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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351423/role-of-trpv1-in-acupuncture-modulation-of-reflex-excitatory-cardiovascular-responses
#1
Zhi-Ling Guo, Liang-Wu Fu, Hou-Fen Su, Stephanie C Tjen-A-Looi, John C Longhurst
Acupuncture, including manual and electroacupuncture (MA and EA), at the P5-6 acupoints stimulates afferents in the median nerve (MN) to modulate sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflexes. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) is present in afferents distributed in the region of acupoints. However, contribution of TRPV1 to activation of sensory nerves by acupuncture, leading to modulation of pressor responses has not been studied. We hypothesized that TRPV1 participates in acupuncture's activation of sensory fibers and neurons to modulate pressor reflexes...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351276/static-length-changes-of-cochlear-outer-hair-cells-can-tune-low-frequency-hearing
#2
Nikola Ciganović, Rebecca L Warren, Batu Keçeli, Stefan Jacob, Anders Fridberger, Tobias Reichenbach
The cochlea not only transduces sound-induced vibration into neural spikes, it also amplifies weak sound to boost its detection. Actuators of this active process are sensory outer hair cells in the organ of Corti, whereas the inner hair cells transduce the resulting motion into electric signals that propagate via the auditory nerve to the brain. However, how the outer hair cells modulate the stimulus to the inner hair cells remains unclear. Here, we combine theoretical modeling and experimental measurements near the cochlear apex to study the way in which length changes of the outer hair cells deform the organ of Corti...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349291/spontaneous-infraslow-fluctuations-modulate-hippocampal-epsp-ps-coupling
#3
Michael B Dash, Stephen Ajayi, Lynde Folsom, Paul E Gold, Donna L Korol
Extensive trial-to-trial variability is a hallmark of most behavioral, cognitive, and physiological processes. Spontaneous brain activity (SBA), a ubiquitous phenomenon that coordinates levels and patterns of neuronal activity throughout the brain, may contribute to this variability by dynamically altering neuronal excitability. In freely-behaving male rats, we observed extensive variability of the hippocampal evoked response across 28-min recording periods despite maintaining constant stimulation parameters of the medial perforant path...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348542/sensory-systems-bimodal-cochlear-nucleus-stimulation-alleviates-tinnitus
#4
Heather Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343859/rate-after-effects-fail-to-transfer-cross-modally-evidence-for-distributed-sensory-timing-mechanisms
#5
Aysha Motala, James Heron, Paul V McGraw, Neil W Roach, David Whitaker
Accurate time perception is critical for a number of human behaviours, such as understanding speech and the appreciation of music. However, it remains unresolved whether sensory time perception is mediated by a central timing component regulating all senses, or by a set of distributed mechanisms, each dedicated to a single sensory modality and operating in a largely independent manner. To address this issue, we conducted a range of unimodal and cross-modal rate adaptation experiments, in order to establish the degree of specificity of classical after-effects of sensory adaptation...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343415/paradigms-for-restoration-of-somatosensory-feedback-via-stimulation-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
Cristian Pasluosta, Patrick Kiele, Thomas Stieglitz
The somatosensory system contributes substantially to the integration of multiple sensor modalities into perception. Tactile sensations, proprioception and even temperature perception are integrated to perceive embodiment of our limbs. Damage of somatosensory networks can severely affect the execution of daily life activities. Peripheral injuries are optimally corrected via direct interfacing of the peripheral nerves. Recent advances in implantable devices, stimulation paradigms, and biomimetic sensors enabled the restoration of natural sensations after amputation of the limb...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342238/rhythmic-spontaneous-activity-mediates-the-age-related-decline-in-somatosensory-function
#7
