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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447086/ultrasound-neuro-modulation-chip-activation-of-sensory-neurons-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-surface-acoustic-waves
#1
Wei Zhou, Jingjing Wang, Kaiyue Wang, Bin Huang, Lili Niu, Fei Li, Feiyan Cai, Yan Chen, Xin Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Hankui Cheng, Lijun Kang, Long Meng, Hairong Zheng
Ultrasound neuro-modulation has gained increasing attention as a non-invasive method. In this paper, we present an ultrasound neuro-modulation chip, capable of initiating reversal behaviour and activating neurons of C. elegans under the stimulation of a single-shot, short-pulsed ultrasound. About 85.29% ± 6.17% of worms respond to the ultrasound stimulation exhibiting reversal behaviour. Furthermore, the worms can adapt to the ultrasound stimulation with a lower acoustic pulse duration of stimulation. In vivo calcium imaging shows that the activity of ASH, a polymodal sensory neuron in C...
April 27, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446579/modulation-of-long-latency-afferent-inhibition-by-the-amplitude-of-sensory-afferent-volley
#2
Claudia V Turco, Jenin El-Sayes, Hunter J Fassett, Robert Chen, Aimee Jennifer Nelson
Long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) is the inhibition of the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor-evoked potentials (MEP) by the sensory afferent volley following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve. It is unknown how the activation of sensory afferent fibres relates to the magnitude of LAI. This study investigated the relationship between LAI and the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the median nerve (MN) and the digital nerves (DN) of the second digit. LAI was obtained by delivering nerve stimulation 200 ms prior to a TMS pulse delivered over the motor cortex...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446119/neurobionics-and-the-brain-computer-interface-current-applications-and-future-horizons
#3
Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Yan Tat Wong
The brain-computer interface (BCI) is an exciting advance in neuroscience and engineering. In a motor BCI, electrical recordings from the motor cortex of paralysed humans are decoded by a computer and used to drive robotic arms or to restore movement in a paralysed hand by stimulating the muscles in the forearm. Simultaneously integrating a BCI with the sensory cortex will further enhance dexterity and fine control. BCIs are also being developed to: provide ambulation for paraplegic patients through controlling robotic exoskeletons; restore vision in people with acquired blindness; detect and control epileptic seizures; and improve control of movement disorders and memory enhancement...
May 1, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445462/cell-diversity-and-network-dynamics-in-photosensitive-human-brain-organoids
#4
Giorgia Quadrato, Tuan Nguyen, Evan Z Macosko, John L Sherwood, Sung Min Yang, Daniel R Berger, Natalie Maria, Jorg Scholvin, Melissa Goldman, Justin P Kinney, Edward S Boyden, Jeff W Lichtman, Ziv M Williams, Steven A McCarroll, Paola Arlotta
In vitro models of the developing brain such as three-dimensional brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity to study aspects of human brain development and disease. However, the cells generated within organoids and the extent to which they recapitulate the regional complexity, cellular diversity and circuit functionality of the brain remain undefined. Here we analyse gene expression in over 80,000 individual cells isolated from 31 human brain organoids. We find that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which are related to endogenous classes, including cells from the cerebral cortex and the retina...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444832/real-time-activation-of-central-cholinergic-circuits-during-recognition-memory
#5
Sonia Bonnì, Viviana Ponzo, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
Short Latency Afferent Inhibition (SAI) is a paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) protocol that consists in the inhibition of the Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) by afferent sensory impulses. SAI is thought to be mediated by cholinergic projections over M1 and can be considered a putative marker of central cholinergic activity. It's known that memory processes are regulated by acetylcholine. Nonetheless the influence of memory tasks on SAI has not been investigated. Here we tested changes in SAI circuits in healthy subjects performing a computerized non-verbal recognition memory task (RMT) requiring to recognize previously encoded faces...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443062/somatosensory-misrepresentation-associated-with-chronic-pain-spatiotemporal-correlates-of-sensory-perception-in-a-patient-following-a-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-spread
#6
Lars Büntjen, Jens-Max Hopf, Christian Merkel, Jürgen Voges, Stefan Knape, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
Chronic pain is suggested to be linked to reorganization processes in the sensorimotor cortex. In the current study, the somatosensory representation of the extremities was investigated in a patient with a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that initially occurred in the right hand and arm and spread later into the left hand and right leg. After the spread, magnetoencephalographic recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation revealed that the clinical symptoms were associated with major changes in the primary somatosensory representation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442997/high-spatiotemporal-resolution-ecog-recording-of-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-with-flexible-micro-electrode-arrays
