, Natalie Smithers, Liku Tezera, Kamran Tariq, Patrick Dennison, Hitasha Rupani, Matthew J Edwards, Peter H Howarth, Christopher Grainge, Donna E Davies, Emily J Swindle
The bronchial epithelium and underlying fibroblasts form an epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU) which controls the airway microenvironment. We hypothesized that cell-cell communication within the EMTU propagates and amplifies the innate immune response to respiratory viral infections. EMTU co-culture models incorporating polarized (16HBE14o-) or differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and fibroblasts were challenged with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or rhinovirus. In the polarized EMTU model, dsRNA affected ionic but not macromolecular permeability or cell viability...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Heather M Evans, Grady L Bryant, Beth A Garvy
The cyst cell wall β-glucans of Pneumocystis have been shown to stimulate immune responses in lung epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and alveolar macrophages. Little is known about how the trophic life forms, which do not have a fungal cell wall, interact with these innate immune cells. Here, we report differences in the responses of both neonatal and adult mice to the trophic and cystic life cycle stages of Pneumocystis murina The adult and neonatal immune responses to infection with Pneumocystis murina trophic forms were less robust than the response to infection with a physiologically normal mixture of cysts and trophic forms...
August 29, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Marta Toczek, Daniel Zielonka, Paulina Zukowska, Jerzy T Marcinkowski, Ewa Slominska, Mark Isalan, Ryszard T Smolenski, Michal Mielcarek
Huntington's disease (HD) is mainly thought of as a neurological disease, but multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated a number of cardiovascular events leading to heart failure in HD patients. Our recent studies showed an increased risk of heart contractile dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy in HD pre-clinical models. This could potentially involve metabolic remodeling, that is a typical feature of the failing heart, with reduced activities of high energy phosphate generating pathways. In this study, we sought to identify metabolic abnormalities leading to HD-related cardiomyopathy in pre-clinical and clinical settings...
August 25, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Muvari Connie Tjiurutue, Philip C Stevenson, Lynn S Adler
As sessile organisms, plants rely on their environment for cues indicating imminent herbivory. These cues can originate from tissues on the same plant or from different individuals. Since parasitic plants form vascular connections with their host, parasites have the potential to receive cues from hosts that allow them to adjust defenses against future herbivory. However, the role of plant communication between hosts and parasites for herbivore defense remains poorly investigated. Here, we examined the effects of damage to lupine hosts (Lupinus texensis) on responses of the attached hemiparasite (Castilleja indivisa), and indirectly, on a specialist herbivore of the parasite, buckeyes (Junonia coenia)...
August 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
J R Gomes, R S Nogueira, M Vieira, S D Santos, J P Ferraz-Nogueira, J B Relvas, M J Saraiva
Transthyretin (TTR) is a protein whose function has been associated to binding and distribution of thyroid hormones in the body and brain. However, little is known regarding the downstream signaling pathways triggered by wild-type TTR in the CNS either in neuroprotection of cerebral ischemia or in physiological conditions. In this study, we investigated how TTR affects hippocampal neurons in physiologic/pathologic conditions. Recombinant TTR significantly boosted neurite outgrowth in mice hippocampal neurons, both in number and length, independently of its ligands...
November 1, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Fernanda Rosene Melo, Raul Bardini Bressan, Stefânia Forner, Alessandra Cadete Martini, Michele Rode, Priscilla Barros Delben, Giles Alexander Rae, Claudia Pinto Figueiredo, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurologic disorder with significant impacts on quality of life, life expectancy, and economic burden. Although there are no fully restorative treatments yet available, several animal and small-scale clinical studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of cellular interventions for SCI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-which are conventionally isolated from the bone marrow-recently emerged as promising candidates for treating SCI and have been shown to provide trophic support, ameliorate inflammatory responses, and reduce cell death following the mechanical trauma...