Rachel K Spooner, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Sensory gating is a neurophysiological process whereby the response to a second stimulus in a pair of identical stimuli is attenuated, and it is thought to reflect the capacity of the CNS to preserve neural resources for behaviorally relevant stimuli. Such gating is observed across multiple sensory modalities and is modulated by age, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. In this study, we examined somatosensory gating in 68 healthy adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and advanced oscillatory and time-domain analysis methods...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342237/the-roles-of-subdivisions-of-human-insula-in-emotion-perception-and-auditory-processing
#8
Yang Zhang, Wenjing Zhou, Siyu Wang, Qin Zhou, Haixiang Wang, Bingqing Zhang, Juan Huang, Bo Hong, Xiaoqin Wang
Previous studies have shown insular activations involving sensory, motor, and affective processing. However, the functional roles of subdivisions within the human insula are still not well understood. In the present study, we used intracranial electroencephalography and electrical cortical stimulation to investigate the causal roles of subdivisions of the insula in auditory emotion perception in epilepsy patients implanted with depth electrodes in this brain region. The posterior and the anterior subdivisions of the human insula, identified based on structural and functional analyses, showed distinct response properties to auditory emotional stimuli...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342076/neuromorphic-vibrotactile-stimulation-of-fingertips-for-encoding-object-stiffness-in-telepresence-sensory-substitution-and-augmentation-applications
#9
Francesca Sorgini, Luca Massari, Jessica D'Abbraccio, Eduardo Palermo, Arianna Menciassi, Petar B Petrovic, Alberto Mazzoni, Maria Chiara Carrozza, Fiona N Newell, Calogero M Oddo
We present a tactile telepresence system for real-time transmission of information about object stiffness to the human fingertips. Experimental tests were performed across two laboratories (Italy and Ireland). In the Italian laboratory, a mechatronic sensing platform indented different rubber samples. Information about rubber stiffness was converted into on-off events using a neuronal spiking model and sent to a vibrotactile glove in the Irish laboratory. Participants discriminated the variation of the stiffness of stimuli according to a two-alternative forced choice protocol...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340386/on-chip-functional-neuroimaging-with-mechanical-stimulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-larvae-for-studying-development-and-neural-circuits
#10
Yongmin Cho, David N Oakland, Sol Ah Lee, William R Schafer, Hang Lu
Mechanosensation is fundamentally important for the abilities of an organism to experience touch, hear sounds, and maintain balance. Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful system for studying mechanosensation as this worm is well suited for in vivo functional imaging of neurons. Many years of research using labor-intensive methods have generated a wealth of knowledge about mechanosensation in C. elegans, and the recent microfluidic-based platforms continue to push the boundary for this field. However, developmental aspects of sensory biology, including mechanosensation, are still not fully understood...
January 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338939/immune-cytokines-and-their-receptors-in-inflammatory-pain
#11
REVIEW
Andrew D Cook, Anne D Christensen, Damini Tewari, Stephen B McMahon, John A Hamilton
There is burgeoning interest in the interaction between the immune and nervous systems. Pain is mediated by primary sensory neurons (nociceptors) that can respond to a variety of thermal, mechanical and chemical signals. Cytokines are now recognized as important mediators of inflammatory pain. They can induce nociceptor sensitization indirectly via mediators, wherein neurons become primed and thus become more responsive to stimulation; alternatively, there is also evidence that cytokines can directly activate neurons via their specific receptors present on the neuronal cells...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336976/venus-flytrap-how-an-excitable-carnivorous-plant-works
#12
REVIEW
Rainer Hedrich, Erwin Neher
The carnivorous plant Dionaea possesses very sensitive mechanoreceptors. Upon contact with prey an action potential is triggered which, via an electrical network - comparable to the nervous system of vertebrates - rapidly closes its bivalved trap. The 'hunting cycle' comprises a constitutively activated mechanism for the rapid capture of prey, followed by a well-orchestrated sequence of activation of genes responsible for tight trap closure, digestion of the prey, and uptake of nutrients. Decisions on the step-by-step activation are based on 'counting' the number of stimulations of sensory organs...
