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Bio mechanics

Na Kyung Kwon, Tae Kyung Lee, Sang Kyu Kwak, So Youn Kim
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect relies on the shape, size, and dispersion state of metal nanoparticles and can potentially be employed in many applications such as chemical/biological sensor, optoelectronics, and photocatalyst. While complicated synthetic approaches changing shape and size of nanoparticles can control the intrinsic LSPR effect, here we show that controlling interparticle interactions with silica-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@SiO2 NPs) is a powerful approach, permitting wide range of optical bandwidth of gold nanoparticles with great stability...
October 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yiying Liu, Guoquan Yan, Mingxia Gao, Xiangmin Zhang
A novel method to characterize cell surface proteins and complexes has been developed. Polydopamine (PDA)-encapsulated Hela cells were prepared for plasma membrane proteome research. Since the PDA protection, the encapsulated cells could be maintained for more than two weeks. Amino groups functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were also used for cell capture by the reaction with the PDA coatings. Plasma membrane fragments were isolated and enriched with assistance of an external magnetic field after disruption of the coated cells by ultrasonic treatment...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Wei Chen, Yingquan Chen, Haiping Yang, Kaixu Li, Xu Chen, Hanping Chen
Biomass (bamboo waste) nitrogen-enriched pyrolysis was carried out in a fixed bed with NH3 atmosphere at 400-800 °C, and formation mechanism of N-containing species was explored in depth. Results showed that N-enriched pyrolysis greatly increased bio-oil and gas yields. H2 yield increased sharply to 130 mL/g (32.93 vol%) and became the main composition at higher temperature, while CH4 and CO yields deceased, and the lower heating value of gas reached ∼14 MJ/Nm(3). For bio-oil, the content of phenols (main compositions) and N-containing species increased significantly, and the maximums reached 61...
October 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Christian Rüdiger Bahls, Duy Truong, Ursula van Rienen
The bio-chemo-mechanical model has many applications in modelling cell contractility. In simulations this model usually is coupled to the continuum mechanics of the cell by defining a large number of directions for stress fibres at each point. In this paper, another representation for coupling the biochemical processes in the bio-chemo-mechanical model is introduced. Using a quadratic form to represent the angular dependency of the activation level, the model's number of degrees of freedom is significantly reduced...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Huanhuan Zhang, Weina Hu, Miaomiao Xiao, Shiyi Ou, Hu Qiongbo
Destruxin A (DA) is a cyclodepsipeptidic mycotoxin isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. It has insecticidal activity against host insect's innate immunity system, but the molecular mechanism is not elucidated yet. In our previous experiment, four HSPs (heat shock proteins, BmHSP70-3, BmHSP75, BmHSP83 and BmHSCP) were characterized from the specific protein electrophoretic bands of Bombyx mori Bm12 cell line treated with DA in the test of drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS), which implied that these HSPs might be kinds of DA-affinity proteins, or DA induces them up-regulated expression...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Aleš Gregor, Eva Filová, Martin Novák, Jakub Kronek, Hynek Chlup, Matěj Buzgo, Veronika Blahnová, Věra Lukášová, Martin Bartoš, Alois Nečas, Jan Hošek
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of Tissue engineering is a regeneration or replacement of tissues or organs damaged by disease, injury, or congenital anomalies. At present, Tissue engineering repairs damaged tissues and organs with artificial supporting structures called scaffolds. These are used for attachment and subsequent growth of appropriate cells. During the cell growth gradual biodegradation of the scaffold occurs and the final product is a new tissue with the desired shape and properties...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
Hao Cai, Bartosz Gabryelczyk, Malathy S S Manimekalai, Gerhard Grüber, Stefan Salentinig, Ali Miserez
The beak of the Humboldt squid is a biocomposite material made solely of organic components - chitin and proteins - which exhibits 200-fold stiffness and hardness gradients from the soft base to the exceptionally hard tip (rostrum). The outstanding mechanical properties of the squid beak are achieved via controlled hydration and impregnation of the chitin-based scaffold by protein coacervates. Molecular-based understanding of these proteins is essential to mimic the natural beak material. Here, we present detailed studies of two histidine-rich beak proteins (HBP-1 and -2) that play central roles during beak bio-fabrication...
October 18, 2017: Soft Matter
T H Mokhothu, M J John
In this study, bio-based coatings were used for reducing water sorption of composites containing flame retardant treated natural fibres and phenolic resin. Two types of coatings; polyfurfuryl alcohol resin (PFA) and polyurethane (PU) were used on the composites and compared with a water resistant market product. Uncoated and coated samples were conditioned at 90 °C and relative humidity of 90% for three days and the relative moisture content and mechanical properties after conditioning were analysed. In addition, the changes in the weight loss of the conditioned samples were also investigated by thermogravimetric analysis...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alexander Baer, Stephan Schmidt, Sebastian Haensch, Michaela Eder, Georg Mayer, Matthew J Harrington
Velvet worms eject a fluid capture slime that can be mechanically drawn into stiff biopolymeric fibres. Remarkably, these fibres can be dissolved by extended exposure to water, and new regenerated fibres can be drawn from the dissolved fibre solution-indicating a fully recyclable process. Here, we perform a multiscale structural and compositional investigation of this reversible fabrication process with the velvet worm Euperipatoides rowelli, revealing that biopolymeric fibre assembly is facilitated via mono-disperse lipid-protein nanoglobules...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Alejandro Garza-Rodríguez, Luis Pastor Sánchez-Fernández, Luis Alejandro Sánchez-Pérez, Christopher Ornelas-Vences, Mariane Ehrenberg-Inzunza
In this work, a fuzzy inference model to evaluate hands pronation/supination exercises during the MDS-UPDRS motor examination is proposed to analyze different extracted features from the bio-mechanical signals acquired from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in different stages of severity. Expert examiners perform visual assessments to evaluate several aspects of the disease. Some previous work on this subject does not contemplate the MDS-UPDRS guidelines. The method proposed in this work quantifies the biomechanical features examiners evaluate...
