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Brain connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920976/resting-state-theta-band-connectivity-and-graph-analysis-in-generalized-social-anxiety-disorder
#1
Mengqi Xing, Reza Tadayonnejad, Annmarie MacNamara, Olusola Ajilore, Julia DiGangi, K Luan Phan, Alex Leow, Heide Klumpp
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state studies show generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) is associated with disturbances in networks involved in emotion regulation, emotion processing, and perceptual functions, suggesting a network framework is integral to elucidating the pathophysiology of gSAD. However, fMRI does not measure the fast dynamic interconnections of functional networks. Therefore, we examined whole-brain functional connectomics with electroencephalogram (EEG) during resting-state...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920935/cerebral-foreign-body-granuloma-in-brain-triggering-generalized-seizures-without-obvious-craniocerebral-injury-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Nina Brawanski, Peter Baumgarten, Jürgen Konczalla, Volker Seifert, Christian Senft
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral foreign body granuloma is rarely reported. We present the case of a male patient with a cerebral foreign body granuloma. CASE DESCRIPTION: Initial admission of a 67-year-old male patient was after an aphasia followed by secondary generalized seizures. Cranial computed tomography (CCT) showed a metal-dense, wedge-shaped foreign body in the range of the frontal sinus on the left side, breaking through the frontal sinus, and creating a connection to the frontal cerebral lobe...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920795/donepezil-enhances-frontal-functional-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#3
Ludovica Griffanti, Gordon K Wilcock, Natalie Voets, Guendalina Bonifacio, Clare E Mackay, Mark Jenkinson, Giovanna Zamboni
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that increased resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based functional connectivity (FC) within the frontal resting-state networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients reflects residual, possibly compensatory, function. This suggests that symptomatic treatments should aim to enhance FC specifically in these networks. METHODS: 18 patients with probable AD underwent brain MRI and neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment with donepezil...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920740/spaces-in-the-brain-from-neurons-to-meanings
#4
REVIEW
Christian Balkenius, Peter Gärdenfors
Spaces in the brain can refer either to psychological spaces, which are derived from similarity judgments, or to neurocognitive spaces, which are based on the activities of neural structures. We want to show how psychological spaces naturally emerge from the underlying neural spaces by dimension reductions that preserve similarity structures and the relevant categorizations. Some neuronal representational formats that may generate the psychological spaces are presented, compared, and discussed in relation to the mathematical principles of monotonicity, continuity, and convexity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920146/selectivity-in-post-encoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#5
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems level consolidation. While high reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for those experiences prioritizes high value information. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that post-encoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of post-encoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920096/structural-pathways-supporting-swift-acquisition-of-new-visuomotor-skills
#6
Ari E Kahn, Marcelo G Mattar, Jean M Vettel, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Danielle S Bassett
Human skill learning requires fine-scale coordination of distributed networks of brain regions linked by white matter tracts to allow for effective information transmission. Yet how individual differences in these anatomical pathways may impact individual differences in learning remains far from understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that individual differences in structural organization of networks supporting task performance predict individual differences in the rate at which humans learn a visuomotor skill...
December 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920095/functional-characterization-of-the-left-ventrolateral-premotor-cortex-in-humans-a-direct-electrophysiological-approach
#7
L Fornia, V Ferpozzi, M Montagna, M Rossi, M Riva, F Pessina, F Martinelli Boneschi, P Borroni, R N Lemon, L Bello, G Cerri
In monkeys, motor outputs from premotor cortex (PM) involve cortico-cortical connections with primary motor cortex (M1). However, in humans, the functional organization of PM and its relationship with the corticospinal tract (CST) is still uncertain. This study was carried out in 21 patients undergoing intraoperative brain mapping prior to tumor resection. The left ventrolateral premotor cortex (vlPM-BA6) was identified preoperatively by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and then investigated intraoperatively using high frequency direct electrical stimulation (HF-DES) of the convexity of M1 and vlPM-BA6, with simultaneous recording of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from oro-facial, hand and arm muscles...
