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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340390/the-association-of-eating-performance-and-environmental-stimulation-among-older-adults-with-dementia-in-nursing-homes-a-secondary-analysis
#1
Wen Liu, Ying-Ling Jao, Kristine Williams
BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents with dementia experience increased risk for compromised eating performance due to intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors. Environmental stimulation is physical, social, and/or sensory stimulation present in the environment that can potentially trigger individuals' emotion or motivate physical reactions. Beyond the personal factors, there is a lack of evidence on how environmental stimulation influences individuals' eating performance at mealtimes...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339448/efficacious-dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-for-painful-small-fiber-neuropathy-a-case-report
#2
Paolo Maino, Eva Koetsier, Alain Kaelin-Lang, Claudio Gobbi, Roberto Perez
Small fiber neuropathy is a disorder of the peripheral nerves with typical symptoms of burning, sharp, and shooting pain and sensory disturbances in the feet. Pain treatment depends principally on the underlying etiology with concurrent administration of antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, and topical treatments like capsaicin and local anesthetics. However, treatments for pain relief in these patients frequently fail. We describe the first case of intractable painful small fiber neuropathy of the foot successfully treated with spinal cord stimulation of the left L5 dorsal root ganglion...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338389/somatosensory-electrical-stimulation-does-not-augment-motor-skill-acquisition-and-intermanual-transfer-in-healthy-young-adults-a-pilot-study
#3
János Négyesi, Menno P Veldman, Kelly M M Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi, Tibor Hortobágyi
Sensory input can modify motor function and magnify interlimb transfer. We examined the effects of low-intensity somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) on motor practice-induced (MP) skill acquisition and intermanual transfer. Participants practiced a visuomotor skill for 25 minutes and received SES to the practice or the transfer arm. Responses to single- and double pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were measured in both extensor carpi radialis. SES did not further increase skill acquisition (RMP: 30...
March 24, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334999/rewiring-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-with-acupuncture
#4
Yumi Maeda, Hyungjun Kim, Norman Kettner, Jieun Kim, Stephen Cina, Cristina Malatesta, Jessica Gerber, Claire McManus, Rebecca Ong-Sutherland, Pia Mezzacappa, Alexandra Libby, Ishtiaq Mawla, Leslie R Morse, Ted J Kaptchuk, Joseph Audette, Vitaly Napadow
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting the median nerve at the wrist. Acupuncture is a minimally-invasive and conservative therapeutic option, and while rooted in a complex practice ritual, acupuncture overlaps significantly with many conventional peripherally-focused neuromodulatory therapies. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms by which acupuncture impacts accepted subjective/psychological and objective/physiological outcomes are not well understood. Eligible patients (n = 80, 65 female, age: 49...
March 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#5
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334225/pom-thalamocortical-input-drives-layer-specific-microcircuits-in-somatosensory-cortex
#6
Nicholas J Audette, Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Megumi Matsushita, Alison L Barth
Higher-order thalamic nuclei, such as the posterior medial nucleus (POm) in the somatosensory system or the pulvinar in the visual system, densely innervate the cortex and can influence perception and plasticity. To systematically evaluate how higher-order thalamic nuclei can drive cortical circuits, we investigated cell-type selective responses to POm stimulation in mouse primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, using genetically targeted whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices. We find that ChR2-evoked thalamic input selectively targets specific cell types in the neocortex, revealing layer-specific modules for the summation and processing of POm input...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334175/attenuated-fast-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials-during-human-sleep
#7
Omer Sharon, Yuval Nir
During sleep, external sensory events rarely elicit a behavioral response or affect perception. However, how sensory processing differs between wakefulness and sleep remains unclear. A major difficulty in this field stems from using brief auditory stimuli that often trigger nonspecific high-amplitude "K-complex" responses and complicate interpretation. To overcome this challenge, here we delivered periodic visual flicker stimulation across sleep and wakefulness while recording high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in humans...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333372/characterisation-and-functional-mapping-of-surface-potentials-in-the-rat-dorsal-column-nuclei
#8
Alastair J Loutit, Ted Maddess, Stephen J Redmond, John W Morley, Greg J Stuart, Jason R Potas
