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Bio mechanics

Angela K Odle, Helen Beneš, Andrea Melgar-Castillo, Noor Akhter, Mohsin Syed, Anessa Haney, Melody Allensworth-James, Linda Hardy, Benjamin Winter, Ragul Manoharan, Raiyan Syed, Melanie C MacNicol, Angus M MacNicol, Gwen V Childs
The cyclic expression of pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) may be an important checkpoint for leptin regulatory signals. Gonadotrope Lepr-null mice have reduced GnRHR levels, suggesting these receptors may be leptin targets. To determine if leptin stimulated GnRHRs directly, primary pituitary cultures or pieces were exposed to 1-100 nM leptin. Leptin increased GnRHR protein levels and the percentages of gonadotropes that bound biotinylated analogs of GnRH (bio-GnRH) but had no effect on Gnrhr mRNA...
December 8, 2017: Endocrinology
Yin-Zhe An, You-Kyoung Kim, Su-Min Lim, Yeong-Ku Heo, Mi-Kyung Kwon, Jae-Kook Cha, Jung-Seok Lee, Ui-Won Jung, Seong-Ho Choi
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physiochemical properties and resorption progress of two cross-linked, porcine skin-derived collagen membranes and compare their features with those of a membrane without cross-linking (Bio-Gide® [BG], Geistlich Biomaterials, Wolhusen, Switzerland). Three porcine skin-derived collagen membranes, dehydrothermally (DHT) crosslinked (experimental), DHT and 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (DHT/EDC) cross-linked (experimental) and BG were investigated for their morphology, enzyme resistance, and tensile strength in vitro and biodegradation in vivo...
December 8, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
Joseph B Sweeney, Cormac D Murphy, Kevin McDonnell
Monitoring anaerobic digestion (AD) leachate for changes in acetate and propionate concentrations is essential for effective AD operation. In this paper the development of a novel propionate cell-based biosensor is described. A previously designed E. coli mutant (IMD Wldgy) that could selectively determine acetate concentrations in synthetic leachates, based on oxygen uptake measurements, was used as a starting point in the development of a propionate biosensor. However, the propionate-grown IMD Wldgy cells exhibited extremely low propionate:acetate O2 consumption ratios (1:2...
February 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Yupeng Shi, Christophe Helary, Bernard Haye, Thibaud Coradin
Silica nanoparticles appear as promising drug carriers for intracellular delivery. However the mechanisms by which they are degraded within cells remain largely unknown. In this context, we have prepared three types of PEGylated fluorescent silica nanoparticles with various internal structures (core-shell bio-composite, multilayered and hollow mesoporous) and studied their degradation in buffer, in culture medium and in contact with human dermal fibroblasts. All particles were prone to dissolve in solution, leading to an increase of porosity and/or precipitation of new colloids and eventually fragmentation, with a faster rate in medium compared to buffer...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Nyrie Israelian, Jayne S Danska
The relationships between dietary compounds, derivative metabolites, and host metabolism and immunity are controlled by diverse molecular mechanisms. Essential contributions to these dynamics come from the community of microbes (the microbiome) inhabiting the human digestive tract. The composition and function of the microbiome are shaped by available nutrients, and reciprocally, these organisms produce an as yet poorly defined repertoire of molecules that communicate with the epithelial barrier and the mucosal immune system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yoojin Seo, Youngmee Jung, Soo Hyun Kim
Initial angiogenesis within the first 3 days is critical for healing ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction. Recently, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has been reported to provide tissue-derived ECM components and can be used as a scaffold for cell delivery for angiogenesis in tissue engineering. Decellularization by various detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and triton X-100 can remove the cell nuclei in tissue organs. However, this leads to ECM structure denaturation, decreased presence of various ECM proteins and cytokines, and loss of mechanical properties...
