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Bio mechanics

Xiancai Jiang, Nanping Xiang, Hongxiang Zhang, Yujun Sun, Zhen Lin, Linxi Hou
Development of bio-based hydrogels with good mechanical properties and high electrical conductivity is of great importance for their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. Novel electrically conducive and tough poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate (PVA/SA) composite hydrogel was obtained by a simple method in this paper. PVA and SA were firstly dissolved in distilled water to form the composite solution and the pure PVA/SA hydrogel was obtained through the freezing/thawing process. The pure PVA/SA hydrogels were subsequently immersed into the saturated NaCl aqueous solution to increase the gel strength and conductivity...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ho-Yong Lee, Chang-Ha Hwang, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Seol-Ha Jeong
Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been widely investigated because of its excellent biocompatibility and its ability to form hydrogels with various chemical modifications. However, HA hydrogels undergo rapid degradation and exhibit poor mechanical stability under physiological conditions. Tannic acid (TA), a naturally occurring polyphenol found in plants and fruits, has recently attracted interest as a crosslinking agent because of its abundant hydroxyl groups. In this study, we prepared HA hydrogels chemically crosslinked by polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) and treated with TA in an attempt to enhance the physical properties of HA hydrogels...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiangyu Song, Lijuan Zhou, Beibei Ding, Xiang Cui, Yongxin Duan, Jianming Zhang
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are predominantly obtained by the traditional sulfuric acid hydrolysis process. However, as-prepared CNCs powder features low thermal stability and poor redispersibility due to the existence of sulfonate groups and the hydrogen bond interaction among particles. Herein, by mixing the ionic liquid [BMIm][BF4 ] with freshly prepared CNCs without dialysis through a simple rotary evaporate procedure, the simultaneous improvement of thermal stability and redispersibility of CNCs has been achieved...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Henriqueta Louro
The manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) have specific physicochemical properties that confer unique mechanical, optical, electrical and magnetic characteristics that are beneficial for biomedical and industrial applications. However, recent studies have suggested that such specific physicochemical properties of the NMs may define nano-bio interactions thereby determining their toxic potential.One of the major concerns about NMs is the potential to induce cancer, suggested by some experimental studies, as seen for titanium dioxide nanomaterials or carbon nanotubes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zuyuan Luo, Siqi Zhang, Jijia Pan, Rui Shi, Hao Liu, Yalin Lyu, Xiao Han, Yan Li, Yue Yang, Zhixiu Xu, Yi Sui, En Luo, Yuanyuan Zhang, Shicheng Wei
The efficacy of stem cell-based bone tissue engineering has been hampered by cell death and limited fate control. A smart cell culture system with the capability of sequentially delivering multiple factors in specific growth stages, like the mechanism of the natural extracellular matrix modulating tissue formation, is attractive for enhancing cell activity and controlling cell fate. Here, a bone forming peptide-1 (BFP-1)-laden mesoporous silica nanoparticles (pep@MSNs) incorporated adhesion peptide, containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) domain, modified alginate hydrogel (RA) system (pep@MSNs-RA) was developed to promote the activity and stimulate osteo-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in sequence...
February 10, 2018: Biomaterials
Jia Zhao, Jiang Liu, Hong Liang, Jing Huang, Zhe Chen, Yuanjun Nie, Changbiao Wang, Yuguo Wang
Bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs) combine functional microbes with a suitable substrate and have been shown to effectively suppress soil-borne diseases and promote plant growth. Here, we developed a novel bio-organic fertilizer (BOF) by fermentation of a cow plus chicken manure (M) compost using Fen-liquor Daqu (FLD) as a fermentation starter and compared the compositions of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil of watermelon plants after treatment with different fertilizers. Further, we aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying plant-promoting and disease (Fusarium wilt)-suppressing activities of each rhizosphere microbial community...