December 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919750/mapping-the-functional-connectome-in-traumatic-brain-injury-what-can-graph-metrics-tell-us
#8
Karen Caeyenberghs, Helena Verhelst, Adam Clemente, Peter H Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cognitive and motor deficits, and poses a significant personal, societal, and economic burden. One mechanism by which TBI is thought to affect cognition and behaviour is through changes in functional connectivity. Graph theory is a powerful framework for quantifying topological features of neuroimaging-derived functional networks. The objective of this paper is to review studies examining functional connectivity in TBI with an emphasis on graph theoretical analysis that is proving to be valuable in uncovering network abnormalities in this condition...
December 2, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919696/the-role-of-anxiety-in-stuttering-evidence-from-functional-connectivity
#9
Yang Yang, Fanlu Jia, Wai Ting Siok, Li Hai Tan
Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurologically based speech disorder associated with cognitive-linguistic, motor and emotional abnormalities. Previous studies investigating the relationship between anxiety and stuttering have yielded mixed results, but it has not yet been examined whether anxiety influences brain activity underlying stuttering. Here, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the functional connectivity associated with state anxiety in a syllable repetition task, and trait anxiety during rest in adults who stutter (N=19) and fluent controls (N=19)...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919546/brain-morphometry-predicts-individual-creative-potential-and-the-ability-to-combine-remote-ideas
#10
David Bendetowicz, Marika Urbanski, Clarisse Aichelburg, Richard Levy, Emmanuelle Volle
For complex mental functions such as creative thinking, inter-individual variability is useful to better understand the underlying cognitive components and brain anatomy. Associative theories propose that creative individuals have flexible semantic associations, which allows remote elements to be formed into new combinations. However, the structural brain variability associated with the ability to combine remote associates has not been explored. To address this question, we performed a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study and explored the anatomical connectivity of significant regions...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919467/erratum-to-brain-connectivity-and-auditory-hallucinations-in-search-of-novel-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-therapeutic-approaches-for-schizophrenia-rev-neurol-159-11-2016
#11
F Thomas, V Moulier, A Valero-Cabré, D Januel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919314/advances-in-the-neuroscience-of-intelligence-from-brain-connectivity-to-brain-perturbation
#12
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Simone Rossi
Our view is that intelligence, as expression of the complexity of the human brain and of its evolutionary path, represents an intriguing example of "system level brain plasticity": tangible proofs of this assertion lie in the strong links intelligence has with vital brain capacities as information processing (i.e., pure, rough capacity to transfer information in an efficient way), resilience (i.e., the ability to cope with loss of efficiency and/or loss of physical elements in a network) and adaptability (i...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919295/advances-in-intelligence-research-what-should-be-expected-in-the-xxi-century-questions-answers
#13
Roberto Colom
Here I briefly delineate my view about the main question of this International Seminar, namely, what should we expecting from the XXI Century regarding the advancements in intelligence research. This view can be summarized as 'The Brain Connection' (TBC), meaning that neuroscience will be of paramount relevance for increasing our current knowledge related to the key question: why are some people smarter than others? We need answers to the issue of what happens in our brains when the genotype and the environment are integrated...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919003/altered-patterns-of-directed-connectivity-within-the-reading-network-of-dyslexic-children-and-their-relation-to-reading-dysfluency
#14
Gojko Žarić, João M Correia, Gorka Fraga González, Jurgen Tijms, Maurtis W van der Molen, Leo Blomert, Milene Bonte
Reading is a complex cognitive skill subserved by a distributed network of visual and language-related regions. Disruptions of connectivity within this network have been associated with developmental dyslexia but their relation to individual differences in the severity of reading problems remains unclear. Here we investigate whether dysfunctional connectivity scales with the level of reading dysfluency by examining EEG recordings during visual word and false font processing in 9-year-old typically reading children (TR) and two groups of dyslexic children: severely dysfluent (SDD) and moderately dysfluent (MDD) dyslexics...
