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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332256/dopamine-dependent-social-information-processing-in-non-human-primates
#1
Young-A Lee, Sarah Lionnet, Akemi Kato, Yukiori Goto
RATIONALE: Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter whose roles have been suggested in various aspects of brain functions. Recent studies in rodents have reported its roles in social function. However, how DA is involved in social information processing in primates has largely remained unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated prefrontal cortical (PFC) activities associated with social vs. nonsocial visual stimulus processing. METHODS: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to Japanese macaques, along with pharmacological manipulations of DA transmission, while they were gazing at social and nonsocial visual stimuli...
January 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332185/handedness-and-the-risk-of-glioma
#2
Briana Miller, Noah C Peeri, Louis Burt Nabors, Jordan H Creed, Zachary J Thompson, Carrie M Rozmeski, Renato V LaRocca, Sajeel Chowdhary, Jeffrey J Olson, Reid C Thompson, Kathleen M Egan
Gliomas are the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor and few risk factors have been linked to their development. Handedness has been associated with several pathologic neurological conditions such as schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy, but few studies have evaluated a connection between handedness and risk of glioma. In this study, we examined the relationship between handedness and glioma risk in a large case-control study (1849 glioma cases and 1354 healthy controls) and a prospective cohort study (326,475 subjects with 375 incident gliomas)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331931/resting-state-fmri-signals-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-at-the-high-risk-and-ultra-high-risk-stages-and-their-relations-with-cognitive-function
#3
Kangguang Lin, Robin Shao, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Weicong Lu, Ting Li, Jiehua Kong, Kwok-Fai So, Guiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331287/characterizing-the-effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-with-magnetoencephalography-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Irene E Harmsen, Nathan C Rowland, Richard A Wennberg, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important form of neuromodulation that is being applied to patients with motor, mood, or cognitive circuit disorders. Despite the efficacy and widespread use of DBS, the precise mechanisms by which it works remain unknown. Over the last decade, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has become an important functional neuroimaging technique used to study DBS. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the literature related to the use of MEG to characterize the effects of DBS...
January 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331233/a-biophysical-modelling-platform-of-the-cochlear-nucleus-and-other-auditory-circuits-from-channels-to-networks
#5
Paul B Manis, Luke Campagnola
Models of the auditory brainstem have been an invaluable tool for testing hypotheses about auditory information processing and for highlighting the most important gaps in the experimental literature. Due to the complexity of the auditory brainstem, and indeed most brain circuits, the dynamic behavior of the system may be difficult to predict without a detailed, biologically realistic computational model. Despite the sensitivity of models to their exact construction and parameters, most prior models of the cochlear nucleus have incorporated only a small subset of the known biological properties...
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330137/the-intersection-of-stress-and-reward-bnst-modulation-of-aversive-and-appetitive-states
#6
REVIEW
Sarah Ch'ng, Jingjing Fu, Robyn M Brown, Stuart J McDougall, Andrew J Lawrence
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is widely acknowledged as a brain structure that regulates stress and anxiety states, as well as aversive and appetitive behaviours. The diverse roles of the BNST are afforded by its highly modular organisation, neurochemical heterogeneity, and complex intrinsic and extrinsic circuitry. There has been growing interest in the BNST in relation to psychopathologies such as anxiety and addiction. Although research on the human BNST is still in its infancy, there have been extensive preclinical studies examining the molecular signature and hodology of the BNST and their involvement in stress and reward seeking behaviour...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330007/lost-connections-oxytocin-and-the-neural-physiological-and-behavioral-consequences-of-disrupted-relationships
#7
REVIEW
Tobias T Pohl, Larry J Young, Oliver J Bosch