January 11, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336514/machine-learned-analysis-of-quantitative-sensory-testing-responses-to-noxious-cold-stimulation-in-healthy-subjects
#13
I Weyer-Menkhoff, M C Thrun, J Lötsch
BACKGROUND: Pain in response to noxious cold has a complex molecular background probably involving several types of sensors. A recent observation has been the multimodal distribution of human cold pain thresholds. This study aimed at analysing reproducibility and stability of this observation and further exploration of data patterns supporting a complex background. METHOD: Pain thresholds to noxious cold stimuli (range 32-0 °C, tonic: temperature decrease -1 °C/s, phasic: temperature decrease -8 °C/s) were acquired in 148 healthy volunteers...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335882/clinical-response-to-vim-s-thalamic-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-essential-tremor-is-associated-with-distinctive-functional-connectivity-patterns
#14
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard surgical stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy) or minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a non-invasive imaging method acquired in absence of a task. We examined whether rs-fMRI correlates with tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) improvement 1 year after SRS-T...
January 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#15
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330795/measurement-of-sensory-nerve-activity-from-the-carotid-body
#16
Ying-Jie Peng, Nanduri R Prabhakar
Carotid bodies are sensory organs for monitoring chemical composition of the arterial blood, especially the O2 levels. Carotid bodies are located bilaterally at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Hypoxia increases sensory nerve activity of the carotid body, which is transmitted to the brainstem neurons triggering reflex stimulation of breathing and blood pressure. Measurement of action potentials from the carotid sinus nerve is a widely used approach for understanding the mechanisms of hypoxic sensing by the carotid body...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330497/visual-learning-with-reduced-adaptation-is-eccentricity-specific
#17
Hila Harris, Dov Sagi
Visual learning is known to be specific to the trained target location, showing little transfer to untrained locations. Recently, learning was shown to transfer across equal-eccentricity retinal-locations when sensory adaptation due to repetitive stimulation was minimized. It was suggested that learning transfers to previously untrained locations when the learned representation is location invariant, with sensory adaptation introducing location-dependent representations, thus preventing transfer. Spatial invariance may also fail when the trained and tested locations are at different distance from the center of gaze (different retinal eccentricities), due to differences in the corresponding low-level cortical representations (e...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330489/decoding-hind-limb-kinematics-from-neuronal-activity-of-the-dorsal-horn-neurons-using-multiple-level-learning-algorithm
#18
Hamed Yeganegi, Yaser Fathi, Abbas Erfanian
Decoding continuous hind limb joint angles from sensory recordings of neural system provides a feedback for closed-loop control of hind limb movement using functional electrical stimulation. So far, many attempts have been done to extract sensory information from dorsal root ganglia and sensory nerves. In this work, we examine decoding joint angles trajectories from the single-electrode extracellular recording of dorsal horn gray matter of the spinal cord during passive limb movement in anesthetized cats. In this study, a processing framework based on ensemble learning approach is propose to combine firing rate (FR) and interspike interval (ISI) information of the neuronal activity...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329976/therapeutic-potential-of-spinal-glp-1-receptor-signaling
#19
REVIEW
Dongao Zhang, Gang Lv
GLP-1 signaling pathway has been well studied for its role in regulating glucose homeostasis, as well as its beneficial effects in energy and nutrient metabolism. A number of drugs based on GLP-1 have been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1R is expressed in multiple organs and numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that GLP-1 signaling pathway exhibits pro-survival functions in various disorders. In the central nervous system, stimulation of GLP-1R produces neuroprotective effects in specific neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
January 9, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327452/regenerative-effects-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells-for-treatment-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#20
Iwan Jones, Liudmila N Novikova, Lev N Novikov, Monika Renardy, Andreas Ullrich, Mikael Wiberg, Leif Carlsson, Paul J Kingham
Surgical intervention is the current gold standard treatment following peripheral nerve injury. However, this approach has limitations and full recovery of both motor and sensory modalities often remains incomplete. The development of artificial nerve grafts that either complement or replace current surgical procedures is therefore of paramount importance. An essential component of artificial grafts are biodegradable conduits and transplanted cells that provide trophic support during the regenerative process...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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