2018: PloS One
Zhihui Yang, Lifen Liang, Weichun Yang, Wei Shi, Yunping Tong, Liyuan Chai, Shikang Gao, Qi Liao
Self-aggregation of bulk nano-hydroxyapatites (n-HAPs) undermines their immobilization efficiencies of heavy metals in the contaminated soils. Here, the low-cost, easily obtained, and environment-friendly filamentous fungi have been introduced for the bio-matrices of the hybrid bio-nanocomposites to potentially solve such problem of n-HAPs. According to SEM, TEM, XRD, and FT-IR analyses, n-HAPs were successfully coated onto the fungal hyphae and their self-aggregation was improved. The immobilization efficiencies of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils by the bio-nanocomposites were individually one to four times of that by n-HAPs or the fungal hyphae...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Olaposi Idowu Omotuyi, Oyekanmi Nash, Olumide Kayode Inyang, Joyce Ogidigo, Ojochenemi Enejoh, Okiemute Okpalefe, Tsuyoshi Hamada
Chromolaena odorata is a major bio-resource in folkloric treatment of diabetes. In the present study, its anti-diabetic component and underlying mechanism were investigated. A library containing 140 phytocompounds previously characterized from C. odorata was generated and docked (Autodock Vina) into homology models of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4, Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 (TGR5), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor, renal sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLUT)-1/2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins 1&2...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Laura Sisti, Grazia Totaro, Micaela Vannini, Loris Giorgini, Simone Ligi, Annamaria Celli
Bio-based polyamide 11 (PA11)-graphene nanocomposites with different filler concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 wt%) were prepared by In Situ polymerization starting from a water dispersed suspension of graphene nanoplatelets. The effects of the incorporation of the filler were studied in terms of molecular, morphological, thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of the final materials. During the crystallization process from the melt, the filler induces a notable nucleating effect even if the crystal growth rate tends to decrease...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Kejing Zhang, Mengying Si, Dan Liu, Shengnan Zhuo, Mingren Liu, Hui Liu, Xu Yan, Yan Shi
Background: The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass offers a series of challenges for biochemical processing into biofuels and bio-products. For the first time, we address these challenges with a biomimetic system via a mild yet rapid Fenton reaction and lignocellulose-degrading bacterial strain Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 (here after B-8) to pretreat the rice straw (RS) by mimicking the natural fungal invasion process. Here, we also elaborated the mechanism through conducting a systematic study of physicochemical changes before and after pretreatment...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yanqin Lv, Shiyu Chen, Yanfei Shen, Jingjing Ji, Qing Zhou, Songqin Liu, Yuanjian Zhang
Natural selection over billions of years has developed highly effective in vivo signal transduction that is often governed by a series of competitive multiple mechanisms. Several artificial signal transduction pathways have inspired numerous bio-sensing systems, however, most of these are driven by a single mechanism. Herein, we describe a multiple-mechanism-driven electrochemiluminescent (ECL) biosensor that utilizes competitive catalytic and steric hindrance effects by assembling hemin/G-quadruplex on the carbon nitride nanosheets...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
P Bargavi, S Chitra, D Durgalakshmi, P Rajashree, S Balakumar
Bioglass 45S5 (45% SiO2-24.5% NaO-24.5% CaO-6% P2O5) is a unique bioactive material, which is being used for bone and dental substitution. This system has been highly preferred for its osteoconductive and osteoinductive performance. Despite its attractive bioactivity, there are limitations in using this material for orthopedic and dental applications due to its poor processability and mechanical strength. To improve the load-sharing and stress distribution, TiO2 nanoparticles have been introduced into the nanoBioglass (nBG) by sol-gel method...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Chirag J Chauhan, Darshana N Shah, Foram B Sutaria
Background: As implant site preparation and bone are critical precursors to primary healing, thermal and mechanical damage to the bone must be minimized during the preparation of the implant site. Moreover, excessively traumatic surgery can adversely affect the maturation of bone tissue at the bone/implant interface and consequently diminish the predictability of osseointegration. So, this study was carried out to evaluate the various biological and mechanical factors responsible for heat generation during osteotomy site preparation to reduce the same for successful osseointegration of dental implants...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Licheng Xu, Shuyan Li, Zhi Liang, Haixia Lin, Rongzhan Fu
In the past decades, the tricyclic acridone ring system has become a focus of major research by medicinal chemists due to the biological significance of this moiety in drug design and discovery. Acridone has substantial bio-potential since it performs crucial functions, including antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral and anti-neoplastic activities. However, the anticancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of acridone on breast cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, the anti-tumor function and the underlying mechanisms of acridone were evaluated in vitro...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Jyoti Bala, Srinivasan Chinnapaiyan, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Hoshang Unwalla
Aptamers are high affinity single-stranded nucleic acid or protein ligands which exhibit specificity and avidity comparable to, or exceeding that of antibodies and can be generated against most targets. The functionality of aptamers is based on their unique tertiary structure, complexity and their ability to attain unique binding pockets by folding. Aptamers are selected in vitro by a process called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX). The Kd values for the selected aptamer are often in the picomolar to low nanomolar range...