#7
Taro Kaiju, Keiichi Doi, Masashi Yokota, Kei Watanabe, Masato Inoue, Hiroshi Ando, Kazutaka Takahashi, Fumiaki Yoshida, Masayuki Hirata, Takafumi Suzuki
Electrocorticogram (ECoG) has great potential as a source signal, especially for clinical BMI. Until recently, ECoG electrodes were commonly used for identifying epileptogenic foci in clinical situations, and such electrodes were low-density and large. Increasing the number and density of recording channels could enable the collection of richer motor/sensory information, and may enhance the precision of decoding and increase opportunities for controlling external devices. Several reports have aimed to increase the number and density of channels...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441420/mapping-of-the-brain-hemodynamic-responses-to-sensorimotor-stimulation-in-a-rodent-model-a-bold-fmri-study
#8
Salem Boussida, Amidou S Traoré, Franck Durif
Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI) during electrical paw stimulation has been widely used in studies aimed at the understanding of the somatosensory network in rats. However, despite the well-established anatomical connections between cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor system, most of these functional studies have been concentrated on the cortical effects of sensory electrical stimulation. BOLD fMRI study of the integration of a sensorimotor input across the sensorimotor network requires an appropriate methodology to elicit functional activation in cortical and subcortical areas owing to the regional differences in both neuronal and vascular architectures between these brain regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440002/differential-effect-of-incobotulinumtoxin-a-on-pain-neurogenic-flare-and-hyperalgesia-in-human-surrogate-models-of-neurogenic-pain
#9
S A Diener, M Breimhorst, Th Vogt, H H Krämer, P D Drummond, C Geber, F Birklein
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of Botulinum-neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) to treat pain in human pain models is very divergent. This study was conducted to clarify if the pain models or the route of BoNT/A application might be responsible for these divergent findings. METHODS: Sixteen healthy subjects (8 males, mean age 27 ± 5 years) were included in a first set of experiments consisting of three visits: (1) Visit: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed before and after intradermal capsaicin injection (CAPS, 15 μg) on one thigh and electrical current stimulation (ES, 1 Hz) on the contralateral thigh...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440001/treating-low-back-pain-with-combined-cerebral-and-peripheral-electrical-stimulation-a-randomized-double-blind-factorial-clinical-trial
#10
F A Hazime, A F Baptista, D G de Freitas, R L Monteiro, R L Maretto, R H Hasue, S M A João
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that chronic low back pain is associated with plastic changes in the brain that can be modified by neuromodulation strategies. This study investigated the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined simultaneously with peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) for pain relief, disability and global perception in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: Ninety-two patients with CLBP were randomized to receive 12 sessions on nonconsecutive days of anodal tDCS (primary motor cortex, M1), 100 Hz sensory PES (lumbar spine), tDCS + PES or sham tDCS + PES...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439236/auditory-visual-and-audiovisual-speech-processing-streams-in-superior-temporal-sulcus
#11
Jonathan H Venezia, Kenneth I Vaden, Feng Rong, Dale Maddox, Kourosh Saberi, Gregory Hickok
The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438259/variation-in-olfactory-neuron-repertoires-is-genetically-controlled-and-environmentally-modulated
#12
Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Thiago S Nakahara, Jingtao Lilue, Yue Jiang, Casey Trimmer, Mateus Aa Souza, Paulo Hm Netto, Kentaro Ikegami, Nicolle R Murphy, Mairi Kusma, Andrea Kirton, Luis R Saraiva, Thomas M Keane, Hiroaki Matsunami, Joel Mainland, Fabio Papes, Darren W Logan
The mouse olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) repertoire is composed of 10 million cells and each expresses one olfactory receptor (OR) gene from a pool of over 1000. Thus, the nose is sub-stratified into more than a thousand OSN subtypes. Here, we employ and validate an RNA-sequencing-based method to quantify the abundance of all OSN subtypes in parallel, and investigate the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to neuronal diversity. We find that the OSN subtype distribution is stereotyped in genetically identical mice, but varies extensively between different strains...
April 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436201/brain-responses-to-mechanical-rectal-stimuli-in-patients-with-faecal-incontinence-an-fmri-study
#13
Naseem Mirbagheri, Sean Hatton, Kheng-Seong Ng, Jim Lagopoulos, Marc A Gladman
AIM: Continence is dependent on anorectal/brain interactions. Consequently, aberrations of the brain-gut axis may be important in the pathophysiology of faecal incontinence (FI) in certain patients. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimuli in patients with FI using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). METHOD: A prospective, cohort pilot study was performed to assess brain responses during rectal stimulation in 14 patients (4 male, mean [SD] age 62 [15] years)...