November 19, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918910/altered-dynamics-of-brain-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder-at-rest-and-during-task-performance
#15
Fabio Sambataro, Eleonora Visintin, Nadja Doerig, Janis Brakowski, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Erich Seifritz, Simona Spinelli
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with alterations in several functional brain networks. Previous studies investigating brain networks in MDD during the performance of a task have yielded inconsistent results with the function of the brain at rest. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest and during a goal-directed task to investigate dynamics of functional connectivity in 19 unmedicated patients with MDD and 19 healthy controls across both experimental paradigms...
November 17, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918273/neural-circuits-via-which-single-prolonged-stress-exposure-leads-to-fear-extinction-retention-deficits
#16
Dayan Knox, Briana R Stanfield, Jennifer M Staib, Nina P David, Samantha M Keller, Thomas DePietro
Single prolonged stress (SPS) has been used to examine mechanisms via which stress exposure leads to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. SPS induces fear extinction retention deficits, but neural circuits critical for mediating these deficits are unknown. To address this gap, we examined the effect of SPS on neural activity in brain regions critical for extinction retention (i.e., fear extinction circuit). These were the ventral hippocampus (vHipp), dorsal hippocampus (dHipp), basolateral amygdala (BLA), prelimbic cortex (PL), and infralimbic cortex (IL)...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917958/functional-complexity-emerging-from-anatomical-constraints-in-the-brain-the-significance-of-network-modularity-and-rich-clubs
#17
Gorka Zamora-López, Yuhan Chen, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Changsong Zhou
The large-scale structural ingredients of the brain and neural connectomes have been identified in recent years. These are, similar to the features found in many other real networks: the arrangement of brain regions into modules and the presence of highly connected regions (hubs) forming rich-clubs. Here, we examine how modules and hubs shape the collective dynamics on networks and we find that both ingredients lead to the emergence of complex dynamics. Comparing the connectomes of C. elegans, cats, macaques and humans to surrogate networks in which either modules or hubs are destroyed, we find that functional complexity always decreases in the perturbed networks...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917791/investigation-of-the-expression-of-rif1-gene-on-head-and-neck-pancreatic-and-brain-cancer-and-cancer-stem-cells
#18
Hacer E GursesCila, Muradiye Acar, Furkan B Barut, Mehmet Gunduz, Reidar Grenman, Esra Gunduz
PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown that cancer stem cells are resistant to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare RIF1 gene expression in head and neck, pancreatic cancer and glioma cell lines and the cancer stem cells isolated from these cell lines. METHODS: UT-SCC-74 from Turku University and UT-SCC-74B primary tumor metastasis and neck cancer cell lines, YKG-1 glioma cancer cell line from RIKEN, pancreatic cancer cell lines and ASPC-1 cells from ATCC were grown in cell culture...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917679/the-default-mode-network-in-healthy-individuals-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Lauren Elizabeth Mak, Luciano Minuzzi, Glenda MacQueen, Geoffrey Hall, Sidney Kennedy, Roumen Milev
OBJECTIVE: When the brain is not engaged in goal-directed activities and at "rest", there are still measureable patterns of activity. One resting state network, the default mode network (DMN) is responsible for a self-referential introspective state. There are many factors that influence normal changes in brain activity. The purpose of this review is to summarize differences in DMN functional connectivity in healthy individuals by age, sex, cognitive function and analysis type to characterize what is "normal"...
December 4, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917569/distinct-intrinsic-functional-brain-network-abnormalities-in-methamphetamine-dependent-patients-with-and-without-a-history-of-psychosis
#20
Jonathan C Ipser, Anne Uhlmann, Paul Taylor, Brian H Harvey, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein
Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with executive functioning deficits that suggest dysfunctional cognitive control networks (CCNs) in the brain. Likewise, abnormal connectivity between intrinsic CCNs and default mode networks (DMNs) has also been associated with poor cognitive function in clinical populations. Accordingly, we tested the extent to which methamphetamine use predicts abnormal connectivity between these networks, and whether, as predicted, these abnormalities are compounded in patients with a history of methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP)...
December 5, 2016: Addiction Biology
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