December 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Rachel A North, Christopher R Horne, James S Davies, Daniela M Remus, Andrew C Muscroft-Taylor, Parveen Goyal, Weixiao Yuan Wahlgren, S Ramaswamy, Rosmarie Friemann, Renwick C J Dobson
Eukaryotic cell surfaces are decorated with a complex array of glycoconjugates that are usually capped with sialic acids, a large family of over 50 structurally distinct nine-carbon amino sugars, the most common member of which is N-acetylneuraminic acid. Once made available through the action of neuraminidases, bacterial pathogens and commensals utilise host-derived sialic acid by degrading it for energy or repurposing the sialic acid onto their own cell surface to camouflage the bacterium from the immune system...
December 8, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
N F D AlDala'een, W N K W Mohamad, N Alias, A M Ali, J Shaikh Mohammed
There is an increasing interest in bioinspired dynamic materials. Abundant illustrations of protein domains exist in nature, with remarkable ligand binding characteristics and structures that undergo conformational changes. For example, calmodulin (CaM) can have three conformational states, which are the unstructured Apo-state, Ca2+-bound ligand-exposed binding state, and compact ligand-bound state. CaM's mechanical response to biological cues is highly suitable for engineering dynamic materials. The distance between CaM globular terminals in the Ca2+-bound state is 5 nm and in the ligand-bound state is 1...
December 7, 2017: Soft Matter
Abdelsalam Ahmed, Islam Hassan, Peiyi Song, Mohamed Gamaleldin, Ali Radhi, Nishtha Panwar, Swee Chuan Tjin, Ahmed Y Desoky, David Sinton, Ken-Tye Yong, Jean Zu
Bio-inspired technologies have remarkable potential for energy harvesting from clean and sustainable energy sources. Inspired by the hummingbird-wing structure, we propose a shape-adaptive, lightweight triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) designed to exploit the unique flutter mechanics of the hummingbird for small-scale wind energy harvesting. The flutter is confined between two surfaces for contact electrification upon oscillation. We investigate the flutter mechanics on multiple contact surfaces with several free-standing and lightweight electrification designs...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Li Wang, Siyuan Chen, Yiming Ding, Qiang Zhu, Nijia Zhang, Shuqing Yu
The present work determines the anticancer activity of bio-mediated synthesized cadmium sulfide nanoparticles using the ionic liquid and bacterial cells (Shewanella oneidensis). Bacterial cells have been exposed to be important resources that hold huge potential as ecofriendly, cost-effective, evading toxic of dangerous chemicals and the alternative of conventional physiochemical synthesis. The Shewanella oneidensis is an important kind of metal reducing bacterium, known as its special anaerobic respiratory and sulfate reducing capacity...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Geng Dong, Ulf Ryde, Hans Jørgen Aa Jensen, Erik D Hedegård
The combination of density functional theory (DFT) with a multiconfigurational wave function is an efficient way to include dynamical correlation in calculations with multiconfiguration self-consistent field wave functions. These methods can potentially be employed to elucidate reaction mechanisms in bio-inorganic chemistry, where many other methods become either too computationally expensive or too inaccurate. In this paper, a complete active space (CAS) short-range DFT (CAS-srDFT) hybrid was employed to investigate a bio-inorganic system, namely H2 binding to the active site of [NiFe] hydrogenase...
December 5, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
A Palmieri, A Avantaggiato, F Cura, M Casale, M A Lopez, F Bressi, L Scapoli
Bio-revitalization is a therapy commonly used in aesthetic medicine to improve skin quality by di¬rectly integrating hyaluronic acid alone or added to other molecules (i.e. vitamins) through intradermal injections. These injections are not aimed to fill roughness but to achieve extracellular matrix optimi¬zation. The injective medical devices used in aesthetic medicine differ for hyaluronic acid content and for the presence of additional molecules that characterize the formulation of a particular company...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Stefan Kradolfer, Ewelina Lipiec, Chiara Baldacchini, Anna Rita Bizzarri, Salvatore Cannistraro, Renato Zenobi
The copper protein azurin, due to the peculiar coupling of its optical and vibronic properties with electron transfer (ET) and its biorecognition capabilities, is a very promising candidate for bioelectronic, bio-optoelectronic and biosensor applications. However, a complete understanding of the fundamental processes relating azurin ET, and its optical and vibronic characteristics with the charge transport mechanisms occurring in proteins bound to a conductive surface, the typical scenario for a biosensor or bioelectronic component, is still lacking...
