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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812268/oxytocin-and-human-evolution
#1
C Sue Carter
A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811120/impact-of-caregiver-incentives-on-child-health-evidence-from-an-experiment-with-anganwadi-workers-in-india
#2
Prakarsh Singh, William A Masters
This paper tests the effectiveness of performance pay and bonuses among government childcare workers in India. In a controlled study of 160 ICDS centers serving over 4000 children, we randomly assign workers to either fixed bonuses or payments based on the nutritional status of children in their care, and also collect data from a control group receiving only standard salaries. In all three study arms mothers receive nutrition information. We find that performance pay reduces underweight prevalence by about 5 percentage points over 3 months, and height improves by about one centimeter...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808588/appropriate-weaning-practice-and-associated-factors-among-infants-and-young-children-in-northwest-ethiopia
#3
Liknaw Bewket Zeleke, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew, Kelemeu Abebe Gelaw
BACKGROUND: The right nutrition from the start of a pregnancy to the child's second birthday has a profound impact on the future health, wellbeing, and success of a child. This can be achieved through proper maternal nutrition during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, and appropriate weaning practice. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at assessing appropriate weaning practice and associated factors among infants and young children aged 6-23 months in Feres Bet Town, Northwest Ethiopia...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804497/subjective-global-assessment-and-handgrip-strength-as-predictive-factors-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#4
Maria Ciocîrlan, Andreea Ruxandra Cazan, Mihaela Barbu, Mircea Mănuc, Mircea Diculescu, Mihai Ciocîrlan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Malnutrition is common in patients with chronic liver disease. We aimed to evaluate malnutrition assessment tools in predicting severity and survival of patients with liver cirrhosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined patients with liver cirrhosis. Nutritional evaluation was performed on admission, using subjective global assessment (SGA), handgrip strength (HGS), and anthropometry. Patients were followed up for 6 months. RESULTS: We included 100 patients, 72 men, with mean age of 59...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804440/effect-of-dietary-interventions-during-weaning-period-on-parental-practice-and-lipoproteins-and-vitamin-d-status-in-two-year-old-children
#5
Nina Cecilie Øverby, Sigrunn Hernes, Margaretha Haugen
Objective: Evaluate if a two-day course for parents on nutrition and applied baby food preparation had an effect on child's intake of home-made foods, lipid concentration, and vitamin D status. Design: Randomized controlled trial at age 6 months and follow-up at ages 15 and 24 months. Setting: Four health care clinics in Kristiansand, Norway. Subjects: Thirty-nine pairs of 6-month-old children and their parents in the intervention group and 20 pairs in the control group. Results: At age 15 months, the intervention group had lower intakes of ready-made porridge (2...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802574/-doing-our-best-to-keep-a-routine-how-low-income-mothers-manage-child-feeding-with-unpredictable-work-and-family-schedules
#6
Tara Agrawal, Tracy Jean Farrell, Elaine Wethington, Carol M Devine
Significant changes in work and family conditions over the last three decades have important implications for understanding how young children are fed. The new conditions of work and family have placed pressures on families. The aim of this study was to explore the work and family pressures shaping the ways parents feed their young children on a day-to-day basis. Twenty-two purposively recruited low-income employed mothers of 3-4 year old children from a rural county Head Start program in Upstate New York reported details about the context of their children's eating episodes in a 24-h qualitative dietary recall...
August 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802300/media-exposure-and-parental-mediation-on-fast-food-consumption-among-children-in-metropolitan-and-suburban-indonesian
#7
May O Lwin, Shelly Malik, Hardinsyah Ridwan, Cyndy Sook Sum Au
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fast-food companies have been reproached for rising obesity levels due to aggressive marketing tactics targeted at children. They have countered that parents should be held responsible considering their critical role as nutritional gatekeepers. This study examined the comparative effects of media exposure and parental mediation on Indonesian children's fast food consumption and how the effects compare in the metropolitan versus suburban areas. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The sample consisted of 394 child-mother pairs comprising grade three and four children and their mothers from two schools each in Jakarta and Bogor representing 40...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802211/research-priority-setting-for-integrated-early-child-development-and-violence-prevention-ecd-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-expert-opinion-exercise
#8
Mark Tomlinson, Mark Jordans, Harriet MacMillan, Theresa Betancourt, Xanthe Hunt, Christopher Mikton
Child development in low and middle income countries (LMIC) is compromised by multiple risk factors. Reducing children's exposure to harmful events is essential for early childhood development (ECD). In particular, preventing violence against children - a highly prevalent risk factor that negatively affects optimal child development - should be an intervention priority. We used the Child Health and Nutrition Initiative (CHNRI) method for the setting of research priorities in integrated Early Childhood Development and violence prevention programs (ECD+)...