October 14, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
G Kabir, A T Mohd Din, B H Hameed
The pyrolysis of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was catalyzed with a steel slag-derived zeolite (FAU-SL) in a slow-heating fixed-bed reactor at 450 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C. The catalytic pyrolysis of OPMF produced a maximum yield of 47 wt% bio-oil at 550 °C, and the crude pyrolysis vapor (CPV) of this process yielded crude pyrolysis oil with broad distribution of bulky oxygenated organic compounds. The bio-oil composition produced at 550 °C contained mainly light and stable acid-rich carbonyls at a relative abundance of 48...
September 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Haozheng Wang, Xiaodong Xu, Runhai Chen, Jiruo Zhao, Lele Cui, Guangkuo Sheng, Qiang Shi, Shing-Chung Wong, Jinghua Yin
Cells were continuously exposed to oxidative damage by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they contacted implanted biomaterials. The strategy to prevent cells from oxidative injures remains challenge. Inspired by the antioxidant defense system of cells, we constructed a biocompatible and ROS-responsive architecture on the substrate of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS). The strategy was based on fabrication of 3D architectures through reactive electrospinning of mixture including SEBS, acylated Pluronic F127, copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and 1,2-ethanedithiol (PEGDA-EDT) and antioxidants (AA-2G), and ROS-triggered release of AA-2G from microfibers to detoxify the excess ROS...
October 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ariel M Langevin, Mary J Dunlop
Stress tolerance studies are typically conducted in an all-or-none fashion. However, in realistic settings-such as in clinical or metabolic engineering applications-cells may encounter stresses at different rates. As such, how cells tolerate stress may depend on its rate of appearance. To address this, we study how the rate of introduction affects bacterial stress tolerance by focusing on a key mechanism for stress response. Efflux pumps, such as AcrAB-TolC from Escherichia coli, are membrane transporters well known for their ability to export a wide variety of substrates, including antibiotics, signaling molecules, and biofuels...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Seema N Desai, Alan L Landay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review age-associated alterations in microbiota composition, diversity and functional features in context of immune senescence, chronic inflammation and comorbidities associated with HIV infection. The overall goal is to assess whether modulating the microbiome will likely improve resilience of the immune system and augment return to health. RECENT FINDINGS: Alteration in the gut microbiota composition diversity and function occur in HIV and aging...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Richard E Tremblay, Frank Vitaro, Sylvana M Côté
This review describes a bio-psycho-social approach to understanding and preventing the development of chronic physical aggression. The debate on the developmental origins of aggression has historically opposed genetic and environmental mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that the frequency of physical aggression peaks in early childhood and then decreases until old age. Molecular genetic studies and twin studies have confirmed important genetic influences. However, recent epigenetic studies have highlighted the important role of environments in gene expression and brain development...
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
Christopher W Marvin, Haley M Grimm, Nathaniel C Miller, W Seth Horne, Geoffrey R Hutchison
Many biomaterials are piezoelectric (i.e., mechanically deform under an applied electric field); however, the molecular origin of this phenomenon remains unclear. In the case of protein-based scaffolds, one possibility involves flexible response of local folding motifs to the applied field. Here, we test this hypothesis by examining piezo response in a series of helical peptide-based oligomers. Control over folding propensity is exerted through systematic variation in both side-chain sequence and backbone composition...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Vladimir Z Prokopovic, Anna S Vikulina, David Sustr, Elena M Shchukina, Dmitry G Shchukin, Dmitry V Volodkin
Biopolymer-based multilayers become more and more attractive due to the vast span of biological application they can be used for, e.g. implant coatings, cell culture supports, scaffolds. Multilayers have demonstrated superior capability to store enormous amount of small charged molecules such as drugs and release them in a controlled manner, however, the binding mechanism for drug loading into the multilayers is still poorly understood. Here we focus on this mechanism using model hyaluronan/polylysine (HA/PLL) multilayers and a model charged dye carboxyfluorescein (CF)...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juan Carlos Colmenares, Rajender S Varma, Vaishakh Nair
This tutorial review assesses the available and possible strategies for attaining higher selectivity and yield of value-added chemicals from lignin using nanocatalysts embedded in a photomicroreactor. The design of the photomicroreactor, the choice of photocatalysts and the techniques for assembling the catalysts in such confined spaces are crucial elements. Lignin, a predominant industrial byproduct and pollutant, has been recognized today as a rich reservoir for aromatic chemicals and a prominent resource...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Fei Zhang, Fengwu Bai, Xinqing Zhao
Production of bioenergy and bio-based chemicals by using fermentable sugars released from low-cost renewable lignocellulosic biomass has received great attention. Efficient cellulolytic enzymes are crucial for lignocellulose bioconversion, but high cellulase production cost is limiting the bioconversion efficiency of cellulosic biomass and industrial applications of lignocellulose biorefinery. Studies on induction and regulation of cellulase in filamentous fungi will help to further develop superior fungal strains for efficient cellulase production and reduce cellulase production cost...
November 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Sarah Greish, Åsmund Rinnan, Helle Marcussen, Peter E Holm, Jan H Christensen
Understanding interaction mechanisms between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soil-washing agents can help in choosing efficient agents which are able to desorb and solubilize PAHs. This study investigated interaction mechanisms between pyrene and four washing agents including: two dissolved organic matters (DOM) F-DOM and CRC-DOM, and two commercial bio-based surfactants BBE-1000 and Supersolv using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with multivariate curve resolution alternating regression (MCR-AR)...
October 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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