April 24, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434749/short-communication-muscle-protein-synthetic-response-to-microparticulated-whey-protein-in-middle-aged-men
#14
C J Mitchell, R F D'Souza, A C Fanning, S D Poppitt, D Cameron-Smith
Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is a high-quality dairy ingredient that is often included in formulated food products designed to stimulate muscle anabolism. Whey protein concentrate can be affected by UHT processing, and its sensory properties are not compatible with some formulated food products. Microparticulated WPC (mWPC) is a novel ingredient that is resistant to heat treatment and has enhanced sensory properties. When 16 healthy middle-aged men consumed 20 g of either WPC or mWPC, both proteins increased plasma essential AA and leucine concentrations with no detectable difference in curve kinetics...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433438/analgesic-effects-of-transcutaneous-ultrasound-nerve-stimulation-in-a-rat-model-of-oxaliplatin-induced-mechanical-hyperalgesia-and-cold-allodynia
#15
Yueh-Ling Hsieh, Han-Yu Chen, Ching-Hsiang Yang, Chen-Chia Yang
This study investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. Animals received a total of eight injections with oxaliplatin (4 mg/kg), administered at 3-d intervals. TUS intervention (1 MHz, 0.5 W/cm(2)) started on the fifth oxaliplatin administration and continued for 10 consecutive d. Sensory behavioral examinations, protein levels of transient receptor potential channels (TRPM8 and TRPV1) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and substance P (SP) in spinal dorsal horn were examined...
April 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432140/visually-evoked-3-5-hz-membrane-potential-oscillations-reduce-the-responsiveness-of-visual-cortex-neurons-in-awake-behaving-mice
#16
Michael C Einstein, Pierre-Olivier Polack, Duy T Tran, Peyman Golshani
Low frequency membrane potential (Vm) oscillations were once thought to only occur in sleeping and anesthetized states. Recently, low frequency Vm oscillations have been described in inactive awake animals, but it is unclear if they shape sensory processing in neurons and whether they occur during active awake behavioral states. To answer these questions, we performed two-photon guided whole-cell Vm recordings from primary visual cortex layer 2/3 excitatory and inhibitory neurons in awake mice during passive visual stimulation and performance of visual and auditory discrimination tasks...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428749/deep-brain-stimulation-improves-the-symptoms-and-sensory-signs-of-persistent-central-neuropathic-pain-from-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#17
Walter J Jermakowicz, Ian D Hentall, Jonathan R Jagid, Corneliu C Luca, James Adcock, Alberto Martinez-Arizala, Eva Widerström-Noga
Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is a significant problem after spinal cord injury (SCI). Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches may reduce the severity, but relief is rarely substantial. While deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat various chronic pain types, the technique has rarely been used to attenuate CNP after SCI. Here we present the case of a 54-year-old female with incomplete paraplegia who had severe CNP in the lower limbs and buttock areas since her injury 30 years prior. She was treated with bilateral DBS of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425486/lamin-b1-is-required-for-mature-neuron-specific-gene-expression-during-olfactory-sensory-neuron-differentiation
#18
Crystal M Gigante, Michele Dibattista, Frederick N Dong, Xiaobin Zheng, Sibiao Yue, Stephen G Young, Johannes Reisert, Yixian Zheng, Haiqing Zhao
B-type lamins are major constituents of the nuclear lamina in all metazoan cells, yet have specific roles in the development of certain cell types. Although they are speculated to regulate gene expression in developmental contexts, a direct link between B-type lamins and developmental gene expression in an in vivo system is currently lacking. Here, we identify lamin B1 as a key regulator of gene expression required for the formation of functional olfactory sensory neurons. By using targeted knockout in olfactory epithelial stem cells in adult mice, we show that lamin B1 deficient neurons exhibit attenuated response to odour stimulation...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424466/the-role-of-the-brown-adipose-tissue-in-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-activation-induced-sleep-metabolic-and-feeding-responses
#19
Éva Szentirmai, Levente Kapás
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system via β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological stimulation of β3-ARs leads to increased sleep in mice and if this change is BAT dependent. In wild-type (WT) animals, administration of CL-316,243, a selective β3-AR agonist, induced significant increases in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) lasting for 4-10 h. Simultaneously, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) was significantly decreased and body temperature was increased with a delay of 5-6 h...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422990/sensory-cortical-response-to-uncertainty-and-low-salience-during-recognition-of-affective-cues-in-musical-intervals
#20
Fernando Bravo, Ian Cross, Emmanuel Andreas Stamatakis, Martin Rohrmeier
Previous neuroimaging studies have shown an increased sensory cortical response (i.e., heightened weight on sensory evidence) under higher levels of predictive uncertainty. The signal enhancement theory proposes that attention improves the quality of the stimulus representation, and therefore reduces uncertainty by increasing the gain of the sensory signal. The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates for ambiguous valence inferences signaled by auditory information within an emotion recognition paradigm...
2017: PloS One
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