August 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800116/maintaining-traditions-a-qualitative-study-of-early-childhood-caries-risk-and-protective-factors-in-an-indigenous-community
#9
Ana Levin, Karen Sokal-Gutierrez, Anita Hargrave, Elizabeth Funsch, Kristin S Hoeft
In lower middle-income economies (LMIE), the nutrition transition from traditional diets to sugary foods and beverages has contributed to widespread early childhood dental caries. This qualitative study explores perceived risk and protective factors, and overall experiences of early childhood nutrition and oral health in indigenous Ecuadorian families participating in a community-based oral health and nutrition intervention. Dental exams of 698 children age 6 months through 6 years determined each child's caries burden...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798151/socioeconomic-differences-in-children-s-growth-trajectories-from-infancy-to-early-adulthood-evidence-from-four-european-countries
#10
Cathal McCrory, Neil O'Leary, Silvia Fraga, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Henrique Barros, Noora Kartiosuo, Olli Raitakari, Mika Kivimäki, Paolo Vineis, Richard Layte
BACKGROUND: Height is regarded as a marker of early-life illness, adversity, nutrition and psychosocial stress, but the extent to which differences in height are determined by early-life socioeconomic circumstances, particularly in contemporary populations, is unclear. This study examined socioeconomic differences in children's height trajectories from birth through to 21 years of age in four European countries. METHODS: Data were from six prospective cohort studies-Generation XXI, Growing Up in Ireland (infant and child cohorts), Millennium Cohort Study, EPITeen and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study-comprising a total of 49 492 children with growth measured repeatedly from 1980 to 2014...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797939/informal-assistance-to-urban-families-and-the-risk-of-household-food-insecurity
#11
Christian King
RATIONALE: Food insecurity is a persistent social problem affecting one out of eight households in the United States. While evidence shows that public assistance programs (formal assistance) are effective in reducing food insecurity, there is more limited evidence documenting how informal support, through social capital, affects food insecurity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of informal support (through instrumental social support, social cohesion, social control, and social participation) on food insecurity transitions using longitudinal data of a sample of disadvantaged urban mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study...
August 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796984/allergens-and-food-additives-including-potentially-harmful-ones-present-in-food-products-that-are-preferred-by-children-and-adolescents
#12
Sandra Budrewicz, Marcin Banaszczak, Jakub Piotrowski, Maja Czerwińska, Ewa Stachowska
INTRODUCTION: The proper development of a child is linked with proper nutrition, including nutritional habits which are formed from childhood. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to establish a list of the most popular food products among children and to develop a register of potentially dangerous substances on a Facebook website. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A website was created on Facebook. The participants provided lists of favorite dishes or products...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792999/clinical-features-of-refractory-ascites-in-outpatients
#13
Wanda Regina Caly, Rodrigo Martins Abreu, Bernardo Bitelman, Flair José Carrilho, Suzane Kioko Ono
OBJECTIVES: To present the clinical features and outcomes of outpatients who suffer from refractory ascites. METHODS: This prospective observational study consecutively enrolled patients with cirrhotic ascites who submitted to a clinical evaluation, a sodium restriction diet, biochemical blood tests, 24 hour urine tests and an ascitic fluid analysis. All patients received a multidisciplinary evaluation and diuretic treatment. Patients who did not respond to the diuretic treatment were controlled by therapeutic serial paracentesis, and a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was indicated for patients who required therapeutic serial paracentesis up to twice a month...