December 4, 2017: ACS Nano
Keli Yun, Jian-Hai Bai, ZhenYu Wang
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of extracts of Pinus koraiensis bark and its fractions on rat splenocytes by using bioassay-guided isolation in order to obtain the best active fraction. Materials and Methods: P. koraiensis bark was ground and extracted with water, 40% acetone, 95% ethanol. Bio-guided assay was selected as an evaluation method to further fractionate radioprotective component from P. koraiensis bark extract...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Naim Rashid, Won-Kun Park, Thinesh Selvaratnam
Ecological studies of microalgae have revealed their potential to co-exist in the natural environment. It provides an evidence of the symbiotic relationship of microalgae with other microorganisms. The symbiosis potential of microalgae is inherited with distinct advantages, providing a venue for their scale-up applications. The deployment of large-scale microalgae applications is limited due to the technical challenges such as slow growth rate, low metabolites yield, and high risk of biomass contamination by unwanted bacteria...
November 20, 2017: Chemosphere
Tanveer A Tabish, Shaowei Zhang, Paul G Winyard
Graphene has a promising future in applications such as disease diagnosis, cancer therapy, drug/gene delivery, bio-imaging and antibacterial approaches owing to graphene's unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties alongside minimal toxicity to normal cells, and photo-stability. However, these unique features and bioavailability of graphene are fraught with uncertainties and concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in the physicochemical properties of graphene affect biological responses including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
November 22, 2017: Redox Biology
Patrick Biller, Ib Johannsen, Juliano Souza Dos Passos, Lars Ditlev Mørck Ottosen
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising technology for biofuel production and treatment of wastewater sludge. The current study investigates a novel utilization of biomass-assisted filtration of primary sludge to obtain high dry matter (DM) content sludge. Drastic improvements in filtration speed are achieved using different types of lignocellulosic biomass filter aids prepared via mechanical pre-treatment. The combined sludge-biomass filter cake is subsequently used as a feedstock for HTL and shows superior bio-crude yields and properties compared to their individual counterparts...
November 23, 2017: Water Research
Matthew C Phillips, Rishu Dheer, Rebeca Santaolalla, Julie M Davies, Juan Burgueño, Jessica K Lang, Michal Toborek, Maria T Abreu
BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that adversely affect human health. PCBs bio-accumulate in organisms important for human consumption. PCBs accumulation in the body leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, a major driver of inflammation. Despite dietary exposure being one of the main routes of exposure to PCBs, the gut has been widely ignored when studying the effects of PCBs. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of PCB 153 on the intestine and addressed whether PCB 153 affected intestinal permeability or inflammation and the mechanism by which this occurred...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Dimple Garg, Akansha Mehta, Amit Mishra, Soumen Basu
Presently, the combination of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and metal oxide nanostructures in one frame are being considered for the sensing of purine compounds. In this work, a combined system of CQDs and MnO2 nanostructures was used for the detection of anticancer drugs, 6-Thioguanine (6-TG) and 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP). The CQDs were synthesized through microwave synthesizer and the MnO2 nanostructures (nanoflowers and nanosheets) were synthesized using facile hydrothermal technique. The CQDs exhibited excellent fluorescence emission at 420nm when excited at 320nm wavelength...
November 21, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Xiao-Min Xu, Bai-Fen Huang, Jiao-Jiao Xu, Zeng-Xuan Cai, Jing Zhang, Qing Chen, Jian-Long Han
Saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin (NEO) are water-soluble toxins and their cleanup in bio-matrix is a hot topic but difficult problem. A fast and quantitative determination method for STX and NEO in urine was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based on the cleanup of solid phase extraction (SPE) with hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mechanism. Acetonitrile/methanol/water mixture was used to extract the toxins in urine. Polyamide (PA) was used as HILIC SPE material to clean the toxins in sample matrix...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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