August 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Tommy S de Windt, Lucienne A Vonk, Ineke C M Slaper-Cortenbach, Marcel P H van den Broek, Razmara Nizak, Mattie H P van Rijen, Roel A de Weger, Wouter J A Dhert, Daniel B F Saris
Traditionally, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult bone marrow were described as being capable of differentiating to various lineages including cartilage. Despite increasing interest in these MSCs, concerns regarding their safety, in vivo behavior and clinical effectiveness have restrained their clinical application. We hypothesized that MSCs have trophic effects that stimulate recycled chondrons (chondrocytes with their native pericellular matrix) to regenerate cartilage. Searching for a proof of principle, this phase I (first-in-man) clinical trial applied allogeneic MSCs mixed with either 10% or 20% recycled autologous cartilage-derived cells (chondrons) for treatment of cartilage defects in the knee in symptomatic cartilage defect patients...
August 10, 2016: Stem Cells
Robert Dymarek, Jakub Taradaj, Joanna Rosińczuk
Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of radial shock waves (rESW) for wrist and fingers flexors spasticity in stroke patients. Methods. Twenty patients with upper limb muscle spasticity were enrolled in the study and treated with a single session of rESW. The spasticity level of the radio carpal (RC) and finger (FF) joints was assessed using Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). The resting bioelectrical activity of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) was examined using surface electromyography (sEMG)...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Douglas M Stocco, Amy H Zhao, Lan N Tu, Kanako Morohaku, Vimal Selvaraj
The synthesis of steroid hormones occurs in specific cells and tissues in the body in response to trophic hormones and other signals. In order to synthesize steroids de novo, cholesterol, the precursor of all steroid hormones, must be mobilized from cellular stores to the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) to be converted into the first steroid formed, pregnenolone. This delivery of cholesterol to the IMM is the rate-limiting step in this process, and has long been known to require the rapid synthesis of a new protein(s) in response to stimulation...
July 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Michael P Willand, Elyse Rosa, Bernadeta Michalski, Jennifer J Zhang, Tessa Gordon, Margaret Fahnestock, Gregory H Borschel
Despite advances in surgery, patients with nerve injuries frequently have functional deficits. We previously demonstrated in a rat model that daily electrical muscle stimulation following peripheral nerve injury and repair enhances reinnervation, detectable as early as two weeks post-injury. In this study, we explain the enhanced early reinnervation observed with electrical stimulation. In two groups of rats, the tibial nerve was transected and immediately repaired. Gastrocnemius muscles were implanted with intramuscular electrodes for sham or muscle stimulation...
July 28, 2016: Neuroscience
Janahan Arulmoli, Heather J Wright, Duc T T Phan, Urmi Sheth, Richard A Que, Giovanni A Botten, Mark Keating, Elliot L Botvinick, Medha M Pathak, Thomas I Zarembinski, Daniel S Yanni, Olga V Razorenova, Christopher C W Hughes, Lisa A Flanagan
UNLABELLED: Human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs) are good candidates for treating central nervous system (CNS) trauma since they secrete beneficial trophic factors and differentiate into mature CNS cells; however, many cells die after transplantation. This cell death can be ameliorated by inclusion of a biomaterial scaffold, making identification of optimal scaffolds for hNSPCs a critical research focus. We investigated the properties of fibrin-based scaffolds and their effects on hNSPCs and found that fibrin generated from salmon fibrinogen and thrombin stimulates greater hNSPC proliferation than mammalian fibrin...
October 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Yinping Wang, Xiaohong Gu, Qingfei Zeng, Zhigang Mao, Wenxia Wang
RATIONALE: Studies on diet or trophic interactions of organisms based on stable isotopes require accurate estimates of how quickly stable isotope ratios change in the investigated tissues. However, rates of isotope turnover in fish tissues, especially in omnivorous species, are poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted a diet-shift study using juvenile tilapia to (i) empirically estimate the isotopic turnover rates of nitrogen in the dorsal muscle, liver, fin and backbone; (ii) model the relative contributions of metabolism and growth to the total isotopic turnover in each tissue; and (iii) develop a non-lethal approach for estimating body nitrogen stable isotope ratios for threatened or endangered species...
October 15, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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