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Ovarian cancer etiology

Anar Gojayev, Diana P English, Matthew Macer, Masoud Azodi
Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) rarely results in diffuse ascites. Severe adhesive disease secondary to PID may lead to the formation of inclusion cysts and even pelvic peritoneal nodularity due to postinflammatory scarring and cause an elevation of serum CA-125 levels. The constellation of these findings may mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Case. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with multiple pelvic cysts and diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The initial gynecologic exam did not reveal obvious evidence of PID; however, a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test, pathologic findings, and the exclusion of other etiologies facilitated the diagnosis...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Haiyan Zhu, Xuejie Zhu, Lihong Zheng, Xiaoli Hu, LuZhe Sun, Xueqiong Zhu
Ovarian cancer is the major cause of death in women with gynecologic malignancies. There is emerging evidence that Androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a critical role in the etiology and progression of this disease. Androgen receptor is frequently expressed in various subtypes of ovarian cancers and androgen/AR signaling has been shown to promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, shorter AR CAG repeats length and increased AR activity are associated with increased ovarian cancer risk and may be a useful prognosticator under certain circumstances...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Claire S Zhu, Wen-Yi Huang, Paul F Pinsky, Christine D Berg, Mark Sherman, Kelly J Yu, Danielle M Carrick, Amanda Black, Robert Hoover, Petra Lenz, Craig Williams, Laura Hawkins, Matthew Chaloux, Susan Yurgalevitch, Sunitha Mathew, Amy Miller, Vanessa Olivo, Asia Khan, Shannon M Pretzel, Deborah Multerer, Patricia Beckmann, Karen G Broski, Neal D Freedman
BACKGROUND: Pathology tissue specimens with associated epidemiological and clinical data are valuable for cancer research. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial undertook a large-scale effort to create a public resource of pathology tissues from PLCO participants who developed a cancer during the trial. METHODS: Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks were obtained from pathology laboratories on a loan basis for central processing of tissue microarrays, with additional free-standing tissue cores collected for nucleic acid extraction...
September 15, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Tianyi Huang, Shelley S Tworoger, Jonathan L Hecht, Megan S Rice, Anil K Sood, Laura D Kubzansky, Elizabeth M Poole
BACKGROUND: The β2-adrenergic signaling pathway mediates the effects of chronic stress on ovarian cancer progression in mouse models. The relevance of this pathway to human ovarian cancer remains unknown. METHODS: We assessed tumor expression of β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) using tissue microarrays in 237 ovarian cancer cases from the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII). Competing risks Cox regression was used to evaluate whether associations of reproductive, hormonal, and psychosocial factors with ovarian cancer risk differed by ADRB2...
September 1, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
S Huet, A Tardieu, M Filloux, M Essig, N Pichon, J F Therme, P Piver, Y Aubard, J M Ayoubi, O Garbin, P Collinet, A Agostini, V Lavoue, A Piccardo, T Gauthier
OBJECTIVE: Uterine infertility (UI), which can be caused by a variety of congenital or acquired factors, affects several thousand women in Europe. Uterus transplantation (UTx), at the current stage of research, offers hope for these women to be both the biological mother and the carrier of their child. However, the indications of UTx still need to be defined. The main aim of the study was to describe the different etiologies of UI and other data as marital and parental status from women requesting UTx who contacted us in the framework of a UTx clinical trial...
October 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Pedro Pinto, Ana Peixoto, Catarina Santos, Patrícia Rocha, Carla Pinto, Manuela Pinheiro, Luís Leça, Ana Teresa Martins, Verónica Ferreira, Carla Bartosch, Manuel R Teixeira
BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, but they also confer an increased risk for the development of rarer cancers associated with this syndrome, namely, cancer of the pancreas, male breast, peritoneum, and fallopian tube. The objective of this work was to quantify the contribution of the founder mutations BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu and BRCA1 c.3331_3334del for cancer etiology in unselected hospital-based cohorts of Portuguese patients diagnosed with these rarer cancers, by using a strategy that included testing of archival tumor tissue...
2016: PloS One
A Gómez-Alarcon, M T Gómez-García, J P García-de la-Torre, M Del Valle-Morón, M A Arones-Collantes, G González-de Merlo
BACKGROUND: The vulvar cancer is the fourth more frequent neoplasia after the endometrial, cervix and ovarian cancer. Normally, it has been related to old women of ages from 70 to 80 years old. Rarely, it has been detected cases in adult or young women. However, its incidence has been increased in the last years and in more early years. It is for this change in the incidence and its appearance in early years why a possible etiology has been looked for, opening different hypothesis that go from that related to the HPV to those that study an inflammatory chronic process as the basis for the carcinogenesis...