February 12, 2018: RNA Biology
Xiaoyan Pei, Dazhen Xiong, Huiyong Wang, Shuaiqi Gao, Xinying Zhang, Suojiang Zhang, Jian Ji Wang
Carbon dots (CDs) have attracted increasing attention in applications such as bio-imaging, sensors, catalysis, and drug delivery. However, unlike metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles, the transfer of CDs between polar and non-polar phases is little understood. In this work, a novel class of amine-terminated CDs is developed and their phase transfer behaviour has been investigated. It is found that these CDs can reversibly transfer between aqueous and organic solvents by alternatively bubbling and removal of CO2 at atmospheric pressure...
February 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Peter Q Nguyen, Noémie-Manuelle Dorval Courchesne, Anna Duraj-Thatte, Pichet Praveschotinunt, Neel S Joshi
Vast potential exists for the development of novel, engineered platforms that manipulate biology for the production of programmed advanced materials. Such systems would possess the autonomous, adaptive, and self-healing characteristics of living organisms, but would be engineered with the goal of assembling bulk materials with designer physicochemical or mechanical properties, across multiple length scales. Early efforts toward such engineered living materials (ELMs) are reviewed here, with an emphasis on engineered bacterial systems, living composite materials which integrate inorganic components, successful examples of large-scale implementation, and production methods...
February 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
Chun-Wei Lee, Fan-Gang Tseng
In recent years, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been widely applied to many different areas, including chemical analysis, biomolecule detection, bioagent diagnostics, DNA sequence, and environmental monitor, due to its capabilities of unlabeled fingerprint identification, high sensitivity, and rapid detection. In biomicrofluidic systems, it is also very powerful to integrate SERS based devices with specified micro-fluid flow fields to further focusing/enhancing/multiplexing SERS signals through molecule registration, concentration/accumulation, and allocation...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Jingzhu Wang, Akihisa Abe, Yiwei Wang, Chenguang Huang
The effect of shock sterilization on marine Vibrio sp. is investigated by carrying out a bio-experiment based on a bubble-shockwave interaction. In the experiments, underwater shock waves with different strength and frequencies are produced by a high-voltage power supply in a cylindrical water chamber. The bio-experimental results show marine Vibrio sp. is completely inactivated in a short time by a 1.0-Hz electric discharge. However, a high sterilization effect requires a strong and high frequency of the bubble motion, and it also depends on the lifetime of the bubble...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Douglas L Miller, Zhihong Dong, Chunyan Dou, Krishnan Raghavendran
The induction of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) is a well-established non-thermal biological effect of pulsed ultrasound in animal models. Typically, research has been done using laboratory pulsed ultrasound systems with a fixed beam and, recently, by B-mode diagnostic ultrasound. In this study, a GE Vivid 7 Dimension ultrasound machine with 10 L linear array probe was used at 6.6 MHz to explore the relative PCH efficacy of B-mode imaging, M-mode (fixed beam), color angio mode Doppler imaging and pulsed Doppler mode (fixed beam)...
February 7, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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