July 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783056/diet-quality-throughout-early-life-in-relation-to-allergic-sensitization-and-atopic-diseases-in-childhood
#14
Anh N Nguyen, Niels J Elbert, Suzanne G M A Pasmans, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Nicolette W de Jong, Henriëtte A Moll, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Johan C de Jongste, Oscar H Franco, Liesbeth Duijts, Trudy Voortman
Early-life nutrition is an important modifiable determinant in the development of a child's immune system, and may thereby influence the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases. However, associations between overall dietary patterns and atopic diseases in childhood remain unclear. We examined associations of diet quality in early life with allergic sensitization, self-reported physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma among 5225 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands...
August 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782306/nutrition-behaviour-change-communication-causes-sustained-effects-on-iycn-knowledge-in-two-cluster-randomised-trials-in-bangladesh
#15
John Hoddinott, Akhter Ahmed, Naureen I Karachiwalla, Shalini Roy
Behaviour change communication (BCC) can improve infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) knowledge, practices, and health outcomes. However, few studies have examined whether the improved knowledge persists after BCC activities end. This paper assesses the effect of nutrition sensitive social protection interventions on IYCN knowledge in rural Bangladesh, both during and after intervention activities. We use data from two, 2-year, cluster randomised control trials that included nutrition BCC in some treatment arms...
August 7, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782300/associations-between-social-support-psychological-well-being-decision-making-empowerment-infant-and-young-child-feeding-and-nutritional-status-in-ugandan-children-ages-0-to-24%C3%A2-months
#16
Scott B Ickes, Michael Wu, Maia P Mandel, Alison C Roberts
Maternal capabilities-qualities of mothers that enable them to leverage skills and resources into child health-hold potential influence over mother's adoption of child caring practices, including infant and young child feeding. We developed a survey (n = 195) that assessed the associations of 4 dimensions of maternal capabilities (social support, psychological health, decision making, and empowerment) with mothers' infant and young child feeding practices and children's nutritional status in Uganda. Maternal responses were converted to categorical subscales and an overall index...
August 7, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777356/health-effects-of-carotenoids-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#17
REVIEW
Monika A Zielińska, Aleksandra Wesołowska, Beata Pawlus, Jadwiga Hamułka
Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child's health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775196/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-enat-p-in-ethiopia-protocol
#18
Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Md Atiqul Islam, Nigussie Tadesse Sharew, Shimels Hussien Mohammed, Mulugeta Molla Birhanu, Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne
INTRODUCTION: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is the cornerstone of infant and child survival, healthy growth and development, healthy future generations and national development. In spite of the importance of optimal nutrition in low- and middle-income countries, there has been no review conducted in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the national coverage and identify the associated factors of IYCF practices in Ethiopia. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, CINHAL, EBSCO, Web of Science and WHO Global Health Library databases will be searched for all available publications from 1 January 2000 to 30 September 2017...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774231/why-are-our-children-wasting-determinants-of-wasting-among-under-5s-in-ghana
#19
Eugene Kofuor Maafo Darteh, Evelyn Acquah, Florie Darteh
BACKGROUND: Wasting is one of the indicators of malnutrition known to contribute to the deaths occurring from childhood malnutrition. It is the measure of body mass in relation to body length used to explain recent nutritional status. AIM: This paper examines the determinants of wasting among under 5s in Ghana. METHOD: Data were drawn from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey children's records file to examine the determinants of wasting among children...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771983/obesity-risk-behaviors-and-their-associations-with-body-mass-index-bmi-in-korean-american-children
#20
Myoungock Jang, Margaret Grey, Lois Sadler, Sangchoon Jeon, Soohyun Nam, Hee-Jung Song, Robin Whittemore
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the paper was to describe obesity-risk behaviors (diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) and examine the relationships of the obesity-risk behaviors with body mass index (BMI) in school-aged Korean American children. BACKGROUND: Korean American children have a risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing obesity-related complications; however, there is limited research about obesity-risk behaviors in Korean American children...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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