March 2016: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Kasper Ingerslev, Estrid Hogdall, Wojciech Skovrider-Ruminski, Tine Henrichsen Schnack, Mona Aarenstrup Karlsen, Lotte Nedergaard, Claus Hogdall, Jan Blaakær
BACKGROUND: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been suspected to play a role in the carcinogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, results from previous studies are conflicting. In most of these studies, the number of tissue samples was small. The current study was therefore undertaken to examine the prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA in EOC in a large series of patients. METHOD: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-imbedded tumor tissue samples from 198 cases consecutively included in the Danish Pelvic Mass Study were analyzed...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Nafiye Karakaş Yılmaz, Peren Hatice Karagin, Yunus Kasım Terzi, İnci Kahyaoğlu, Saynur Yılmaz, Salim Erkaya, Feride İffet Şahin
OBJECTIVE: Although the association between BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations and breast and ovarian cancer is known, there is insufficient data about premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). However, several studies have reported that there might be a relationship between POI and BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in the etiology of POI in a Turkish population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cohort was classified into two groups: a study group, consisting of 56 individuals diagnosed with premature ovarian insufficiency (and who were younger than 40 years of age, had an antral follicle count <3-5, and FSH levels >12 IU/I), and a control group, consisting of 45 fertile individuals...
2016: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Roni T Falk, Annetine Cathrine Staff, Gary Bradwin, S Ananth Karumanchi, Rebecca Troisi
PURPOSE: Pro-angiogenic factors are positively associated with breast tumor staging and poorer prognosis, but their role in the etiology of breast cancer has not been assessed. METHODS: We measured serum levels of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), and placental growth factor (PlGF) and anti-angiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) in 352 incident breast cancer cases [mean age at diagnosis 67 (range 55-83)] and 352 non-cases in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian screening trial (women enrolled 1993-2001, followed through 2005) matched on age and date of enrollment...
August 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Ying Wang, Kathy Qi Cai, Elizabeth R Smith, Toni M Yeasky, Robert Moore, Parvin Ganjei-Azar, Andres J Klein-Szanto, Andrew K Godwin, Thomas C Hamilton, Xiang-Xi Xu
We modeled the etiology of postmenopausal biology on ovarian cancer risk using germ cell-deficient white-spotting variant (Wv) mice, incorporating oncogenic mutations. Ovarian cancer incidence is highest in peri- and postmenopausal women, and epidemiological studies have established the impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk. Menopause as a result of ovarian follicle depletion is thought to contribute to higher cancer risk. As a consequence of follicle depletion, female Wv mice develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis frequently found in postmenopausal human ovaries...
September 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Nicolas Wentzensen, Elizabeth M Poole, Britton Trabert, Emily White, Alan A Arslan, Alpa V Patel, V Wendy Setiawan, Kala Visvanathan, Elisabete Weiderpass, Hans-Olov Adami, Amanda Black, Leslie Bernstein, Louise A Brinton, Julie Buring, Lesley M Butler, Saioa Chamosa, Tess V Clendenen, Laure Dossus, Renee Fortner, Susan M Gapstur, Mia M Gaudet, Inger T Gram, Patricia Hartge, Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Annika Idahl, Michael Jones, Rudolf Kaaks, Victoria Kirsh, Woon-Puay Koh, James V Lacey, I-Min Lee, Eva Lundin, Melissa A Merritt, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Ulrike Peters, Jenny N Poynter, Sabina Rinaldi, Kim Robien, Thomas Rohan, Dale P Sandler, Catherine Schairer, Leo J Schouten, Louise K Sjöholm, Sabina Sieri, Anthony Swerdlow, Anna Tjonneland, Ruth Travis, Antonia Trichopoulou, Piet A van den Brandt, Lynne Wilkens, Alicja Wolk, Hannah P Yang, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Shelley S Tworoger
PURPOSE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approaches. We evaluated 14 hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle factors by histologic subtype in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 1.3 million women from 21 studies, 5,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified (3,378 serous, 606 endometrioid, 331 mucinous, 269 clear cell, 1,000 other)...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Wen Hsin Lee, Lee Yee Choong, Naing Naing Mon, SsuYi Lu, Qingsong Lin, Brendan Pang, Benedict Yan, Vedula Sri Ram Krishna, Himanshu Singh, Tuan Zea Tan, Jean Paul Thiery, Chwee Teck Lim, Patrick Boon Ooi Tan, Martin Johansson, Christian Harteneck, Yoon Pin Lim
Metastasis is a significant health issue. The standard mode of care is combination of chemotherapy and targeted therapeutics but the 5-year survival rate remains low. New/better drug targets that can improve outcomes of patients with metastatic disease are needed. Metastasis is a complex process, with each step conferred by a set of genetic aberrations. Mapping the molecular changes associated with metastasis improves our understanding of the etiology of this disease and contributes to the pipeline of targeted therapeutics...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fangfang Zeng, Huishan Wei, Engkiong Yeoh, Zheqing Zhang, Ze-Fang Ren, Graham A Colditz, Shelley S Tworoger, Xuefen Su
BACKGROUND: There has been growing evidence showing that inflammatory markers play an important role in the development of ovarian cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis on the associations between circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and soluble TNFα receptor 2 (TNFR2), and the risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE up until January 19, 2016 was conducted to retrieve prospective studies...
