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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538701/chlorpromazine-increases-the-expression-of-polysialic-acid-polysia-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells-and-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Chikara Abe, Saki Nishimura, Airi Mori, Yuki Niimi, Yi Yang, Masaya Hane, Ken Kitajima, Chihiro Sato
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is modified by polysialic acid (polySia or PSA) in embryonic brains. In adult brains, polySia modification of NCAM is only observed in restricted areas where neural plasticity, remodeling of neural connections, or neural generation is ongoing although the amount of NCAM remains unchanged. Impairments of the polySia-expression and several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the polysialyltransferase (polyST) ST8SIA2 gene are reported to be associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538520/radiation-induced-cerebellar-cerebral-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#2
Qiongmin Ma, Ling-Li Zeng, Jian Qin, Zhiguo Luo, Jianpo Su, Donglin Wu, Shijun Qiu, Dewen Hu
The current study aimed to investigate the altered cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity (FC) induced by radiotherapy to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Twenty-four NPC patients without treatment, and 35 NPC patients receiving radiotherapy underwent functional MRI scanning. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) was performed to evaluate the cognitive status of all participants. FC between 10 predefined cerebellar seeds, which were demonstrated to be involved in different brain functional networks, and all brain voxels was obtained for each participant...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538516/left-lateralization-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-the-presupplementary-motor-area-and-primary-language-areas
#3
William Lou, Kyung K Peck, Nicole Brennan, Arka Mallela, Andrei Holodny
An abundance of evidence points to the role of a presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in human language. This study explores the pre-SMA resting state connectivity network and the nature of its connections to known language areas. We tested the hypothesis that by seeding the pre-SMA, one would be able to establish language laterality to known cortical and subcortical language areas. We analyzed data from 30 right-handed healthy controls and performed the resting state functional MRI. A seed-based analysis using a manually drawn pre-SMA region of interest template was applied...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534874/shifting-brain-inhibitory-balance-and-connectivity-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
L A Ajram, J Horder, M A Mendez, A Galanopoulos, L P Brennan, R H Wichers, D M Robertson, C M Murphy, J Zinkstok, G Ivin, M Heasman, D Meek, M D Tricklebank, G J Barker, D J Lythgoe, R A E Edden, S C Williams, D G M Murphy, G M McAlonan
Currently, there are no effective pharmacologic treatments for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is, nevertheless, potential for progress. For example, recent evidence suggests that the excitatory (E) glutamate and inhibitory (I) GABA systems may be altered in ASD. However, no prior studies of ASD have examined the 'responsivity' of the E-I system to pharmacologic challenge; or whether E-I modulation alters abnormalities in functional connectivity of brain regions implicated in the disorder...
May 23, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534658/dynamic-brain-glucose-metabolism-identifies-anti-correlated-cortical-cerebellar-networks-at-rest
#5
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Corinde E Wiers, Sunny W Kim, Şukru B Demiral, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
It remains unclear whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) networks are associated with underlying synchrony in energy demand, as measured by dynamic 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoroglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We measured absolute glucose metabolism, temporal metabolic connectivity (t-MC) and rfMRI patterns in 53 healthy participants at rest. Twenty-two rfMRI networks emerged from group independent component analysis (gICA). In contrast, only two anti-correlated t-MC emerged from FDG-PET time series using gICA or seed-voxel correlations; one included frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, the other included the cerebellum and medial temporal regions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533739/improving-the-test-retest-reliability-of-resting-state-fmri-by-removing-the-impact-of-sleep
#6
Jiahui Wang, Junwei Han, Vinh T Nguyen, Lei Guo, Christine C Guo
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) provides a powerful tool to examine large-scale neural networks in the human brain and their disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Thanks to its low demand and high tolerance, resting state paradigms can be easily acquired from clinical population. However, due to the unconstrained nature, resting state paradigm is associated with excessive head movement and proneness to sleep. Consequently, the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures is moderate at best, falling short of widespread use in the clinic...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533660/genes-emotions-and-gut-microbiota-the-next-frontier-for-the-gastroenterologist
#7
REVIEW
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533557/the-developmental-emergence-of-differential-brainstem-serotonergic-control-of-the-sensory-spinal-cord
#8
F Schwaller, A H Kanellopoulos, M Fitzgerald
Descending connections from brainstem nuclei are known to exert powerful control of spinal nociception and pain behaviours in adult mammals. Here we present evidence that descending serotonergic fibres not only inhibit nociceptive activity, but also facilitate non-noxious tactile activity in the healthy adult rat spinal dorsal horn via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs). We further show that this differential serotonergic control in the adult emerges from a non-modality selective system in young rats...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533086/spatio-temporal-pattern-of-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-visual-system-a-user-s-guide-to-the-dynamic-morphology-of-the-developing-optic-lobe
#9
Kathy T Ngo, Ingrid Andrade, Volker Hartenstein
Visual information processing in animals with large image forming eyes is carried out in highly structured retinotopically ordered neuropils. Visual neuropils in Drosophila form the optic lobe, which consists of four serially arranged major subdivisions; the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate; the latter three of these are further subdivided into multiple layers. The visual neuropils are formed by more than 100 different cell types, distributed and interconnected in an invariant highly regular pattern...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532352/understanding-glaucomatous-optic-neuropathy-the-synergy-between-clinical-observation-and-investigation
#10
Harry A Quigley
Glaucoma is a complex disorder of aging defined by the death of retinal ganglion cells and remodeling of connective tissues at the optic nerve head. Intraocular pressure-induced axonal injury at the optic nerve head leads to apoptosis. Loss of retinal ganglion cells follows a slowly progressive sequence. Clinical features of the disease have suggested and corroborated pathological events. The death of retinal ganglion cells causes secondary loss of neurons in the brain, but only as a by-product of injury to the retinal ganglion cells...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#11
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531764/disrupted-resting-brain-graph-measures-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-alcoholism
#12
Bharath Holla, Rajanikant Panda, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bharat Biswal, Rose Dawn Bharath, Vivek Benegal
Familial susceptibility to alcoholism is likely to be linked to the externalizing diathesis seen in high-risk offspring from high-density alcohol use disorder (AUD) families. The present study aimed at comparing resting brain functional connectivity and their association with externalizing symptoms and alcoholism familial density in 40 substance-naive high-risk (HR) male offspring from high-density AUD families and 30 matched healthy low-risk (LR) males without a family history of substance dependence using graph theory-based network analysis...