The brainstem dorsal column nuclei (DCN) play a role in early processing of somatosensory information arising from a variety of functionally distinct peripheral structures, before being transmitted to the cortex via the thalamus. To improve our understanding of how sensory information is represented by the DCN, we characterised and mapped low- (<200 Hz) and high-frequency (550-3300 Hz) components of nerve-evoked DCN surface potentials. DCN surface potentials were evoked by electrical stimulation of the left and right nerves innervating cutaneous (sural nerve), or a mix of cutaneous and deep structures (peroneal nerve), in 8 week-old urethane anaesthetised male Wistar rats...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332444/a-functional-electrical-stimulation-system-for-human-walking-inspired-by-reflexive-control-principles
#9
Lin Meng, Bernd Porr, Catherine A Macleod, Henrik Gollee
This study presents an innovative multichannel functional electrical stimulation gait-assist system which employs a well-established purely reflexive control algorithm, previously tested in a series of bipedal walking robots. In these robots, ground contact information was used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a sophisticated closed-loop functional electrical stimulation control strategy for stepping, we have instead utilised our simple reflexive model where muscle activation is induced through transfer functions which translate sensory signals, predominantly ground contact information, into motor actions...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332205/evidence-that-5-ht-stimulates-intracellular-ca-2-signalling-and-activates-pannexin-1-currents-in-type-ii-cells-of-the-rat-carotid-body
#10
Sindhubarathi Murali, Min Zhang, Colin A Nurse
Carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor (type I) cells can synthesize and release 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and increased autocrine-paracrine 5-HT2 receptor signalling contributes to sensory long-term facilitation during chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). However, recent studies suggest that adjacent glial-like type II cells can respond to CB paracrine signals by elevating intracellular calcium (Δ[Ca(2+) ]i ) and activating carbenoxolone-sensitive, ATP-permeable, pannexin-1 (Panx-1)-like channels. Here, using dissociated rat CB cultures, we found that 5-HT induced Δ[Ca(2+) ]i responses in a subpopulation of type I cells, and in most (∼67%) type II cells identified by their sensitivity to the P2Y2 receptor agonist, UTP...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331643/hemifacial-pain-and-hemisensory-disturbance-referred-from-occipital-neuralgia-caused-by-pathological-vascular-contact-of-the-greater-occipital-nerve
#11
Byung-Chul Son, Jin-Gyu Choi
Here we report a unique case of chronic occipital neuralgia caused by pathological vascular contact of the left greater occipital nerve. After 12 months of left-sided, unremitting occipital neuralgia, a hypesthesia and facial pain developed in the left hemiface. The decompression of the left greater occipital nerve from pathological contacts with the occipital artery resulted in immediate relief for hemifacial sensory change and facial pain, as well as chronic occipital neuralgia. Although referral of pain from the stimulation of occipital and cervical structures innervated by upper cervical nerves to the frontal head of V1 trigeminal distribution has been reported, the development of hemifacial sensory change associated with referred trigeminal pain from chronic occipital neuralgia is extremely rare...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329827/the-influence-of-the-physical-envirnment-on-residents-with-dementia-in-long-term-care-settings-a-review-of-the-empirical-literature
#12
Habib Chaudhury, Heather A Cooke, Heather Cowie, Leila Razaghi
Background and Objectives: The physical environment in long-term care facilities has an important role in the care of residents with dementia. This paper presents a literature review focusing on recent empirical research in this area and situates the research with therapeutic goals related to the physical environment. Research Design and Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in Ageline, PsychINFO, CINAHL, Medline and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant articles...
March 10, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329004/gnrh-mediated-olfactory-and-visual-inputs-promote-mating-like-behaviors-in-male-zebrafish
#13
Lei Li, Jennifer L Wojtowicz, John H Malin, Tao Huang, Eric B Lee, Zijiang Chen
The engagement of sexual behaviors is regulated by a number of factors which include gene expression, hormone circulation, and multi-sensory information integration. In zebrafish, when a male and a female are placed in the same container, they show mating-like behaviors regardless of whether they are kept together or separated by a net. No mating-like behaviors are observed when same-sex animals are put together. Through the olfacto-visual centrifugal pathway, activation of the terminalis nerve in the olfactory bulb increases GnRH signaling in the brain and triggers mating-like behaviors between males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326550/from-neuron-to-behavior-sensory-motor-coordination-of-zebrafish-turning-behavior
#14
REVIEW
Keiko Umeda, Wataru Shoji
Recent development of optogenetics brought non-invasive neural activation in living organisms. Transparent zebrafish larva is one of the suitable animal models for this technique, which enables us to investigate neural circuits for behaviors based on a whole individual nervous system. In this article we review our recent finding that suggests sensory-motor coordination in larval zebrafish escape behavior. When water vibration stimulates mechanosensory Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons, intra-spinal reflex circuit launches contralateral trunk muscle contraction that makes rapid body curvature for turning...