In humans and rodent animal models, the brain oxytocin system is paramount for facilitating social bonds, from the formation and consequences of early-life parent-infant bonds to adult pair bond relationships. In social species, oxytocin also mediates the positive effects of healthy social bonds on the partners' well-being. However, new evidence suggests that the negative consequences of early neglect or partner loss may be mediated by disruptions in the oxytocin system as well. With a focus on oxytocin and its receptor, we review studies from humans and animal models, i...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329316/electroencephalography-power-and-coherence-changes-with-age-and-motor-skill-development-across-the-first-half-year-of-life
#8
Ran Xiao, Joanne Shida-Tokeshi, Douglas L Vanderbilt, Beth A Smith
Existing research in infants has correlated electroencephalography (EEG) measures of power and coherence to cognitive development and to locomotor experience, but only in infants older than 5 months of age. Our goal was to explore the relationship between EEG measures of power and coherence and motor skill development in younger infants who are developing reaching skill. Twenty-one infants with typical development between 38 and 203 days of age participated. Longitudinal EEG recording sessions were recorded in monthly increments, with 3-5 sessions acquired for 19 participants and 1 session for 2 participants, resulting in 71 sessions in total...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326231/linked-networks-for-learning-and-expressing-location-specific-threat
#9
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, John A King, Daniel S Pine, Neil Burgess
Learning locations of danger within our environment is a vital adaptive ability whose neural bases are only partially understood. We examined fMRI brain activity while participants navigated a virtual environment in which flowers appeared and were "picked." Picking flowers in the danger zone (one-half of the environment) predicted an electric shock to the wrist (or "bee sting"); flowers in the safe zone never predicted shock; and household objects served as controls for neutral spatial memory. Participants demonstrated learning with shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance increases for flowers in the danger zone...
January 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325627/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nervous-system-diseases
#10
Irfan A Qureshi, Mark F Mehler
Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325327/-resting-state-network-evaluation-of-chronic-smokers-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Y Zhang, Y L Li, J L Cheng, A K Dong, K Xu, Y L Li
Objective: To explore the neuromechanism of nicotine smoking, we use independent component analysis (ICA) of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the differences of functional connectivity of resting-state networks (RSN) in chronic smokers. Methods: Forty-five chronic smokers and thirty-four age and gender matched normal nonsmoking controls experienced resting-state fMRI scanning in 3.0T MRI scanner.Differences of the function connection in each RSN between chronic smokers group and nonsmoking controls group were analyzed by SPM software which was based on Matlab platform...
December 19, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324910/deep-brain-nucleus-targeting-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-essential-tremor-by-image-guided-surgery-using-neuronavigation-system-with-tractography-and-volume-of-tissue-of-activated-assessment
#12
Amir Nikouei, Pooya Torkian, Tohid Emami Meybodi, Arash Javad Mousavi, Amir Saied Seddighi
OBJECTIVE: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective surgical approach for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia and essential tremor (ET). Traditionally, DBS is performed using frame-based stereotactic technique. Recently, image guided surgery (IGS) using neuronavigation has gained popularity in neurosurgical procedures. We aim to investigate whether DBS using neuronavigation is capable of improving patient's outcome and minimize its complications. SUBJECT AND METHODS: From February 2011 to October 2016, 20 patients with PD and 6 patients with ET were enrolled in the study...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324886/changes-in-network-connectivity-during-motor-imagery-and-execution
#13
Yun Kwan Kim, Eunhee Park, Ahee Lee, Chang-Hwan Im, Yun-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Recent studies of functional or effective connectivity in the brain have reported that motor-related brain regions were activated during motor execution and motor imagery, but the relationship between motor and cognitive areas has not yet been completely understood. The objectives of our study were to analyze the effective connectivity between motor and cognitive networks in order to define network dynamics during motor execution and motor imagery in healthy individuals. Second, we analyzed the differences in effective connectivity between correct and incorrect responses during motor execution and imagery using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of electroencephalography (EEG) data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324784/multiscale-modelling-of-blood-flow-in-cerebral-microcirculation-details-at-capillary-scale-control-accuracy-at-the-level-of-the-cortex
#14
Myriam Peyrounette, Yohan Davit, Michel Quintard, Sylvie Lorthois