May 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531252/hick-hyman-law-is-mediated-by-the-cognitive-control-network-in-the-brain
#13
Tingting Wu, Alexander J Dufford, Laura J Egan, Melissa-Ann Mackie, Cong Chen, Changhe Yuan, Chao Chen, Xiaobo Li, Xun Liu, Patrick R Hof, Jin Fan
The Hick-Hyman law describes a linear increase in reaction time (RT) as a function of the information entropy of response selection, which is computed as the binary logarithm of the number of response alternatives. While numerous behavioral studies have provided evidence for the Hick-Hyman law, its neural underpinnings have rarely been examined and are still unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, by utilizing a choice reaction time task to manipulate the entropy of response selection, we examined brain activity mediating the input and the output, as well as the connectivity between corresponding regions in human participants...
May 22, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530551/angular-velocity-integration-in-a-fly-heading-circuit
#14
Daniel Turner-Evans, Stephanie Wegener, Hervé Rouault, Romain Franconville, Tanya Wolff, Johannes D Seelig, Shaul Druckmann, Vivek Jayaraman
Many animals maintain an internal representation of their heading as they move through their surroundings. Such a compass representation was recently discovered in a neural population in the Drosophila melanogaster central complex, a brain region implicated in spatial navigation. Here, we use two-photon calcium imaging and electrophysiology in head-fixed walking flies to identify a different neural population that conjunctively encodes heading and angular velocity, and is excited selectively by turns in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530340/-can-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-be-prevented-with-glucocorticoids
#15
REVIEW
Hagit Cohen, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a major role in orchestrating the complex physiological and behavioral reactions essential for the maintenance of homeostasis. These compounds enable the organism to prepare for, respond to and cope with the acute demands of physical and emotional stressors. The appropriate GC release, commensurate with stressor severity, enables the body to properly contain stress responses so as to promote recovery by rapidly restoring homeostasis. Indeed, inadequate GC release following stress not only delays recovery by disrupting biological homeostasis in the short run but can also interfere with the processing or interpretation of stressful information that results in long-term disruptions in memory integration...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529877/the-dynamics-of-functional-connectivity-in-neocortical-focal-epilepsy
#16
Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Evan K Curwood, Jennifer M Walz, Genevieve Rayner, Graeme D Jackson
Focal epilepsy is characterised by paroxysmal events, reflecting changes in underlying local brain networks. To capture brain network activity at the maximal temporal resolution of the acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we have previously developed a novel analysis framework called Dynamic Regional Phase Synchrony (DRePS). DRePS measures instantaneous mean phase coherence within neighbourhoods of brain voxels. We use it here to examine how the dynamics of the functional connections of regional brain networks are altered in neocortical focal epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529872/functional-network-changes-and-cognitive-control-in-schizophrenia
#17
Kimberly L Ray, Tyler A Lesh, Amber M Howell, Taylor P Salo, J Daniel Ragland, Angus W MacDonald, James M Gold, Steven M Silverstein, Deana M Barch, Cameron S Carter
Cognitive control is a cognitive and neural mechanism that contributes to managing the complex demands of day-to-day life. Studies have suggested that functional impairments in cognitive control associated brain circuitry contribute to a broad range of higher cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. To examine this issue, we assessed functional connectivity networks in healthy adults and individuals with schizophrenia performing tasks from two distinct cognitive domains that varied in demands for cognitive control, the RiSE episodic memory task and DPX goal maintenance task...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528586/white-matter-connectivity-disruptions-in-early-and-chronic-schizophrenia
#18
M A Di Biase, V L Cropley, B T Baune, J Olver, G P Amminger, C Phassouliotis, C Bousman, P D McGorry, I Everall, C Pantelis, A Zalesky
BACKGROUND: White matter disruptions in schizophrenia have been widely reported, but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities differ between illness stages. We mapped the connectome in patients with recently diagnosed and chronic schizophrenia and investigated the extent and overlap of white matter connectivity disruptions between these illness stages. METHODS: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in recent-onset (n = 19) and chronic patients (n = 45) with schizophrenia, as well as age-matched controls (n = 87)...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528203/changes-in-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity-and-withdrawal-symptoms-are-associated-with-acute-electronic-cigarette-use
#19
Andréa L Hobkirk, Travis T Nichols, Jonathan Foulds, Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, John Richie, Thomas Eissenberg, Stephen J Wilson
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527787/neural-correlates-of-believing
#20
Xiaochun Han, Ting Zhang, Shiyu Wang, Shihui Han
Beliefs provide a fundamental cognitive basis for human behavior. But how the brain believes remains a mystery. We investigated the neural underpinnings of believing by scanning healthy adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging when they made yes/no responses to the questions whether they believe or think that a trait adjective describes themselves or a celebrity. We found that, relative to thinking, believing was characterized with better memory of self-related adjectives. Moreover, believing (vs...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
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