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Rongyan Liu, Ruiwen He, Xinyi Cui, Lena Q Ma
Contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can be absorbed on the particles of indoor dust, which may pose potential health risks. In this study, indoor dust samples were collected and sieved into 6 size fractions (i.e., <43 μm, 43-63 μm, 63-100 μm, 100-150 μm, 150-200 μm, and 200-2000 μm). Ingestion bioaccessibility of PAHs was measured by physiologically based extraction test. Bioaccessibility in fractions of 200-2000 μm was generally higher than those in other particle sizes...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Flávia M Lanna, Fernanda P Werneck, Marcelo Gehara, Emanuel M Fonseca, Guarino R Colli, Jack W Sites, Miguel T Rodrigues, Adrian A Garda
The Pleistocenic Arc Hypothesis (PAH) posits that South American Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTF) were interconnected during Pleistocene glacial periods, enabling the expansion of species ranges that were subsequently fragmented in interglacial periods, promoting speciation. The lizard genus Lygodactylus occurs in Africa, Madagascar, and South America. Compared to the high diversity of African Lygodactylus, only two species are known to occur in South America, L. klugei and L. wetzeli, distributed in SDTFs and the Chaco, respectively...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Jun Li, Xiaoyan Zhu, Kuai Yu, Haijing Jiang, Yizhi Zhang, Biqi Wang, Xuezhen Liu, Siyun Deng, Jie Hu, Qifei Deng, Huizhen Sun, Huan Guo, Xiaomin Zhang, Weihong Chen, Jing Yuan, Meian He, Yansen Bai, Xu Han, Bing Liu, Chuanyao Liu, Yanjun Guo, Bing Zhang, Zhihong Zhang, Frank B Hu, Wenjing Gao, Liming Li, Mark Lathrop, Catherine Laprise, Liming Liang, Tangchun Wu
BACKGROUND: Aging is related to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality and is affected by environmental factors. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with adverse health outcomes; but the association of such exposure with DNA methylation aging, a novel aging marker, is unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the association of PAH exposure with methylation aging. METHODS: We trained and validated a methylation age predictor suitable for Chinese populations using whole blood methylation data in 989 Chinese and 160 Caucasians...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Rebecca Johnson Kameny, Youping He, Terry Zhu, Wenhui Gong, Gary W Raff, Cheryl J Chapin, Sanjeev A Datar, Jason Boehme, Akiko Hata, Jeffrey R Fineman
The right ventricular (RV) response to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is heterogeneous. Most patients have maladaptive changes with RV dilation and failure while some-especially patients with PAH secondary to congenital heart disease (CHD)-have an adaptive response with hypertrophy and preserved systolic function. Mechanisms for RV adaptation to PAH are unknown despite RV function being a primary determinant of mortality. In our CHD ovine model with fetally-implanted aortopulmonary shunt (shunt lambs), we previously demonstrated an adaptive physiologic RV response to increased afterload with hypertrophy...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Wencheng Yu, Xiaoxia Song, Chen Lin, Weina Ji
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the expression of activin receptor-like kinase-1 (ALK-1) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1 (Smad1) in the pulmonary artery of rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying its effects on pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVR). In total, 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control, model, low-dose (100 mg/kg/day) NAC and high-dose (500 mg/kg/day) NAC...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Latha Ramakrishnan, Sofia L Pedersen, Quezia K Toe, Gregory J Quinlan, Stephen J Wort
The interplay between iron and oxygen is longstanding and central to all aerobic life. Tight regulation of these interactions including homeostatic regulation of iron utilization ensures safe usage of this limited resource. However, when control is lost adverse events can ensue, which are known to contribute to an array of disease processes. Recently, associations between disrupted iron homeostasis and pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) have been described with the suggestion that there is a contributory link with disease...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Anna R Hemnes, Anandharajan Rathinasabapathy, Eric A Austin, Evan L Brittain, Erica J Carrier, Xinping Chen, Joshua P Fessel, Candice D Fike, Peter Fong, Niki Fortune, Robert E Gerszten, Jennifer A Johnson, Mark Kaplowitz, John H Newman, Robert Piana, Meredith E Pugh, Todd W Rice, Ivan M Robbins, Lisa Wheeler, Chang Yu, James E Loyd, James West
Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a deadly disease with no cure. Alternate conversion of Angiotensin II to Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) by angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) resulting in Mas receptor (Mas1) activation improves rodent models of PAH. Effects of rhACE2 in human PAH are unknown. Objectives: To determine the effects of rhACE2 in PAH. Methods: We defined the molecular effects of Mas1 activation using porcine pulmonary arteries, measured AngII/Ang-(1-7) levels in human PAH and conducted a phase IIa open-label pilot study of a single infusion of rhACE2 (GSK2586881, 0...