Aging or cerebral diseases may induce architectural modifications in human brain microvascular networks, such as capillary rarefaction. Such modifications limit blood and oxygen supply to the cortex, possibly resulting in energy failure and neuronal death. Modelling is key in understanding how these architectural modifications affect blood flow and mass transfers in such complex networks. However, the huge number of vessels in the human brain-tens of billions-prevents any modelling approach with an explicit architectural representation down to the scale of the capillaries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324076/brain-functional-changes-before-during-and-after-clinical-pain
#15
X Hu, A J Racek, E Bellile, T D Nascimento, M C Bender, R L Toback, D Burnett, L Khatib, R McMahan, I Kovelman, R P Ellwood, A F DaSilva
This study used an emerging brain imaging technique, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), to investigate functional brain activation and connectivity that modulates sometimes traumatic pain experience in a clinical setting. Hemodynamic responses were recorded at bilateral somatosensory (S1) and prefrontal cortices (PFCs) from 12 patients with dentin hypersensitivity in a dental chair before, during, and after clinical pain. Clinical dental pain was triggered with 20 consecutive descending cold stimulations (32° to 0°C) to the affected teeth...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323823/atrioesophageal-fistula-a-rare-complication-of-radiofrequency-ablation
#16
Inbar Saporta, Adithya Chennamadhavuni, Michael J Dolan
75-year-old woman was admitted with fever, chills, altered mentation, and right-sided weakness. A month earlier, she had undergone catheter radiofrequency ablation for treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of her brain revealed septic emboli with multiple bilateral cerebral and cerebellar infarcts, as well as extensive bilateral leptomeningeal enhancement. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus mitis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Candida albicans, which suggested a connection between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems...
June 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323205/unsupervised-learning-and-pattern-recognition-of-biological-data-structures-with-density-functional-theory-and-machine-learning
#17
Chien-Chang Chen, Hung-Hui Juan, Meng-Yuan Tsai, Henry Horng-Shing Lu
By introducing the methods of machine learning into the density functional theory, we made a detour for the construction of the most probable density function, which can be estimated by learning relevant features from the system of interest. Using the properties of universal functional, the vital core of density functional theory, the most probable cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries in a studying system can be simultaneously and automatically determined and the plausibility is erected on the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323046/non-concomitant-cortical-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-sensorimotor-areas-following-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Yu Pan, Wei-Bei Dou, Yue-Heng Wang, Hui-Wen Luo, Yun-Xiang Ge, Shu-Yu Yan, Quan Xu, Yuan-Yuan Tu, Yan-Qing Xiao, Qiong Wu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hong-Liang Zhao
Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11) and 18 healthy subjects (37...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322586/functional-connectivity-predicts-gender-evidence-for-gender-differences-in-resting-brain-connectivity
#19
Chao Zhang, Chase C Dougherty, Stefi A Baum, Tonya White, Andrew M Michael
Prevalence of certain forms of psychopathology, such as autism and depression, differs between genders and understanding gender differences of the neurotypical brain may provide insights into risk and protective factors. In recent research, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) is widely used to map the inherent functional networks of the brain. Although previous studies have reported gender differences in rfMRI, the robustness of gender differences is not well characterized. In this study, we use a large data set to test whether rfMRI functional connectivity (FC) can be used to predict gender and identify FC features that are most predictive of gender...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322527/thalamo-cortical-projections-to-the-macaque-superior-parietal-lobule-areas-pec-and-pe
#20
Daniele Impieri, Michela Gamberini, Lauretta Passarelli, Marcello G P Rosa, Claudio Galletti
The exposed surface of the superior parietal lobule in macaque brain contains two architectonically defined areas named PEc and PE. The aim of the present study is the characterization of thalamic afferents of these two areas. For this purpose, retrograde neuronal tracers were injected, or placed in crystal form, in areas PEc and PE. We found that the two areas show a similar pattern of thalamic inputs, mainly originating from Lateral Posterior (LP), Pulvinar (Pul), Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL), and Ventral Lateral (VL) nuclei, all structures known to be involved in visual, somatosensory, and/or sensorimotor processing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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