August 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Valentina Rosato, Marta Rossi, Maurizio Montella, Diego Serraino, Carlo La Vecchia
BACKGROUND: While inflammation has been shown to play an important etiologic role in ovarian carcinogenesis, little is known about the association between inflammatory properties of diet and ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: We explored the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and ovarian cancer risk in a multicentric Italian case-control study conducted between 1992 and 1999. Cases were 1,031 women with incident, histologically confirmed ovarian cancer from four areas in Italy...
July 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Roxana Moslehi, Elizabeth Freedman, Nur Zeinomar, Carmela Veneroso, Paul H Levine
BACKGROUND: To assess the importance of heredity in the etiology of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), we compared IBC patients to several carefully chosen comparison groups with respect to the prevalence of first-degree family history of breast cancer. METHODS: IBC cases (n = 141) were compared to non-inflammatory breast cancer cases (n = 178) ascertained through George Washington University (GWU) with respect to the prevalence of first-degree family history of breast cancer and selected environmental/lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer...
2016: BMC Cancer
Sophia H L George, Ruslan Garcia, Brian M Slomovitz
High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and aggressive histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and it is the predominant histotype associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for most of the known causes of HBOC, while mutations in mismatch repair genes and several genes of moderate penetrance are responsible for the remaining known hereditary risk. Women with a history of familial ovarian cancer or with known germline mutations in highly penetrant genes are offered the option of risk-reducing surgery that involves the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy)...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Wendy S Biggs, Sarah Tully Marks
Adnexal masses can have gynecologic or nongynecologic etiologies, ranging from normal luteal cysts to ovarian cancer to bowel abscesses. Women who report abdominal or pelvic pain, increased abdominal size or bloating, difficulty eating, or rapid satiety that occurs more than 12 times per month in less than a year should be evaluated for ovarian cancer. Pelvic examination has low sensitivity for detecting an adnexal mass; negative pelvic examination findings in a symptomatic woman should not deter further workup...
April 15, 2016: American Family Physician
Zi Wei Liao, Maria Clarissa Rodrigues, Jenny N Poynter, James F Amatruda, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, A Lindsay Frazier
BACKGROUND: Men with testicular cancer have an increased risk of developing cancer in the contralateral testis, but the risks of second gonadal cancers (SGCs) in women and children treated for germ cell tumors (GCTs) have not previously been quantified. METHODS: The incidence of SGCs was ascertained in patients who had survived for at least 1 year after GCT diagnosis using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results SEER 9 registries (1980-2012). Relative risks of SGCs were estimated separately for boys, women, and girls compared with men based on Poisson regression analysis...
July 1, 2016: Cancer
Marie C Bradley, Amanda Black, Andrew N Freedman, Thomas I Barron
BACKGROUND: There is a body of evidence indicating that aspirin may reduce the risk of cancer mortality. However, to the authors' knowledge, the optimal exposure timing and mechanism of action remain unclear. In the current study, the authors investigated associations between prediagnostic aspirin use and breast cancer-specific mortality in a US population. METHODS: Postmenopausal women diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer (1993-2009) were identified (2925 women with a total of 18,073 person-years) from the National Cancer Institute's Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial...
July 1, 2016: Cancer
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