June 14, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Xu Deng, Qin Liu, Shudan Liu, Wenyan Li, Yiwen Chen, Yi Wen, Yan Luo
OBJECTIVE: To develop amethod for simultaneous determination of four metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons( PAHs), and to study the association between puberty timing of girls and PAHs exposure levels in Chongqing. METHODS: Through purposeful sampling, questionnaire survey of the general information, physical examination of growth and development, collection of urine sample were carried out among1-4 grades of four primary school girls in a district of Chongqing...
September 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Mohammad Miri, Ahmad Alahabadi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Hamid Reza Ghaffari, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Mahboube Eskandari, Abolfazl Rad, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan Sheikhha
The aim of this study was to assess the potential health risk of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at home and kindergarten for pre-school children. The urine samples were taken from 200 pre-school children aged 5-7 years and analyzed for 1-OHP as a biomarker of PAHs. Mixed effect models were applied to investigate the association between effective environmental parameters (mode of transport, distance to major roads, traffic density, greenness, tobacco exposure, home ventilation, and grill foods) and urinary 1-OHP levels...
June 11, 2018: Environment International
Kristin Bianchini, Christy A Morrissey
Efficient fuelling is essential for migratory birds because fuel loads and fuelling rates affect individual fitness and survival during migration. Many migrant shorebirds are exposed to oil pollution and its toxic constituents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), at migratory staging sites, which has the potential to interfere with avian refuelling physiology. In this study, we orally dosed shorebirds with environmentally-relevant PAH mixtures to simulate dietary exposure during staging. Forty-nine wild-caught Sanderling (Calidris alba) were exposed to 0 (control), 12...
June 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yidian Sun, Deming Dong, Liwen Zhang, Sinan He, Xiuyi Hua, Zhiyong Guo
The occurrence, spatial distribution, seasonal variation, sources, and ecological risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in overlying water and surface sediments from Tiaozi River, which is an urban river running through the downtown of Siping City, a traditional industrial city of northeastern China, were investigated. The total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) in water varied from 473.5 to 2674.3 ng/L with a mean value of 1272.6 ng/L and ranged from 601.5 to 2906.3 ng/g with a mean value of 1534.4 ng/g in sediments...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Andriy O Samokhin, Thomas Stephens, Bradley M Wertheim, Rui-Sheng Wang, Sara O Vargas, Lai-Ming Yung, Minwei Cao, Marcel Brown, Elena Arons, Paul B Dieffenbach, Jason G Fewell, Majed Matar, Frederick P Bowman, Kathleen J Haley, George A Alba, Stefano M Marino, Rahul Kumar, Ivan O Rosas, Aaron B Waxman, William M Oldham, Dinesh Khanna, Brian B Graham, Sachiko Seo, Vadim N Gladyshev, Paul B Yu, Laura E Fredenburgh, Joseph Loscalzo, Jane A Leopold, Bradley A Maron
Germline mutations involving small mothers against decapentaplegic-transforming growth factor-β (SMAD-TGF-β) signaling are an important but rare cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which is a disease characterized, in part, by vascular fibrosis and hyperaldosteronism (ALDO). We developed and analyzed a fibrosis protein-protein network (fibrosome) in silico, which predicted that the SMAD3 target neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9) is a critical ALDO-regulated node underpinning pathogenic vascular fibrosis...