March 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325013/mirror-therapy-combined-with-functional-electrical-stimulation-for-rehabilitation-of-stroke-survivors-ankle-dorsiflexion
#15
Ghadir Salhab, Ahmad Rifaii Sarraj, Soha Saleh
This study investigates the effect of combining both mirror therapy with Electrical Stimulation (ES) on improvement of the function of lower extremity compared to conventional therapy. 18 stroke survivors (sub acute stage) were recruited, 9 of them were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment and another 9 started the mirror therapy combined with ES treatment. Duration of each session in both interventions was 50 minutes, done 4 times per week over two weeks. After 2 weeks, subjects took one week rest before switching they type of treatment; those started with conventional therapy continued with mirror therapy combined with ES, and vice versa...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324985/a-novel-thermal-tactile-stimulator-device-for-quantitative-sensory-testing
#16
Umit Kursun, Olcay Kursun, Oleg V Favorov
This paper outlines the design and preliminary experimental results of a novel thermal stimulator device designed to measure, from some perspectives, brain health. The device delivers some thermal stimuli and asks the subject about his perception about them, thus checking the correctness of the perception and even the existence of certain perceptual illusions that would normally be present in healthy cortex and nervous system. This noninvasive sensory technology is cheap and easy to use, it has the potential to be used in telemonitoring systems and in empowering the individual to track his/her progression over time on the provided neuropathy tests...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324181/trigeminocardiac-reflex-during-endoscopic-juvenile-nasopharyngeal-angiofibroma-surgery-an-appraisal
#17
Shilpee Bhatia Sharma, Trichy Narayanan Janakiram, Hina Baxi, Balamurugan Chinnasamy
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a locally aggressive benign tumour which has propensity to erode the skull base. The tumour spreads along the pathways of least resistance and is in close proximity to the extracranial part of trigeminal nerve. Advancements in expanded approaches for endoscopic excision of tumours in infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa increase the vulnerability for the trigeminocardiac reflex. The manipulation of nerve and its branches during tumour dissection can lead to sensory stimulation and thus inciting the reflex...
March 21, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323089/enhancement-of-erk-phosphorylation-and-photic-responses-in-vc-c1-neurons-of-a-migraine-model
#18
Suzuro Hitomi, Akiko Okada-Ogawa, Yuka Sato, Ikuko Shibuta, Masamichi Shinoda, Yoshiki Imamura, Kentaro Ono, Koichi Iwata
Although it is well known that migraine pain is enhanced by photic stimulation of the eye, the mechanisms underlying this response are not yet understood. Noxious stimulation to the dura is known to activate trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord (Vc/C1) neurons, causing migraine pain. Intense photic stimulation to the eye is also known to activate certain Vc/C1 neurons, thus increasing migraine pain. In this study, we hypothesized that Vc/C1 neurons receiving noxious dural input would be further activated by intense photic stimulation, resulting in the enhancement of migraine pain...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323009/investigation-of-the-effects-of-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-on-self-paced-rhythmic-movements
#19
Manuel Varlet, Alanna Wade, Giacomo Novembre, Peter E Keller
Human rhythmic movements spontaneously entrain to external rhythmic stimuli. Such sensory-motor entrainment can attract movements to different tempi and enhance their efficiency, with potential clinical applications for motor rehabilitation. Here we investigate whether entrainment of self-paced rhythmic movements can be induced via transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), which uses alternating currents to entrain spontaneous brain oscillations at specific frequencies. Participants swung a handheld pendulum at their preferred tempo with the right hand while tACS was applied over their left or right primary motor cortex at frequencies equal to their preferred tempo (Experiment 1) or in the alpha (10Hz) and beta (20Hz) ranges (Experiment 2)...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322213/chronic-monitoring-of-lower-urinary-tract-activity-via-a-sacral-dorsal-root-ganglia-interface
#20
Abeer Khurram, Shani Ross, Zachariah Sperry, Aileen Ouyang, Christopher Stephan, Ahmad Jiman, Tim M Bruns
OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to develop an interface that integrates chronic monitoring of lower urinary tract (LUT) activity with stimulation of peripheral pathways. APPROACH: Penetrating microelectrodes were implanted in sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult male felines. Peripheral electrodes were placed on or in the pudendal nerve, bladder neck and near the external urethral sphincter. Supra-pubic bladder catheters were implanted for saline infusion and pressure monitoring...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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