June 13, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Satoshi Akagi, Hiromi Matsubara, Kazufumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Ito
Treatment goals in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) include improved quality of life and exercise capacity as well as improved life prognosis. In our experience, only remarkable reductions in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) improve long-term survival. Lowering PAP could contribute to reverse remodeling by reducing hemodynamic stress. Proper and prompt use of PAH-specific drugs lowers PAP in patients with PAH. Upfront combination therapy with different PAH-specific drugs and quickly establishing high-dose epoprostenol lowers PAP sufficiently to improve prognosis in patients with PAH...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Junsung Noh, Hosang Kim, Changkeun Lee, Seo Joon Yoon, Seungoh Chu, Bong-Oh Kwon, Jongseong Ryu, Jae-Jin Kim, Hanbyul Lee, Un Hyuk Yim, John P Giesy, Jong Seong Khim
Dispersion and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons are significantly enhanced by formation of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSAs), but little is known about their adverse effects on benthic invertebrates or microbes. In this study, we investigated: (1) bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the marine bivalve, Mactra veneriformis and (2) changes in composition and relative abundances of microbes, during 50-d of OSAs feeding experiment. Total concentrations of PAHs increased more rapidly during the first week of exposure, peaked at Day 30, then gradually declined to the end of experiment...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sara Maleki, Payman Hashemi, Fahimeh Rasolzadeh, Saba Maleki, Ali Reza Ghiasvand
SBA-15 and MCM-41 nanoporous silica sorbents were synthesized and functionalized by amine groups and used, for the first time, for packing a needle trap device (NTD). The characteristics of the synthesized SBA-15 and MCM-41 sorbents were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy. The NTD coupling to gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was carried out to extract and determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil samples...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
William F Fitzgerald, Daniel R Engstrom, Chad R Hammerschmidt, Carl H Lamborg, Prentiss H Balcom, Ana L Lima-Braun, Michael H Bothner, Christopher M Reddy
Historical reconstruction of mercury (Hg) accumulation in natural archives, especially lake sediments, has been essential to understanding human perturbation of the global Hg cycle. Here we present a high-resolution chronology of Hg accumulation between 1727 and 1996 in a varved sediment core from the Pettaquamscutt River Estuary (PRE), Rhode Island (USA). Mercury accumulation is examined relative to (1) historic deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lead (Pb) and its isotopes (206Pb/207Pb) in the same core, and (2) other reconstructions of Hg deposition in urban and remote settings...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Martin Koestenberger, Alexander Avian, Andreas Gamillscheg, Hannes Sallmon, Gernot Grangl, Ante Burmas, Sabrina Schweintzger, Stefan Kurath-Koller, Gerhard Cvirn, Georg Hansmann
BACKGROUND: Echocardiographic determination of the RV end-systolic base/apex (RVESb/a) ratio was proposed to be of clinical value for the assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adults. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that the RVES b/a ratio will be affected in children with PAH and aimed to correlate the RVES b/a ratio with conventionally used echocardiographic and hemodynamic variables, and with NYHA functional class (FC). METHODS: We first determined normal pediatric values for the RVES b/a ratio in 157 healthy children (68 male; age range: 0...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Barend L van Drooge, Raimon M Prats, Cristina Reche, MariCruz Minguillón, Xavier Querol, Joan O Grimalt, Teresa Moreno
Underground subways transport large numbers of citizens in big cities, which must breathe air with limited ventilation. These atmospheric conditions may enhance the concentration of air pollutants from both outdoor and indoor air. The influence of ventilation conditions and maintenance activities on the concentrations of air pollutants have been studied. Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) in indoor air was sampled in ten platforms of nine subway stations of the metropolitan area of Barcelona in 2015 and 2016...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jacopo Fostinelli, Egidio Madeo, Emanuele Toraldo, Michela Sarnico, Giorgio Luzzana, Cesare Tomasi, Giuseppe De Palma
OBJECTIVES: We performed a cross-sectional study with the main aim of evaluating occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in workers involved in the pavement construction of a new highway in Northern Italy, where modified bitumen was used as binder for Hot Mix Asphalt. METHODS: We applied a combined approach of air and biological monitoring. Both the aerosol and vapour phases of bitumen were collected applying the NIOSH 5506 method. The 16 PAHs listed as high priority by EPA were determined by HPLC-UV...
June 9, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Siqi Zhang, Danielle Hagstrom, Patrick Hayes, Aaron Graham, Eva-Maria S Collins
There is an increased recognition in the field of toxicology of the value of medium-to-high-throughput screening methods using in vitro and alternative animal models. We have previously introduced the asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica as a new alternative animal model and proposed that it is particularly well-suited for the study of developmental neurotoxicology. In this paper, we discuss how we have expanded and automated our screening methodology to allow for fast screening of multiple behavioral endpoints, developmental toxicity, and mortality...
June 8, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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